Study Guide Update
Study Guide Update PSYC 110 - 008
Popular in General Psychology -
Popular in Psychlogy
This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Savannah Webb on Friday February 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 110 - 008 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Alexander Malik Khaddouma in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see General Psychology - in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
Reviews for Study Guide Update
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/26/16
Study Guide Sensation- detection of physical energy by sense organs Perception- brains interpretation of sense Sense Receptor Cells - Cell specialized for converting external stimuli into neural activity for a specific sensory system Transduction - Process of converting an external energy or substance into electrical neural activity - Sensation → *Transduction* → Perception Bottom Up Processing - Process by which a whole is constructed by parts Top Down - Conceptually driven processing influenced by beliefs and expectations - In real world we use both, this is called parallel processing Opponent Process Theory - Primary color: blue, green, red - After images result from inhibited color cells becoming excited when their opposing color is removed Classical Conditioning - Form of learning in which an organism come to respond to a previously neutral stimulus that has been paired with a stimulus that previously brought out an automatic response - Pavlov (physician, looked at dogs, assistants would go in and ring a bell every time they went in to feed them, and every time the bell rang more saliva would be produced) Operate Conditioning - Form of learning controlled by providing consequences for an organism’s behavior - Thorndike and Skinner - Thorndike Unconditional stimulus (without training) - Something that elicits an automatic response (e.g. food) Unconditional response - Automatic response to an unconditioned stimulus that does not need to be learned (e.g. tummy rumbling, salivation, feeling hungry) Conditioned stimulus - Something that comes to elicit automatic response after becoming associated with unconditioned stimulus Conditioned response - Response to unconditioned stimulus that is now elicited by conditioned stimulus Positive - Something is presented to the organism - E.g. sticker, spanking Negative - Something is taken away - E.g. stopping torture, taking away a toy, being grounded Reinforcement - Increases target behavior Punishment - Decreases target behavior Stimulus Generalization - Things that look like conditioned stimulus elicit conditioned response without training Stimulus Discrimination - Ability to differentiate between conditioned stimulus and similar stimuli Higher order conditioning - Pairing conditioned stimulus with other stimuli which come to elicit conditioned response - Weaker conditioned response the higher-order you go Acquisition - Learning - Pairing stimulus and response together Spontaneous Recovery - When the conditioned response to a conditioned stimulus comes back after a delay in exposure - E.g. smells that trigger memories or feelings Renewal Effect - When the conditioned response to a conditioned stimulus comes back when organism is placed in original environment in which learning occurred - E.g. old feelings returning when back home, better test performance in familiar environment Primary Reinforcer - Item or outcome that naturally increases the target behavior Secondary Reinforcer - Neutral object that becomes associated with a primary reinfrorcer Reinforcement schedules Fixed ratio - Reinforcement given after certain number of responses Fixed interval -Reinforcement given after certain amount of time has passed (behavior just needs to occur at least once) Variable ratio -Reinforcement given after unspecified number of responses -Strongest reinforcement schedule (e.g. gambling) Variable interval -Reinforcement given after unspecified amount of time has passed (behavior just needs to occur at least once) Context dependent learning -better retrieval when in same environmental conditions as when information was learned State dependent learning -better retrieval when in same physiological or psychological state as when information is learned Observable learning - Learning by watching others - Bandura’s bobo doll experiment (ex. ↑.. kid watching woman through glass beating up a doll so when the kid went in the kid also beat up the doll) Observational learning - Mirror neurons - activated both by doing a behavior and when observing a behavior Memory Long Term Memory - Relatively enduring retention of stored information regarding our facts, experiences, and skills Permastore - type of long-term memory that appears to be permanent - Often based on the meaning of the information, which helps it stuck Explicit -recalled with intention and effort -two kinds -semantic *knowledge of facts (e.g. capital of Tennessee) -episodic *knowledge of events in our lives (e.g. first kiss) Implicit -recalled without intention or effort, we don’t mean to remember it -two kinds -procedural *how to do thing (e.g. tie shoes, ride a bicycle) -priming *ability to detect a stimulus more easily and quickly after encountering a similar stimulus Sensory Memory - Perceptual information before it is passed on to short- term memory - Only briefly stored Consist of: - Iconic *things you see - Echoic *things you hear *last longer than iconic memory Short-term memory - Retains information for limited durations Encoding - Process of getting information into our memory banks - Requires focused attention on stimulus - Mnemonics helping with encoding -e.g. algebra mnemonic Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally Storage - Process of keeping information in memory - Schemas - organized knowledge structure or mental model that we’ve stored in memory Retrieval - Process of reactivating or reconstructing experiences from our memory stores 3 Kinds -recall *generating previously remembered information -recognition *selecting previously remembered information from an array of options -relearning *reacquiring knowledge that has been previously learned, but forgottern *quicker then learning for first time Retrieval cues help with retrieval -hints that make it easier to recall information Retroactive Interference - New information interferes with old information *e.g. learning a new language interferes with your vocabulary for your native language Proactive Interference - Old information interferes with new information *e.g. taking an old pathway home even though roads have changed Retrograde Amnesia - Loss of memories from our past Anterograde Amnesia - Inability to encode new memories from our experiences Infantile Amnesia - Inability of adults to remember personal experiences that took place before an early age Forgetting • Dementia - Severe memory loss - Often due to organic causes *e.g. Alzheimer’s disease Errors in Memory - Creating false memories Levels of Processing - i.e. assigning meaning to information Consciousness - Our subjective experiences of the world, our bodies, and mental perspectives Alterations in consciousness • Deviation for “normal” states of consciousness • Can be natural - Sleep - Daydreaming - Seizures • Or induced - Drugs - Hypnosis - Meditation Blackboard Readings - Stress and Memory - Zoophoria
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'