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CSU - BC 103 - Life 103 Week 6 - Class Notes

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CSU - BC 103 - Life 103 Week 6 - Class Notes

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background image Plant Structure, Growth, & Development   destruction of habitat is causing extinction of many plant species tropical forests estimated to be eliminated in 200 years —loss of forests reduces absorption of atmospheric CO2 at current rate, 50% of animal species will become extinct in the next 100-200 years 3 basic plant organs (leaves, stem, roots) are organized into a root system and a 
shoot system
—roots rely on sugar produced by shoot system
—shoots rely water and minerals absorbed by the root system
root function —anchor plant
—absorb water and minerals
—store carbs
radicle: embryonic root—>primary root—>taproot, which anchors the plant 
deeply into the ground lateral roots: branch off taproot, improve anchorage and water absorption
root hairs: grow off lateral roots, very high surface area to access water and 
nutrients types of root systems taproot: one main root develops from radicle
fibrous: radicle dies and is replaced by network of fine adventitious roots
root adaptations —prop roots: anchor top heavy plants
—storage roots: foods like radishes are expanded carb storage bulbs for the 
plant stem - plant organ consisting of an alternating system of nodes, where leaves come 
out, and internodes, the segments between nodes
apical bud: growing shoot tip—>elongation of a young shoot
axillary bud: structure that has potential to form large branch, thorn, or flower
—many plants have modified stems
A. rhizomes: horizontal shoots that grow just below the surface
B. stolons: move above ground and allow for asexual reproduction of 
plants C. tuber: large stem full of storage material that can grow new plant (ex.  potato plant) leaves are the main photosynthetic organ of most vascular plants —intercept light, exchange gases, dissipate heat, defense
—generally consist of flattened blade and stalk called a petiole (axillary bud)
leaf adaptations  —spines: provide protection (ex. cactus)
—tendrils: grow around support structures  
—storage leaves: layers of leaves used to store sugars (ex. onion)
background image tissue systems —dermal
—vascular
—ground
dermal tissue - outer protective layer —epidermis: outer layer of cells (ex. root hairs)
—cuticle: waxy coating over epidermis
vascular tissue - long distance transport of materials between root and shoot xylem: conducts water and minerals
phloem: transports sugars
water conducting cells of xylem tracheids: connect cells for water distribution
vessel elements: align to form micropipes called vessels for water transport
—these cells are dead at maturity
sugar conducting cells of phloem sieve tube elements: alive at maturity
sieve plates: porous end walls that allow fluid to flow between sieve tube 
elements —each sieve tube element has a companion cell, whose nucleus and  ribosomes serve both cells ground tissue - tissues that are not dermal or vascular pith: ground tissue internal to vascular tissue
cortex: ground tissue external to vascular tissue
—include cells specialized for storage, photosynthesis, support, and transport
3 basic cell types —parenchyma A. least specialized
B. perform most metabolic functions
C. store sugars
—collenchyma A. grouped in strands
B. provide flexible support
—sclerenchyma A. rigid due to thick secondary cell walls (contain lignin)
B. dead at maturity (associated with xylem)
C. only exist in parts of plant that have stopped growing
different meristems generate new cells for primary and secondary growth —meristems are perpetually embryonic and allow for indeterminate growth
—apical and lateral types
—the root cap protects the meristem
indeterminate growth - a plant can continue to grow throughout its life determinate growth - some plant organs stop growing at a certain size in woody plants, primary and secondary growth occur simultaneously but in different 
locations
apical meristems allow for growth in length—>primary growth

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School: Colorado State University
Department: Biology
Course: Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants
Professor: Jennifer Dewey
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Biology
Name: Life 103 Week 6
Description: Plant structure, growth, and development, and resource acquisition and transport.
Uploaded: 02/26/2016
4 Pages 10 Views 8 Unlocks
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