Physical Anthropology Study Guide Exam 1
Physical Anthropology Study Guide Exam 1 Anth 385
Edinboro University of Pennsylvania
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Intro Notes Physical/Biological Anthropology ● Scientific discipline concerned with biological and behavioral characteristics of human beings, nonhuman primates and their ancestors Evolution ● change in genetic makeup of a population from one generation to the next ● Macroevolution ○ can result in a new species ● Microevolution (most of the time will not result in a new species ○ genetic alterations within a population Culture ● Learned behaviors/ not instinctive ● transmitted by nonbiological (nongenetic) means What is Anthropology? ● Anthropos=humankind, Logos=study of ● Integrates findings of many disciplines ● Ties to humanities (social sciences) but is a science Theory ○ Broad statement of scientific relationships of underlying principles Four field approach ● Cultural Anthropology ○ began as study of nonliterate cultures ○ grew out of colonialism ○ approaches ■ ethnography= study of a specific customs ■ comparative ethnology=comparison of cultures ○ Cross culture approach ● Linguistic Anthropology ○ Study of Human Speech and Language ○ Origins of language ○ Specific Languages ○ Types ■ structural linguistics ■ historical linguistics ■ sociolinguistics ● Archaeology ○ study preliterary cultures ○ study of past cultures using artifacts and other material cultures ■ historical archaeologystill rely on the artifacts ■ prehistoric archaeologypreliterary/ can’t read the writing ○ with physical anthropology forms the core of paleoanthropology ● Physical Anthropology/Biological ○ paleoanthropology ■ study of human biology and variation ■ two broad areas of interest ■ human evolution ■ human variation ■ study of fossil remains, human evolution ■ includes archaeology, geology, and osteology, specialities Human Evolution ○ primatology ○ study of biology and behavior of nonhuman primates ■ anatomical similarities and differences ■ ethology studies ● “in the wild” ● social relationships Human Variation ○ study of biology of human populations ■ processes involved in adaptation and evolution ○ Biocultural interactions ● Skeletal Biology ○ quantify measurable skeletal differences ○ identify diseases and disease patterns ■ learn what the how the diseases affect the skeleton look ○ Forensic Anthropology ● Living Population Variation ○ body size and proportion ■ hints to health status ■ how much food an individual gets affects the individual's size ○ Anatomical structures ○ Mortality profiles ○ Physiological responses to heat, cold, humidity, etc ■ adaptability and microevolution ○ Disease patterns ■ why certain populations get certain diseases ■ certain populations only get certain diseases Four Field Approach con’t ● Anthropology is either theoretical or applied ○ research is not judged on practicality, all knowledge is good ○ it's not always important to know why you need to apply it ● Examples of applied anthropology ○ Cultural resource management (CRM) (archaeology) ■ are there any old cultural sites so they are not destroyed by development ○ Forensic Anthropology (physical anthropology) ■ quantifies physical anthropology knowledge to identify unknown individuals for forensic purposes ○ Applied ethnology ■ multinational corporations learning languages to learn the markets that they’re trying to get into ○ Cultural Relativism ■ Cultures have merits within their own historical and environmental context ● Each cultures has its own customs and morals so they can not be condemned ■ Respect other cultures ■ Be objective ● is the ultimate goal ■ keep an open mind ○ Ethnocentrism ■ to view your own culture as superior to all others ■ regarding other cultures as inferior ■ cultural prejudice Evolution Meaning of Evolution ● Change over time ● Organisms related by descent from a common ancestor ● Evolution through the process of natural selection ○ the mutability of species (Darwin’s definition) History of Evolutionary Thought ● Age of discovery 16th18th centuries ○ New world and Africa explored and settled by Europeans ■ western europe come in contact with