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UNL / Biology / MBIO 213 / How are hormones often released?

How are hormones often released?

How are hormones often released?

Description

School: University of Nebraska Lincoln
Department: Biology
Course: Human Physiology
Professor: Tony zera
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: Physiology and University of Nebraska
Cost: 25
Name: Chapter 7 and 9 reading, Lectures 2-22/26
Description: These notes cover the MWF lectures as well as chapter 7 in its entirety and most of chapter 9
Uploaded: 02/26/2016
28 Pages 38 Views 8 Unlocks
Reviews


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"}.lst-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-0}.lst-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-4}.lst-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-8,lower-roman) ". 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"}.lst-kix_keog4ud1qg7m-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-0 0}.lst-kix_keog4ud1qg7m-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-2 0}.lst-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-3 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-3,decimal) ") "}.lst-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-5 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-5,lower-roman) ") "}.lst-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-8,lower-roman) ". 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"}ul.lst-kix_keog4ud1qg7m-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_aoqm0xufkloy-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_squ3oqu9nlq4-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_squ3oqu9nlq4-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-7}.lst-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-2,lower-roman) ") "}.lst-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-4 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-4,lower-latin) ") "}.lst-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-6}.lst-kix_squ3oqu9nlq4-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-8 0}.lst-kix_w56t729drrea-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_w56t729drrea-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-2 0}.lst-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-5}ol.lst-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-7}ol.lst-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-5}.lst-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-5 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-5,lower-roman) ") "}.lst-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-1,lower-latin) ") "}.lst-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-3}.lst-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-2,lower-roman) ") "}ol.lst-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-7 0}.lst-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-0}.lst-kix_ib780198138q-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-1}ol.lst-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-4 0}ol.lst-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-8}ol.lst-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_squ3oqu9nlq4-0 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_8e68pokamj4l-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_8e68pokamj4l-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_8e68pokamj4l-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_8e68pokamj4l-1 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-5 0}ol.lst-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-6 0}.lst-kix_8e68pokamj4l-8 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-2 0}ol.lst-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-8 0}.lst-kix_ib780198138q-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_ib780198138q-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-4}.lst-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-1}ol.lst-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-1 0}ol.lst-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-7 0}.lst-kix_ib780198138q-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_ib780198138q-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-8}.lst-kix_u0p9nucbmqrk-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_fj2lcckru7v5-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-2}.lst-kix_aoqm0xufkloy-1 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_u0p9nucbmqrk-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_fj2lcckru7v5-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-8 0}ol.lst-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-6 0}.lst-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-4}.lst-kix_keog4ud1qg7m-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_pm1tkvhss1sr-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-3 0}ul.lst-kix_ib780198138q-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ib780198138q-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ib780198138q-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ib780198138q-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_cfbtsytu6i3k-8 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_ib780198138q-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ib780198138q-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ib780198138q-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ib780198138q-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ib780198138q-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-6 0}.lst-kix_keog4ud1qg7m-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-2,lower-roman) ") "}.lst-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_cfbtsytu6i3k-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_cfbtsytu6i3k-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_pm1tkvhss1sr-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-5}.lst-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_fj5g7mbz0gtu-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_aoqm0xufkloy-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_w56t729drrea-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_squ3oqu9nlq4-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-8 0}ol.lst-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-2,lower-roman) ") "}.lst-kix_fj5g7mbz0gtu-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-6}.lst-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_squ3oqu9nlq4-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-5 0}.lst-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-3}.lst-kix_o29ndrekk5bc-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_o29ndrekk5bc-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-3 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-3,decimal) ") "}.lst-kix_fj5g7mbz0gtu-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_wpzanswk1yar-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_o29ndrekk5bc-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-6,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-2,lower-roman) ") "}ol.lst-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_w56t729drrea-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_wpzanswk1yar-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-8}ol.lst-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-0 