PSYC 474, Unit 1 study guide
PSYC 474, Unit 1 study guide Psyc 474
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Clarissa Hinshaw on Friday February 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 474 at Northern Illinois University taught by Ellen Lee in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 89 views. For similar materials see Psychological Basis of Sexuality in Psychlogy at Northern Illinois University.
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Psychology of Sexuality Unit 1 Study Guide Chapter 1: What is human sexuality? Terms, definitions, and examples: Human Sexuality: the study of sexual behaviors, identities and orientations in human beings. Prehistoric Perspective: in the stone ages, sexuality was represented through cave drawings and sexuallooking artifacts. Gender roles were similar to today’s ‘traditional’ roles, as men were hunters and gathers and women stayed closer to home. In the ice age, men were mainly farmers and the penis was worshiped as became more aware of the male’s role in reproduction. The incest taboo, prohibiting people to marry or have sexual relations with family, was introduced. Ancient Hebrew perspective: During this time, sex within marriage was encouraged and reproduction was expected. It was socially acceptable for a man to divorce his wife if she was unable to reproduce. Wives were treated like slaves and could be stoned to death for committing adultery, while men only had to pay a fine for the same act. Ancient Greek perspective: all people were considered bisexual. Samesex relations among men were okay as long as their behavior did not affect the family. Prostitution and xrated art also increased. Women were uneducated and treated like slaves. Ancient Rome perspective: bestiality (sex with animals) and sadism (gaining sexual satisfaction by hurting other) were common practices. Women were treated like property and new terms were introduced. Early Christian perspective: Sexuality was a sin. People were encouraged to stay celibate, or at least practice abstinence until marriage. Sex was only for procreation and people were considered selfish if they found sex satisfying. Islamic perspective: premarital sex and adultery were shameful and could be punished by stoning. Men were allowed a maximum of four wives, while women could only have one husband. Men and women were not allowed to socialize together in public. Women were expected to cover their face and speak to no other man than their husband. Indian perspective: Sexual pleasure was a spiritual act. Sex acts were represented in art. Victorian Era view of sexuality: Discussion of sex was considered improper. Sex was only for reproduction and to satisfy a husband’s cravings. They believed reproductive fluids were wasted by masturbation and ejaculation. Samesex behavior was indecent but prostitution rose. Sexual Revolution: Movement during the 1960s where people deviated from previous sexual norms. The birth control pill was invented, giving women more sexual freedom with lower chance of pregnancy. Abortion was legalized, giving women the right to choose when they have children. The gay rights movement began, giving more equality to gay and bisexual people. Biological perspective: The study of how genes and hormone affect sexuality and reproduction. Example: what the body physical goes through during arousal. Why women are more responsive than men could also be a question answer from this perspective. Evolutionary perspective: How our sexual behavior is similar to some mammals because of evolution. Example: how our behaviors are compared to those of apes, what we find attractive in a mate. CrossSpecies perspective: study of sexual behavior in nonhuman animals. This includes studying nonmammal animals such as insects, birds, reptiles, and fish. Sociological: how sexual behaviors are influenced by morals and current social norms. These behaviors and influences vary in different cultures. Example: most people do not practice incest because of the incest taboo. Psychological perspective: Sexuality is influenced personally from personality, emotion, and motivation as well as other things. Different theorists have different perspectives on sexuality. Example: Freud believed humans are sexual creatures from birth, men were superior, and women were jealous of men’s body parts. Others, such as Skinner believed that behavior is learned through observation. Feminist theory: Belief in gender equality for society. This could include equal division of labor, more women in government, and promoting androgyny (a combination of masculinity and femininity) rather than traditional gender expressions. Queer theory: Belief of not all humans fit into the gender binary, are cisgender, and heterosexual. Noncisgender people (people whose gender identity does not match their sex assigned at birth) can include people who are transgender, gender fluid (people with a fluctuating gender identity), genderqueer (people who do not identify as male or female), as well as many others. Non heterosexual people can include people who are homosexual (samesex attraction), bisexual (same and other sex attraction), as well as many others. Extra notes Human sexuality requires critical thinking. Critical thinkers must have open minds base their claims off of scientific evidence, rather than personal beliefs. Human sexuality is studied from many different viewpoints including biological (hormonal, anatomical, natural sex drives), anthropological (cultural), sociological (social sexual norms among groups of people), and psychological (behaviors, identities and beliefs of each individual). Chapter 2: Research Methods in Human Sexuality Terms: Scientific method: used in all sciences, shows the steps of how to properly conduct research. Random sample: people of all demographics have an equal chance of participating. These are especially difficult to gather in sexuality surveys because some may refuse to participate. Case