new cultures that our complete foreign to them ○ Systematic collection of biological variability ■ science was driven by collecting (exhibitions) ● New observation needed to be fit into logical order ○ including fossils ● Great Chain of Being ○ World Order ○ Originally formulated by Aristotle ■ GodAngelsHumansAnimalsEtc ■ Universe is full ● everything that is possible exists ● earth is complete because God is perfect that he had to fill up the earth and made no mistakes nothing else would ever be needed ■ Continuous series of life forms ■ Hierarchical sequence ● complex to simple ■ change impossible ● Early Thinkers ○ Main Concepts ■ Earth is young ■ Earth and its creatures are unchanging ○ Bishops James Ussher 15811656 ■ Interpreted Genesis ■ Earth created at 4004 BC ● Taxonomy ○ Classifying living organisms and identify biological relationships ○ Wanted to present God’s plan for creation ■ not evolutionary thinkers ● Carolus LInnaeus 17071778 ○ Developed classification system for plants and animals ■ Systema Naturae ○ Binomial nomenclature ■ System of using 2 names ○ Included humans with animals ■ Humans grouped with apes ● Geology ○ Reconstructing the changing surface of the earth ■ break with traditional ideas ■ causes questioning ● James Hutton 17261797 and Charles Lyell 17971875 ○ Uniformitarianism ■ Forces active in past are same forces as those active in present ■ Earth changes by flood erosion, drought, wind, etc. ■ “Stacking of changes = strata or layers ● ex. Grand Canyon ○ Principles of Geolog written by Charles Lyell ■ 18301833 ■ Earth much older than Ussher suggested ● Paleontology ■ means the study of past life, the study of fossils ○ Reconstructing the history of life on earth ○ Fossils have been found for hundred of years ■ need to explain them ● Georges Cuvier 17691832 ○ Father of zoology, paleontology, and comparative anatomy ○ Theory of Catastrophism ■ Each stratum of earth contained different fossils ■ Earth’s history one of subsequent disasters resulting i extinctions and repopulations ● Demography ○ study of populations ■ birth rates ■ death rates ■ factors that influence these ● Thomas Malthus 17661834 ○ Human population doubles every 25 years ○ Food production increase only in arithmetic progression ○ species overpopulation checked by struggle for existence ■ keeps populations from growing at their maximum rates ○ competition for limited resources ● Evolutionary Biology ○ Early attempts to explain transformation of life forms ● Jean Baptiste Lamarck 17441829 ○ Theory of Transformism ■ Organs would develop to satisfy needs of an organism ■ Inheritance of acquired characteristics ■ Interaction of organic forms with their environment ■ Spontaneous generation ○ Contributions ■ popularized idea of evolution Development of the Theory of Evolution ● Charles Darwin 18091882 ○ Medical Student at Edinburgh ○ Interested in “shooting,dogs and rat catching” ■ he was wandering around doing nothing ○ family plan because he wasn’t doing anything was for him to enter the seminary ○ Captain's companion on HMS Beagle ○ Galapagos Islands ■ the galapagos finches (probably the source of the evolution theory) ● Alfred Russel Wallace 18231913 ○ Expeditions to the Amazon and Malayan Archipelago ○ Also influenced by Malthus ○ July 1, 1858 Wallace and Darwin presented joint papers to Linnean Society ○ Not as reluctant as Darwin to show his ideas is what pushed Darwin to step forward Origin of Species 1859 ● Mutability of species ● Species evolve from other species via ○ NATURAL SELECTION ● Descent with modification ● What slowed him down was his belief was that it could be seen as antichurch, was not as bad as what he thought. Evolution through Natural Selection ● Advantageous characteristics for survival ● These offspring survive and reproduce themselves ○ having fit offspring is the gold standard ● Over time the frequency of advantageous traits increases ○ the range of fitness is based on the environment and the environment may change and that can be a disaster for an animal that was very for that environment at one time Darwin’s Evidence ● Domestication of plants and animals ○ breeding ○ humans have been manipulating