0}.lst-kix_wwib92ngzm4u-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-1}.lst-kix_wwib92ngzm4u-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_wwib92ngzm4u-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-6}.lst-kix_wwib92ngzm4u-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_wwib92ngzm4u-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_wwib92ngzm4u-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-4}.lst-kix_wwib92ngzm4u-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_wwib92ngzm4u-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-0}.lst-kix_wwib92ngzm4u-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-8}.lst-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-8}.lst-kix_y7wl18lwtwhr-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-2}.lst-kix_y7wl18lwtwhr-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-0}.lst-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-0,decimal) ") "}ol.lst-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-3 0}ol.lst-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-1,lower-latin) ") "}ol.lst-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_y7wl18lwtwhr-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_y7wl18lwtwhr-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-2,lower-roman) ") "}ol.lst-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-4}.lst-kix_y7wl18lwtwhr-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-5 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-5,lower-roman) ") "}ol.lst-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-5 0}ol.lst-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-2 0}.lst-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-7}.lst-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-2}.lst-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-3 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-3,decimal) ") "}.lst-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-5}.lst-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-1}.lst-kix_y7wl18lwtwhr-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-4 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-4,lower-latin) ") "}.lst-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_y7wl18lwtwhr-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_y7wl18lwtwhr-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_y7wl18lwtwhr-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-7 0}.lst-kix_fj2lcckru7v5-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-3}ol.lst-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-3 0}.lst-kix_fj2lcckru7v5-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-0 0}ul.lst-kix_wwib92ngzm4u-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wwib92ngzm4u-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_fj2lcckru7v5-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_wpzanswk1yar-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_fj2lcckru7v5-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-5 0}.lst-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-6}.lst-kix_pm1tkvhss1sr-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_pm1tkvhss1sr-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_wwib92ngzm4u-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_cfbtsytu6i3k-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_wwib92ngzm4u-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wwib92ngzm4u-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wwib92ngzm4u-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_cfbtsytu6i3k-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_wwib92ngzm4u-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_pm1tkvhss1sr-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_wwib92ngzm4u-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wwib92ngzm4u-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_cfbtsytu6i3k-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_fj5g7mbz0gtu-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-7,lower-latin) ". "}ul.lst-kix_w56t729drrea-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_fj5g7mbz0gtu-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_w56t729drrea-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_w56t729drrea-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-5 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-5,lower-roman) ") "}.lst-kix_cfbtsytu6i3k-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_pm1tkvhss1sr-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-1,lower-latin) ") "}ul.lst-kix_pm1tkvhss1sr-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-3 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-3,decimal) ") "}ul.lst-kix_pm1tkvhss1sr-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-5}ul.lst-kix_pm1tkvhss1sr-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pm1tkvhss1sr-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_w56t729drrea-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pm1tkvhss1sr-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_w56t729drrea-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pm1tkvhss1sr-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_w56t729drrea-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-5}ul.lst-kix_pm1tkvhss1sr-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_w56t729drrea-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pm1tkvhss1sr-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_w56t729drrea-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pm1tkvhss1sr-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_w56t729drrea-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-1 0}.lst-kix_o29ndrekk5bc-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_o29ndrekk5bc-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-3 0}.lst-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-1}.lst-kix_fj5g7mbz0gtu-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-0}.lst-kix_o29ndrekk5bc-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_fj5g7mbz0gtu-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_wpzanswk1yar-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_wpzanswk1yar-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_o29ndrekk5bc-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-1}ol.lst-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-0 0}.lst-kix_wpzanswk1yar-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-5 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-5,lower-roman) ") "}.lst-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-3 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-3,decimal) ") "}.lst-kix_wpzanswk1yar-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-1,lower-latin) ") "}ul.lst-kix_o29ndrekk5bc-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_o29ndrekk5bc-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_o29ndrekk5bc-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_o29ndrekk5bc-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_o29ndrekk5bc-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_o29ndrekk5bc-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_o29ndrekk5bc-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_o29ndrekk5bc-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-1 0}ul.lst-kix_o29ndrekk5bc-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-2}ul.lst-kix_y7wl18lwtwhr-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_y7wl18lwtwhr-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-7 0}.lst-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-4 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-4,lower-latin) ") "}ul.lst-kix_y7wl18lwtwhr-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_y7wl18lwtwhr-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-3 