study: interviewing specific people to learn from their stories. Can also look at public records or ask close relatives of the person. Example: asking grandpa about societal sexual attitudes during his young adulthood to gain understanding of how social norms have changed. Survey: a questionnaire sent to a large sample to obtain general information. Less expensive than interviews. Example: a survey asking teenagers about what sexual behaviors they have engaged in to see what common adolescent behaviors. NaturalistObservation: watching humans or other animals without disturbing them. Also referred to as a field study. Examples: watching couples on the downtown strip of town or parents and children in a grocery store. Unobtrusive observation is often used with this method, as it does not disturb the subject or influence their behavior. Ethnographic Observation: observing different ethnicities. ParticipantObservation: experimenter learns about behavior by engaging with the participant. Example: many experimenters used to have sexual encounters with their participants. LaboratoryObservation: sexual behavior is watched by observers in the lab. Correlation: a relationship between two variables. Correlation doesn’t=causation. A correlation coefficient is statistic from 1 to 1 showing the strength of a correlation. The closer to 1 on the scale, the stronger the correlation If the coefficient is negative, there is a negative correlation. If the correlation coefficient is positive, there is a positive correlation. Example: if masturbation has a +.9 correlation with relationship satisfaction, you can conclude of masturbation having a strong positive correlation with relationship satisfaction. Experiment: a study done in a controlled lab setting where one or more variables are manipulated. There is often a control group as well where no variables are manipulated, or participants are given a placebo (fake pill or drug). Example: If we wanted to test the effects of the birth control pill on sexual arousal, we would randomly assign some participants to a group who takes a birth control pill (the experimental group) and others to a group who takes a placebo pill (the control group). Additional notes: Steps of the scientific method: Formulate a research question: something to be answered by the research. Example: Does watching porn help or hurt a couple’s relationship? Form a hypothesis from the question: Example: watching porn damages a couple’s relationship. Test the hypothesis: conduct a study to see if the hypothesis is supported. Example: The researcher could gather a sample of couples and have them watch porn in the lab. A year later, the same couples could complete a survey, stating if they are still together and rating level of relationship satisfaction. Draw conclusions: evaluate the results to see if the hypothesis is supported or rejected. Example: The results of this experiment could find of most couples being split up or dissatisfied in their relationship this would support the hypothesis. Results showing satisfaction in relationships would reject the hypothesis. Ethics of research Potential harm: participants must be told of any risks or potential harm possibly coming out of the experiment. Example: A survey on rape experiences could possibly bring up feelings of PTSD. Confidentiality: answers of each participant must be kept anonymous. Example: answers to an interview on past sexual behaviors must be kept anonymous and names must be changed in publications. Informed consent: participants must give permission for the experiment before data can be collected. Use of deception: misleading information given to participants to keep results unbiased in some studies. Example: Telling participants they are taking Viagra when they really received a placebo to see if there is a placebo effect (acting like a drug is helping because they think are taking it). Chapter 3: Female anatomy Key terms: Mons Veneris: Skin coving the pubic bone, usually becomes covered with pubic hair during puberty. Labia Majora: the folds of skin on the outside of the vulva. Labia Minora: the inner folds of skin in the vulva to protect the vaginal opening. Clitoris: a piece of skin in front the urethral opening, meant for sexual pleasure. Vestibule: part of the vulva containing urethral and vaginal openings. Urethral opening: opening where urine comes out. Vaginal opening: opening for intercourse and expands during childbirth Perineum: Skin between vaginal opening and anus (opening to remove feces). Vestibular bulbs: internal bulbs which collect blood during sexual arousal. Vagina: tube holding penis during intercourse. Unfertilized eggs are released out of this tube in the form of blood each month and babies usually pass through this tube during childbirth (sometimes passed through a surgical incision in the abdomen). Cervix: opening at the bottom of the uterus which expands for childbirth. Uterus: Sac in which fertilized eggs are implanted and carried in during pregnancy. Contains three layers: endometrium, myometrium, and perimetrium. Fallopian tubes: tubes linking the uterus to the ovaries. They consist of several parts: isthmus, ampulla, infundibulum, fimbriae, and cilia. Cutting the fallopian tubes is the most common form of sterilization. Ovaries: 2 small organs where eggs are produced, as well as estrogen and progesterone. Menstrual cycle: cycle lasting about 28 days when an egg is released. If it is not fertilized, it sheds from the uterus in the form of a blood period. The 4 phases are called proliferative phase, ovulation, luteal phase, and menstrual phase. Regulation is controlled by hormones. Women are usually most sexually aroused during ovulation. Chapter 4: Male anatomy Terms: Penis: organ use for sex, ejaculation, and urination Scrotum: a sac carrying the testes Testes: ovalshaped organs in the scrotum sac which produce sperm and testosterone. Vas Deferens: a tube carrying sperm from the testis and out the