plants and animals to what they want for thousands of years ■ example: dogs ● Geographic distribution of life forms ● Geological and paleontology record ● Comparative anatomy ● Vestigial organs ○ organs that no longer serve a purpose anymore ● Embryology Embryology ● Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny ○ more general characteristics appear before more specific ones ○ animals progressively diverge from related forms during development ● Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny ○ Early stages of young animals resemble early stages of primitive forms ○ Philosophical Materialism ● Matter is the stuff of all existence ● Other evolutionists spoke of vital forces, organic striving ● Darwin did not address issue of human evolution until 1872 ○ Descent of Man ● Other evolutionists had magical thinking and did not go out on the limb so they did not go as far as him ○ this is why they did not get the same credit for evolution as Darwin ○ Darwin also says Man evolved the same way Evolution through Natural Selection ● A trait must be inherited ● Natural selection cannot occur without variation in a population ○ the population is not made from the same mold, they are not clones ● Fitness is relative ● Evolution is not direction (random) ● Selection is a nonrandom (directed) force Natural Selection ● Occurs at the level of the individual ● Acts on the phenotype but affects the genotype ○ Genotypethe genetic makeup, the alleles ○ Phenotypehow the genes interact with the environment and thus cause the organism to look ○ Phenotypic rangethe genes can interact differentially with different environment causing a differences thus causing a range ● Works through differential net reproduction ○ # of offspring born # of offspring that die before reaching reproductive age ○ if die before reproducing then it is as if never lived ● Types ○ Directional ○ Stabilizing ○ Disruptive ■ Bimodal ■ With breeding isolation can lead to speciation ■ can account for high degree of sexual dimorphism ● males look one way, females look another ● it can be extreme that can make it be disruptive selection Evolution ● Occurs at the level of the population ● Occurs at the net level ● Three types ○ Parallel ■ Develope of similar structures that occur independently and are probable due to similar evolutionary conditions ■ look very much alike even though millions of evolutionary years, because the same evolutionary characteristics are being selected for ■ Examples ● New World Monkey and Old World Monkey ● haven’t had a common ancestor in 35 million years ● Old World Monkey more closely related to humans than the New World Monkey ○ Convergent ■ Development of structure in remotely related forms that superficially resemble each other ■ have similar environmental pressures and fit a particular niche ■ Examples ● Dolphins and a shark ● Birds and Bats ○ Divergent ■ Closely related species become more morphological divergent due to different evolutionary pressures ● examples Humans and Chimps Summary ● Great Chain of Being/USsher concept of earth and life forms ● Systematic classification (Linnaeus) With the recognition that humans fit within the animal kingdom ● Attempts to account for fossils invoke divine intervention (Cuvier,Lamarck) ● Geology leads to understanding that natural process alter earth ● Malthus points out that not all members of a species will survive ● Darwin not working in a vacuum ● Darwin placed humankind directly in place with the biotic world ● Need to understand Darwin’s Theory of Evolution, types of selection and evolution Genetics and Evolution Gregor Mendel 18221884 ● In school bright but not successful (was not privileged like Darwin) ● Financial difficulties lead to joining the monastery in Moravia (Czech) (1840s) ● 1860s published his genetic theories ● Not thought important until rediscovered in the early 1900s Mendel’s Contributions ● Discrete physical unit responsible for each trait ● passed from parent to offspring through the generations ● passage determined by mathematical laws Reasons for Success ● Followed progress of hybrids through a number of generations ● Selected plants that possessed