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-3,decimal) ") "}ul.lst-kix_y7wl18lwtwhr-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_y7wl18lwtwhr-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_y7wl18lwtwhr-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ib780198138q-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-7 0}.lst-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-0,decimal) ") "}ul.lst-kix_y7wl18lwtwhr-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_y7wl18lwtwhr-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-3 0}.lst-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-7}ol.lst-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-0}.lst-kix_squ3oqu9nlq4-1 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-0 0}.lst-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_8e68pokamj4l-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-1 0}ol.lst-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-8,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_8e68pokamj4l-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_u0p9nucbmqrk-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_u0p9nucbmqrk-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_u0p9nucbmqrk-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_u0p9nucbmqrk-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_u0p9nucbmqrk-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-2}ul.lst-kix_u0p9nucbmqrk-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_u0p9nucbmqrk-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-8 0}ol.lst-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-1 0}ul.lst-kix_u0p9nucbmqrk-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_u0p9nucbmqrk-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_8e68pokamj4l-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-4}.lst-kix_8e68pokamj4l-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-2 0}ol.lst-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ib780198138q-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-2 0}.lst-kix_ib780198138q-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_ib780198138q-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-0 0}ul.lst-kix_cfbtsytu6i3k-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cfbtsytu6i3k-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-8}ul.lst-kix_cfbtsytu6i3k-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cfbtsytu6i3k-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cfbtsytu6i3k-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cfbtsytu6i3k-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cfbtsytu6i3k-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cfbtsytu6i3k-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cfbtsytu6i3k-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_u0p9nucbmqrk-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_fj2lcckru7v5-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-3 0}ul.lst-kix_squ3oqu9nlq4-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_squ3oqu9nlq4-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_squ3oqu9nlq4-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_aoqm0xufkloy-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-0,decimal) ") "}ul.lst-kix_squ3oqu9nlq4-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_squ3oqu9nlq4-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_squ3oqu9nlq4-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_u0p9nucbmqrk-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_squ3oqu9nlq4-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_fj2lcckru7v5-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_squ3oqu9nlq4-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-4 0}ul.lst-kix_squ3oqu9nlq4-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-4 0}.lst-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-7}.lst-kix_fj2lcckru7v5-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_keog4ud1qg7m-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_wpzanswk1yar-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_pm1tkvhss1sr-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-3}.lst-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-7}.lst-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-3}ol.lst-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-1 0}.lst-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-8,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-5 0}.lst-kix_cfbtsytu6i3k-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-8 0}.lst-kix_pm1tkvhss1sr-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-4 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_5nii7fvl7pfr-4,lower-latin) ") "}.lst-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_cfbtsytu6i3k-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_fj5g7mbz0gtu-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_keog4ud1qg7m-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-6 0}.lst-kix_aoqm0xufkloy-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-4 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-4,lower-latin) ") "}ol.lst-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-7 0}.lst-kix_pm1tkvhss1sr-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-0,decimal) ") "}ol.lst-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_pb92dgi0zbcw-2 0}.lst-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-1,lower-latin) ") "}ol.lst-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-5 0}.lst-kix_w56t729drrea-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_fj5g7mbz0gtu-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_squ3oqu9nlq4-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-5 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_eu4h1ijmfocs-5,lower-roman) ") "}ul.lst-kix_fj5g7mbz0gtu-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fj5g7mbz0gtu-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fj5g7mbz0gtu-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fj5g7mbz0gtu-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_fj5g7mbz0gtu-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-5}ol.lst-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-6 0}.lst-kix_w56t729drrea-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_o29ndrekk5bc-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_keog4ud1qg7m-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_5iccnrvyui9d-5 0}ol.lst-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_shhl7fui8kgh-4 0}ul.lst-kix_fj5g7mbz0gtu-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fj5g7mbz0gtu-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fj5g7mbz0gtu-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fj5g7mbz0gtu-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_wpzanswk1yar-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-4}.lst-kix_o29ndrekk5bc-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-4 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-4,lower-latin) ") "}ul.lst-kix_fj2lcckru7v5-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fj2lcckru7v5-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fj2lcckru7v5-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fj2lcckru7v5-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fj2lcckru7v5-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fj2lcckru7v5-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_v7jpgoqk1xwp-0,upper-latin) ") "}ul.lst-kix_fj2lcckru7v5-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ddkpt6y2f1z4-6 0}ul.lst-kix_fj2lcckru7v5-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fj2lcckru7v5-7{list-style-type:none}

THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEMIf you want to learn more check out Which people experience major depression disorder?

Endocrine System: Endocrine glands and organs that secrete hormones

Endocrine glands: Groups of cells specialized for the production and secretion of hormones We also discuss several other topics like Who were the nobilities during industrialism period?

  1. Hormone (Endocrine)
  • A molecule released into the blood by endocrine gland
  • Internal chemical messenger
  • Regulatory functions: (control cell function)
  • Often synthesis of RNA (inside cell) -transcriptional regulation
  • Bind to outside/inside of cell, changes proteins made by cell
  • Production and release of cell products
  • Only cell with specific receptors for hormone will be affected (target cell)

  1. Autocrine/Paracrine
  • Local chemical messenger e.g within organ where produced- not released into blood

  1. Pheromone
  • Chemical messenger released outside body

Don't forget about the age old question of What are the pros and cons of health adjusted life expectancy?

Endocrine System (ES) vs Nervous System (NS)If you want to learn more check out What happened during the iraq war in 2003-2011?

  • Similarities:

                      - Molecules only affect target cells; target must have receptors We also discuss several other topics like What refers to the areas of stimuli that attract attention due to their properties?

                         (no receptors= can’t act)

                      - Similar molecules used in some cases eg. some molecules are both hormones

                         Neurotransmitters eg. epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (NS)

           - Both systems modified by antagonist (inhibitory) and agonist (activates) We also discuss several other topics like To which systems do salivar and sweat glands belong?

           - Both systems are regulated by paired processes working in opposition e

              E.g. nervous system- parasympathetic and sympathetic endocrine systems-

              Insulin and glucagon ( antagonistic (paird) processes= fine control)

  • Differences

           - Quantity of molecules- much smaller amounts of hormones that

             Neurotransmitters

           - Response time (NS) much fast (seconds) than ES (hours, days)- faster if

              hormone  doesn’t have to penetrate cell

           - Duration of effect -ES is much longer

           -Distance of response of molecules/ number of cells affected

NS- short (across synapse)/few cells affected

ES- longer distances-over whole body; many cells can be affected

Selected Examples of Hormones

          ORGAN

        LEPTIN

HYPOTHALAMUS

       APPETITE

Adipose Tissue (for cells =largest endocrine gland

Leptin

Hypothalamus

Appetite

Adrenals

Cortex

Glucocorticoids(cortisol)

Aldosterone (mineral-corticoids)

Liver

Kidney

Glucose cone (increase)

Na+/K+ reabsorption /secretion

Medula

Epinephrine

Norepinephrine

(Fight or flight)

Heart

Smooth muscle

Contraction

Pancreas

Insulin

Glucagon

many

Glucose uptake (low blood sugar)

Glucose-production/release (high blood sugar)

Thyroid

thyroxine

many

Metabolism

Hypothalamus

many

Ant. pituitary

Hormone secretion (master hormones-regulate release of hormones)

Ovaries

estrogen

Reproductive tract

maintenance

Testes

testosterone

Reproductive tract

Development

Stomach

gastrin

stomach

Acid secretion

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ENDOCRINE REGULATION

  1. Hormones are often produced in an inactive state; Prohormones (mainly peptides)
  2. Hormonal response due to both the concentration (titer) of hormones and receptors on target tissues
  3. Hormone titer due to combined effects of hormone production/release and degradation/excretion
  4. Hormones are often released in pulses or cycles - reduces desensitization due to constant exposure to high hormone titer (circadian rhythms-sleep/wake cycle)

  • Prohormones: Hormones often produced from inactive/less active precursors that are “processed” to form active hormone
  • Gene sequence = DNA- RNA
  • Signal peptide: tells hormone where to go

                             

  • they’re “buried” in the peptide and then they’re cut out (like cutting a shape out of paper)

Example: Renin-angiotensin system  

  • Circadian Rhythms

  • Blood glucose highest in the morning to prepare for activity

Why testosterone injections cause terminating effects:

  • Ans: High T concentration in blood (abnormally high)

        Antagonistic process of testosterone/estrogen system

        T production stops in body but E production increases (aromatase activity effects) 

  1. Tissues are typically regulated by multiple hormones = complex.

Important Aspects:

  1. Different hormones can regulate different components of a particular trait/process

Example: Male reproduction

FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) -these hormones also found in females -(regulates spermatogenesis)

LH (Luteinizing hormone) regulates testosterone secretion

  1. Different hormones can have positive or negative effects on the same trait resulting in regulation by antagonistic process (finer control)

  1. Different hormones can have sequential effects (each hormone regulates a separate part of a process, work together) e.g prior exposure to estrogen necessary for uterus to respond to progesterone
  1. Estrogen increases progesterone receptors on uterus coordinates different stages of pregnancy
  2. Uterus now more sensitive to progesterone; called permissive/priming effect; termed up-regulation (in reference to increase in # of receptors)
  3. A hormone can also up-regulate its own receptor (positive feedback)

6) Hormones can have physiological and pharmacological effects.

  • Physiological : normal effect of hormone caused by normal concentrations of hormone
  • Pharmacological (medicine/drugs): abnormal effects due to concentration of hormone about normal physiological levels

     

         Causes of Pharmacological Effects:

             * Abnormally high production of a product (often a hormone) that is normally in low

               Concentration

             * High concentration of hormone shuts down hormone production by negative feedback-

                Feminizing effects, sterility, and low sperm count

  • Conversion of testosterone into estrogen if concentration is too high .

 

              Starting material for steroids - Cholesterol- Testosterone- Aromatase (enzyme)- estrogen

7.) Endocrine Regulation- typically hierarchical with multiple hormones linked in casual chain

  • Endocrine hierarchy has two important consequences

             a) Hormone titers are regulated by multiple feedback mechanisms both negative and

                 Positive- very tight control

             b) The endocrine signal is successively amplified

                   

 

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