penis for ejaculation. This tube is the tube cut when a cisgender man undergoes a vasectomy (preventing sperm from appearing in the semen and fertilizing an egg). Seminal Vesicle: produces semen Prostate gland: secretes prostatic fluid Cowper’s Glands: produce clear fluid sometimes containing sperm. This is why pulling out is not a very accurate contraceptive method and commonly leads to unplanned pregnancies. Additional notes: American culture places great importance on penis size. However, women report being more concerned about a man’s communication skills than his penis size. Chapter 5: Sexual Arousal and Response Terms Vision: people tend to become turned on by seeing their lover nude, undressing, or in lingerie. The color red is also a popular source for sexual arousal. Smell: Smells found arousing often depend on culture. People in the western part of the world want their lover to be clean and smell fresh. This is good news for perform companies in terms of profit. Whether body odor is considered offensive or a turn on depends more on culture than biology. Touch: Most stimulating to sexual arousal. Even touching the hand, cheek or shoulders of a lover can arouse them. Taste: some people find semen or vaginal fluid arousing Hearing: certain sexual sounds can either be a turnon or turnoff. Aphrodisiacs: drugs or objects which are sexually arousing. Examples: Spanish flies or rhino horns. Anaphrodisiacs: drugs reducing sexual arousal. Examples: depressants, potassium nitrate, tranquilizers, and cigarettes. Sexual response cycle Excitement phase: the person slowly becomes aroused Plateau phase: blood pressure increases, genitals become engorged, and body prepares for orgasm. Orgasmic phase: a short phase of pleasurable contracting sensations from the genital area ‘coming’. Resolution phase: the body returns to its nonaroused state. Additional notes Hormones play a great deal of sexual arousal, especially among teenagers. Kaplin’s model of sexual arousal includes desire, excitement, and orgasm. Chapter 6: Gender Terms Assigned sex: the sex we are legally assigned at birth solely based on the appearance of our external genitalia. Gender: our social and psychological construct of whether we are female, male, or another gender. Gender identity: a person’s sense of being female, male, or another gender. Their gender identity does not always match the sex they were assigned at birth. Transgender: a person whose gender identity does not match their sex assigned at birth Stereotype: a widespread belief about a group of people. Example: women are emotional, men are tough. Gender roles: social and occupational expectations for people of each gender. Example: in the 1950s, men were expected to be breadwinners and women were homemakers. Sexism: negative ideas about a person because they belong to a specific gender group. Example: women not being able to handle men’s occupations because they are ‘too emotional to think logically. Additional notes: The father determines the biological sex of his offspring. Each child receives one x chromosome from their mother and usually one x or one y chromosome from their father. Children possessing 2 x chromosomes usually develop female genitalia, and those possessing the xy combination usually develop male genitalia. Gonads are undifferentiated for the first 5 to 6 weeks of gestation, then usually developed by chromosomal and hormonal guides after. Some people believe sex chromosomes play a role in gender stereotypical behavior. Testosterone and estrogen also play a role in how genitals develop. Without either of these hormones, babies would have female looking genitalia, but be infertile. There has been great debate over what has influenced gender identity: nature, nurture, or a combination of both. Transpeople often feel different from a young age and engage in play not typical for children of their assigned sex. Sexism can also occur for people who don’t follow gender stereotypes. Examples: women who are assertive can be seen as bitchy, and men who are sensitive can be seen as sissies. Sexism is psychologically damaging to people of all genders, not just women. Kids learn from an early age how men initiate and women are submissive in relationships. Men tend to be more interested in sex and women tend to value romance more. Chapter 7: Attraction and Love Terms Homogamy: marrying someone like us. Storge: attachment, friendship, nonsexual affection Agape: Selfless giving, generosity, charity Philia: friendship, liking, and respect Eros: passion, ‘love at first sight’, ‘making love’, romantic love Infatuation: obsession for another person. Sexual desire, arousal, excitement, passion, crush. Think of their loved one ideally, ignoring any red flags Sternberg’s triangular theory of love: Contains the vertices of passion, intimacy, and commitment. Nonlove: absence of all 3 components. Examples: strangers, acquaintances, casual friendships. Infatuation: passion only. Example: crush Liking: intimacy only. Ex: close friendships, friends you would consider family. Empty love: commitment only. Example: married couples no longer in love, but stay today because they don’t believe in divorce. Fatuous love: passion+commitment. Ex: couples who marry shortly after meeting, then discover they don’t know each other as well as they thought. Romantic love: intimacy+passion. Example: summer love, shortterm relationships. Companionate love: intimacy+commitment. Ex: couple who have been married a long time, exes who are still friends. Consummate love: intimacy+passion+commitment. The ideal for most couples. Additional notes. We tend to be attracted to people who share our backgrounds, attitudes, and values. Our culture idealizes romantic love, such as in Romeo and Juliet Love uses many hormones, including dopamine and endorphins Love in arousal is often characterized as sweaty palms, pounding heart, or butterflies in the stomach.
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