contrasting characteristics ● Used a large number of plants (the multiple generations/ crosses) ○ the pea plants had either or choice of variation (only 2 choices of variation/ nothing in the middle) ○ bigger the sample size the better the patterns can be seen ( was breeding 100s 1000s of pea plants) allowed for the patterns to be seen Color of the peas Yellow and Green ● self crossed his plants to create true breeders ● than crossed them with each other ● made all Yellow Generation ● crossed the allYellow Generationtogether ● got 3 yellow peas : green peas ○ this is the 3 to 1 ratio ○ this means the true breeders have 2 of each traYY and yy but when they cross they get a generation Yy and Yy the capital yellow Ys being dominant over the lower case green ys. Mendel’s Experiments ● Hypothesized that green trait not lost or altered ● Yellow trait simply dominant and green trait recessive ○ Green trait is hidden behind the yellow trait ● Some plants breed true = homozygous ( if its two yellow plants they will never allow the green trait to show up again) ○ if its recessive will automatically know that its homozygous ● Other still possessed the green trait= heterozygous ( if its two yellow plants they will eventually allow for the green trait to show up again) ○ Will always look the same as the homozygous dominant ● Parental generation all homozygous ○ Yellow = YY, Green = yy ● Crossbreeding of the parental generation ○ YY x yy ● Crossbreeding of the F1 generation ○ 3:1 phenotypic ratio Yellow:Green ○ 1:2:1 genotypic ratio YY:Yy:yy Principle of Segregation ● Genes occur in pairs. During the productions of gametes (offspring), the pair is separated and each gamete (offspring) contains only one of the pair. Dihybrid Cross Yellow Smooth Pod Parent X Green Wrinkled Pod Parent = F1 Generation: 4 Yellow Smooth Pod Children= F2 Generation: 9 Yellow Smooth Pod Children, 3 Green Smooth Pod Children, 3 Green Smooth Pod Children, 3 Yellow Wrinkled Pod Children, 1 Green Wrinkled Pod Children Principle of Independent Assortment ● Distribution of one pair of genes does not influence the distribution of other pairs of genes ○ Crossing Over Exception ○ (Mendel Rounded his results making it so he had a good ratio) Dihybrid Cross RrYy RrYy RY Ry rY ry x RY Ry rY ry Gametes Gametes RY Ry rY ry RY RRYY RRYy RrYY RrYy Ry RRYy RRyy RrYy Rryy rY RrYY RrYy rrYY rrYy ry RrYy Rryy rrYy rryy Dihybrid Cross Example with Peas Terminology ● Locusspot on the DNA ● Allelehow the gene is ● Dominant ● Recessive ● Mendelian traits ○ only two genes and two alleles ■ Examples that do occur in humans (hitchhikers thumb, rolling of the tongue) ■ most higher organisms are (many) more than two genes ● Polygenic traits ○ multiple alleles and multiple genes for those traits ■ causes people to be expressed differently from those traits ● Codominance ○ Make a nice blend of the parents ○ Do not apply to Mendel’s laws ■ Snap Dragons P Generation 1 Pure Red x 1 PureWhite ↓ F1 Generation Pink ↓ F2 Generation 1 Red: 2 Pink: 1 White Cell Biology The Cell ● Fundamental Unit ● Nucleus ○ DNA chromosomes ○ mRNA (messenger RNA) ○ Nuclear member ● Outer Cell ○ Cytoplasm ○ Fats ○ tRNA ○ mRNA ○ mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) ● Nucleotides = Base + Sugar (deoxyribose) + phospate group ● Bases ○ Purines ■ Adenine ■ Guanine ○ Pyrimidine ■ Cytosine ■ Thymine ○ Complementary bases ■ AT ■ CG ● Double helix structures ○ Reproduces itself during cell division = pass on genetic information ○ Directs protein synthesis ■ polypeptide chains ● building blocks of proteins ■ triplet (codon) ● takes three bases to code for a specific polypeptide Gene ● Entire sequence that condes for a protein ● Redundancy of genetic code ○ 20 Amino Acids ○ 4 bases: A, G, C, T ○ 3 bases (triplet or codon) code for an amino acid ○ 4 cubed = 64 possible combinations ■ Exons = amino acid specifying informational sequence ■ Introns = noncoding segments ○ More code than for what genes actually exists ■ there are sequences that code for the same amino acid (is a fail safe in case another amino acid is damaged) ■ also there is (junk dna) Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) ● Has