Art History II: Exam 2 Study Guide
Art History II: Exam 2 Study Guide ART 1023
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elizabeth on Friday February 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ART 1023 at Mississippi State University taught by Benjamin Harvey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see History of Art 2 in History at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 02/26/16
Art History II: EXAM TWO Look up images to study with the material. Pay special attention to style of the artist and the date of the work. Leonardo Davinci Vitruvian man Has very few finished works Sfumato: smokyness, misty/hazy quality caused by using paints with a high medium to pigment ratio; glazes Leonardo da Vinci Last Supper Circa 149598 Fresco (oil and tempera on plaster) Was working as a court artist for Sforza The family Sforza was focused on the church: Santa Maria de la Grazi Example of single point linear perspective Only about 40% is original paint from Leonardo Leonardo da Vinci Mona Lisa Circa 150305 Oil on wood Commissioned for Duke Giocondo Setting: sitting in an armchair with some architecture details behind her before the landscape; probably in some sort of gazebo or open indoor space. Landscape seems to be a reflection of her inner state/personality Pose: Italian portraits were usually in profile, not ¾ like in the Mona Lisa. Arm of the chair is parallel to the picture plane so she seems to be turning to acknowledge the viewer Using the psychology of presence: convincing the viewer that there is actually a person there Michelangelo Believed that the human body was the extreme expressive unit in art Michelangelo David 150104 Marble 12.5 tons Made to be seen from very far away, enhanced features (i.e. larger hands and negative space around limbs) Gilded in some areas (branch, sling and loin cloth) Michelangelo Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel (including the Creation of Adam, the Fall of Man and Deluge) 150812 Fresco 5800 ft 2 Corners: Old Testament (x4) Triangular areas (above windows and lunettes): ancestors of Christ (x8) Spandrels: Old Testament Prophets and Classical Sibyls (x12) Center: scenes from Genesis (x9); large and small scenes alternate Michelangelo Last Judgment 153441 Fresco Raphael Raphael School of Athens (Philosophy) 150911 Fresco Stresses major branches of learning o Theology o Jurisprudence o The Arts o Philosophy Bramante Tempietto 1502 Building Commissioned by King Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain Symbolically marking the place of Saint Peter’s crucifixion Small building, not really functional, but mainly important as a landmark Mannerism What: painting sculpture and architecture characterized by: o Elongation, distortion, and human figure o Emphasis on artfulness and artifice over naturalness o Spatial ambiguity and instability o Stressing artistic difficulty When: 16 century art emerges in the 1520’s Where: Italy and France and generally Europe Early examples: Michelangelo (Last Judgment) and works by Parmigianino Parmigianino Madonna with the Long Neck Circa 153033 Oil on wood Emphasizes all aspects of Mannerism Given a sense of sexuality Unfinished Cellini Perseus with the Head of Medusa Circa 1554 Bronze Figure is 10/11ft tall; 1819ft including the base Northeastern Italy – Venice Titian Pesaro Altarpiece (Madonna of the Pesaro Family) 151926 Oil on canvas Commissioned for a private chapel in the Frari cathedral Moving Madonna and Christ from the center allows for visual movement around the composition Dissolves the “fourth wall” with the girl looking out Saint Peter: somewhat of a military leader; gatekeeper to Heaven Saint Frances: Franciscan church Aspects of Venetian painting o Emphasis on color o Glazing with oil paints o Experimental compositions Venetian styles Color Experimentation with subject matter o “Visual poetry”subjects not drawn from a textual source Slight similarities to Leonardo’s style of using oil paints Very interested in landscape Giorgione The Tempest Circa 150608 Oil on canvas About 3’x2’ Titian Venus of Urbino 1538 Oil on canvas Has some attributes of Venus (i.e. roses) Private commission for the Duke of Urbino Not linear perspective Titian becomes one of the first “painterly” painters Veronese Christ in the House of Levi 1573 Oil on canvas Depiction of the Last Supper 42’x18’ Shows variety and cosmopolitan style of Venetian life at the time Renames the painting to appease the Pope Tintoretto Last Supper 1594 Oil on canvas Titian’s color with the drawing/design of Michelangelo Supernatural versus natural o The lighting from the chandelier (natural) versus the halos (supernatural) o Angles/holy figures and the disciples Palladio Villa Rotonda (near Vicenza, Italy) Circa 156690’s Almerico: patron Symmetrical floor plan Dome in the center; four patios around Uses the ionic order (seen as more feminine) Palladianism: Chiswick House (1720’s); shows the spread of Palladio’s architectural ideas Differences between catholic and Protestant attitudes to art: Catholic: o Art objects are considered to have quasimagical properties and offer access to the “divine” o The Council of Trent (154563) reaffirms the traditional place of art objects in devotional life; the Inquisition encourages the production of “appropriate” works o Devotional images are thought to support scripture instruct believers and teach the illiterate o Paintings, sculptures, etc. remain n churches and continue to serve a devotional function o Religious patronage remains important Protestant: o Fear of idolatry (worshipping objects might mean worshipping “false idols”) o Dislike of “intermediaries” (i.e. the church, pope, priests, saints, and Mary[Mariolatry]) o Stress on scripture as the “word of God” and the direct path to him; prints are considered and acceptable art form where images support/illustrate text o Waves of iconoclasm sweep Northern Europe; art objects are destroyed in churches and walls are whitewashed o Religious commissions dry up for artists o General shift to secular patronage and secular themes; growth in an “art market” Albrecht Durer Adam and Eve 1504 Engraving (fourth state) Northern elements combined with Italian tradition o Adam and Eve resemble an Apollo figure and a Venus figure Intaglio process: copper plate, cut the design into the plate and ink flows into the lower part of the plate o Allows for finer more delicate details than the simple wood cuts o Can have middle values through texture such as hatch marks Six animals (not including the serpent); four of which representing the four humours o Mouse o Goat o Elk: melancholic; black bile o Cat: choleric; yellow bile o Rabbit: sanguine; blood o Ox: phlegmatic; phlegm Grunewald’s Isenheim Altarpiece Circa 151015 Oil on wood panel Closed: o Crucifixion (center); Saint Sebastian (left) and Saint Anthony Abbbot (right); Lamentation (predella) First opening: o Virgin and child with angels (center); Annunciation (left) and Resurrection (right); Lamentation (predella) Second opening: o Nicolas Hagenau’s 1490 Shrine (Saint Anthony Enthroned between saints Hieronymus Bosch Last Judgment Triptych 150408 Oil on panel Closed: o Monochromatic o Saint James with “pilgrim’s shell” (left) o Saint Barvo Patron Saint of Flanders and Ghent (right) Open: o Mainly red and brown colors; left side is green landscape o Adam and Eve: creation of Eve, temptation, and expulsion (bottom left) o Fall of the rebel angels (top left) o Last Judgment (top center) o Limbo (the edges of Hell) and the seven deadly sins (bottom center) o Hell and Satan (right) Durer Four Apostles 1526 Oil on panel Presented to the city of Nuremburg to be displayed in city hall, NOT commissioned for a church More emphasis on John the Evangelist and Saint Paul (left & right respectively) Peter behind John, Marc behind Paul Cranach The Law and Gospel (or The Law and Grace) Circa 1529 Oil on wood Biblical excerpts below the painting Divided by a tree not two separate panels Left = bad/immoral: o Old testament o Law of God/Judgment o Temptation and Fall of Adam and Eve o Hellfire to the bottom far left Right = good/moral: o Lamb of God defeating demon o Crucifixion/Resurrection o Annunciation theme at the top
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