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Rutgers - ENSC 375 - Study Guide

Created by: Rachel Elite Notetaker

Rutgers - ENSC 375 - Study Guide

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background image Chapter 9 Population ecology Population o Group of interbreeding individuals of the same species Population size governed by: o Births and deaths; immigration and emigration
o Population change = (births + immigration) – (deaths + 
emigration) Population growth At a fixed percentage per year(j curve) Some factors that can limit population size There are always limits to population growth in nature Environmental resistance – factors that limit population growth Carrying capacity o Maximum population of a given species that a particular  habitat can sustain indefinitely Limiting factor principle o Too much or too little of any physical or chemical factor can  limit or prevent growth of a population, even if all other 
factors are at or near the optimal range of tolerance
o Precipitation, nutrients, sunlight ***screen shot of slide 6
When a population exceeds its carrying capacity it can crash
background image A population exceeds the area’s carrying capacity Reproductive time lag may lead to overshoot o Subsequent population crash Damage may reduce area’s carrying capacity ***screen shot of  slide 8
Human population growth
The continuing rapid growth of the human population and its 
impacts on natural capital raise questions about how long the 
human population can keep growing
****list population numbers from slide 10 Human population growth shows certain trends rate of population growth has slowed in recent decades human population growth is unevenly distributed geographically people are moving from rural to urban areas ***screen shot of annual growth rate diagram slide 12
***screen shot of slide 13
Human Population growth impacts natural capital
As the human population grows, so does the global total human 
ecological footprint
Cultural carrying capacity o Total number of people who could live in reasonable freedom  and comfort indefinitely without decreasing the ability of the 
earth to sustain future generations
***list from slide 15
What factors influence the size of the human population
Population size increases through births and immigration, and 
decreases through deaths and emigration
background image The average number of children born to women in a 
population(total fertility rate) is a key factor that determines 
population size
The human population can grow, decline, or remain fairly stable Population change=(births+immigration)-(deaths+emigration) Fertility rate o Number of children born to a woman during her lifetime Replacement-level fertility rate o Average number of children a couple must have to replace  themselves o Approx.. 2.1 in developed areas The worlds population is still growing Total fertility rate(TFR) o Average number of children born to women in population
o Between 1955 and 2012, the global TFR dropped from 5 to 
2.4 o However, to eventually halt population growh, the global TFR  will have to drop to 2.1 Several factors affect birth rates and fertility rates Children as part of labor force Cost of raising and educating children Availability of private and public pension Urbanization Educational and employment opportunities for women Average age of women at marriage Availability of legal abortions
background image Availability of reliable birth control methods Religious beliefs, traditions, cultural norms Several factors affect death rates Life expectancy Infant mortality rate o Number of live births that die in first year High infant mortality rate indicates o Insufficient food, poor nutrition, high incidence of infectious  disease ***screen shot of slide 22
Migrations Affects an Areas population size
Migration o The movement of people into and out of specific geographic  areas Causes: o Economic improvement, religious and political freedom,
o Environmental refugees
Age structure The number of males and females in young, middle, and older age 
groups determine how fast a population grows or declines
A populations age structure helps make projections Age categories o Prereproductive ages (0-14)
o Reproductive ages (15-44)
background image o Postreproductive ages (45 and older) ****scrren shot of slide 26 What factors lead to slower population growth human population growth slows when poverty is reduced, the 
status of women is elevated, and family planning is encouraged
Demographic transition As countries become industrialized: first death rates decline, then 
birth rates decline
4 stages preindustrial, transitional, industrial, postindustrial ***screen shot slide 29
Empowering women slows population growth
Factors that decrease TFR: o Education, paying jobs, ability to control fertility Women o Do most of domestic work and child care
o Provide unpaid health care
o 2/3 of all work for 10% of worlds income
o discriminated against legally and culturally
Family planning in less developed countries Responsible for 55% drop in TFR’s Financial benefits: money spent on family planning saves far more 
in health, education costs
3 big ideas
background image The human population is increasing rapidly and may soon bump up 
against environmental limits
Increasing use of resources per person o Expanding the overall human ecological footprint and putting a strain on the earth’s resources We can slow population growth by reducing poverty through 
economic development, elevating the status of women, and 
encourage family planning
CHAPTER 10 Weather Temperature, precipitation, wind speed, cloud cover Climate Area’s general pattern of atmospheric conditions over decades and 
longer
Climate zone Tropical, polar, temperate Key factors that determine global climate patterns Incoming solar energy, greenhouse effect, uneven heating and 
convection, the earth’s rotation
Greenhouse gases H2O, CO2, CH4, N2O Natural greenhouse effect Gases keep earth habitable Human-enhanced global warming
Air circulation in lower atmosphere due to

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School: Rutgers University
Department: Environmental Science
Course: Intro to Environmental Science
Professor: Professor Phelps and Strom
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: intro to environmental science
Name: Intro to Environmental science exam 2 study guide
Description: These notes are for exam 2 intro to environmental science
Uploaded: 02/26/2016
39 Pages 104 Views 83 Unlocks
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