a similar structure as DNA except its a single strand ● Uses a different sugar (ribose) ● Base uracil is substituted for thymine ● All RNA has the same structure ● Three types with highly specific functions ○ mRNA ○ rRNA ○ tRNA Cell Division: Mitosis ● Normal cell division ● Results in 2 daughter cells identical to mother cell ● Functions ○ Growth of organism ○ Replaces old cells ● Occurs only in somatic cells ○ all cells except your gametes Cell Division: Meiosis ● Reduction division ● Preparation of DNA for transmission to the offspring ● Results in the formation of gametes ● Differs between male and female ○ Spermatogenesis → 4 sperm cells ○ Oogenesis → 1 ovum and 3 polar bodies ● Meiosis Functions ○ Diploid becomes haploid ○ Combination of mother’s and father’s genetic material ○ Recombination and crossing over ■ creates variation ■ unique genetic ○ Transmission of mother’s mtDNA Replication of DNA ● 2 strands unwind ● Strands separate ● 2 single strands attract free DNA nucleotides ● result is 2 identical double strands of DNA ● Transcription ○ 2 strands of DNA ○ 1 strand of DNA attracts RNA ○ RNA copies the DNA in complementary form (mRNA) Protein Synthesis: Part II ○ Translation ■ mRNA migrates out of the nucleus ■ mRNA is attracted to ribosomes (rRNA) ■ Ribosome moves long “reading” the genetic message ■ Reads 3 bases units = codon ● tRNA is attractive bringing with it the anticodon ■ Chain of amino acids is form Proteins ● Structural components ● Enzymes (chemical reactions) ● Hormones ● Direct and perform all physiological and cellular functions ● “genes” code for proteins Evolutionary Synthesis and Population Genetics NonMendelian Inheritance ● Polygenic Inheritance ○ Continuous traits ○ Influenced by alleles at two or more loci, each make a contribution to the phenotype ● Genetic and environmental factors ○ Many polygenic traits influenced by environmental conditions ● Pleiotropy ○ Several seemingly unrelated phenotypic effects are influenced by the actions of a single gene Phenylketonuria (PKU) ■ toxins build up in your blood stream from not being able to digest a specific amino acid appropriately Modern Synthesis ● Evolution = 2 stage process ○ production and redistribution of variation ○ Natural selection acting on the variation ● Evolution = a change in allele frequencies from one generation to the next Factors and Produce and Redistribute Variation ● Mutation ○ Molecular alteration in genetic material ○ To be evolutionarily significant must occur in sex cells ○ ONly way to produce new genetic variation ● Gene Flow ○ Exchange of genes between populations ○ prevents speciation ● Genetic Drift ○ Random factor in evolution directly tied to population size ○ Some individuals can contribute a disproportionate share to genes to succeeding generations ○ Founder Effect ● Recombination ○ both parents contribute genes to offspring so genetic information is reshuffled ○ Does not change allele frequencies but does produce new genetic combinations for selection to act on Four causes of Evolution ● Natural Selection ● Mutation ● Gene Flow ● Genetic Drift The Living Primates Primates Traits ● Rely on Visual Cues ● Use their hands to explore (and master) their world ○ Have been known to learn how to escape their cages ○ Use Rocks as Tools (evidence of Dexterity) ● Will eat almost anything ● Smart ○ Self awareness ○ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=28JfueQxmzQ ○ http://www.koko.org/ ● Vision ○ Stereoscopic Vision ○ Binocular vision ○ Color Vision ○ Postorbital bar ○ Reduction of the snout ■ Many lack a rhinarium ● Rhinarium = the connection of nose with the same tissue ■ Increases vision with lack of snout ● Binocular = seeing with both eyes the same field of vision ○ Owls: Field of view = 110degrees ■ 70 degrees is binocular ○ Humans: Field of view = 180 degrees ■ 140 degrees is binocular ● Stereoscopic vision ○ How the brain fixes the two images collected from the eyes into one correct image. ● Hands ○ Opposable thumbs (and hallux) ■ Allowing for grasping ■ Humans do not have a hallux (flexible big toe) ○ Nails instead of claws ○ Enhanced sense of touch ● Dietary Plasticity ○ Generalized tooth pattern ● Intelligence ○ Large brain to body ratio ○ Social/behavioral traits as well ● Live in Warm Areas (South America, Africa, India, and one in Japan) Taxonomy (Will be Walked through) Living Primates ● Prosimians the “Lesser Primates” ○ Lemurs, Indris, Ayeayes ○ Lorises, Bushbabies ○ Tarsiers ■ Are not lesser just not as evolved in the same features as the anthropoid group ● Anthropoids ○ New World Monkeys (The Americas) ○ Old World Primates (All other Areas) ■ OWM, apes and humans Prosimians ● Lemurlike Forms ○ Found only in Madagascar and the Comoro Islands (No monkeys on these islands) ○ Would have gone in extinct if they had not gone in isolation on the islands ○ Range of body sizes ○ Quadrupeds ■ Vertical clinging and leaping (only some prosimians do this) ○ Solitary to large groups (60+ members) ■ Female dominance ( rare in other primates) ● Lorislike ○ Southeast Asia and subSaharan Africa ○ Nocturnal ■ Took themselves out of the same niche of other primates ○ Arboreal ○ Lorises ■ Slow quadrupedal locomotion ○ Bushbabies ■ Quick verticalclingingandleaping ● Tarsiers (1 species) ○ Philippines and Indonesia ○ Nocturnal ■ Took themselves out of the same niche of other primates ○ Arboreal ■ Will never go on the ground ○ Insect eaters ■ Will only eat insects ■ The only truly carnivorous primate ○ Vertical clinging and leaping ■ Best one at it ○ Mated pair and dependent offspring Anthropoids ● New World Monkeys (Platyrrhines) ● ○ Broad, flatbridged noses ○ Nostrils facing outward ○ Three premolars ○ Prehensile tail ○ Completely arboreal ○ Found only in the New World ● Old World Primates (Catarrhines) ○ Narrow noses ○ Nostrils facing downward ○ Two premolars ○ Old World monkeys, apes, and humans New World Monkeys ● Marmosets and tamarins (Callitrichids) ○ Very small ○ Claws instead of nails ○ Give birth to twins ○ Monogamy or polyandry ○ Male care of infants ○ Eat fruit, sap and insects ● Monkeylike monkeys (Cebids) ○ Vary widely in size, group composition, and diet Old World Monkeys ● Colobine Monkeys ○ Asian Langurs, African colobus monkeys ○ Some specialized leaf and seed eaters ■ Pouched stomachs ■ Long intestinal tracts ● Cercopithecine monkeys ○ Baboons/Macaques + Guenons/Mangabeys ○ Includes terrestrials specimens ■ Most of their time on the ground ● None of the new world monkeys do that ○ Notable sexual dimorphism in some species ■ The females and the males look extremely different ● Example body size differences, snout difference, color differences ○ Cheek pouches ○ Ischial callosities Hominoid Characteristics (the group that's apes and humans) ● We share certain characteristics with apes that we don’t share with monkeys ● Relatively large brains, especially cerebral cortex ● Short, broad trunks ● No tail ● Skeletal specialization for suspensory locomotion ○ Some degree of bipedal locomotion ○ Swing below on the tree branches ● Flat and rounded molars ● Blood proteins group chimps, gorillas and humans Who are the apes? Gibbons and Siamangs (Lesser Apes) = small bodied ● Southeast Asia ● Specialized brachiators ○ Swinging arm over arm in the trees ○ They’re off balanced can’t really balance themselves over their legs ● Pair Bonding ● Little Sexual dimorphism ● Highly territorial Great Apes Orangutans ● Borneo and Sumatra (South East Asia) ● High degree of Sexual dimorphism ○ Body size ○ Cheek pads ○ Throat pouches ● Arboreal fruiteaters ● Solitary Gorillas ● Africa ● Eat stems, shoots, leaves, roots, flowers ● Large degree of sexual dimorphism ○ Body size (twice as large) ○ Sagittal crest ( a crest that runs right down the center of the skull from the muscles of anchoring to the bone of the skull) cone shaped ● Knuckle Walking ● Harem (unimale groups= 1 sexually mature male group to many females) with “Silverback” as leader Chimpanzees ● Forested areas of Africa ● Two species ● Fusion Fission society ○ One big group that breaks off into smaller groups, no permanent social group ● Pan trogolodytes (common chimp) ○ Moderate dimorphism ● Pan paniscus (bonobo or pygmy chimp) ○ Longer limbs, smaller heads, dark faces, part in their hair ○ No sexual dimorphism ○ More social and female centered ○ Copulate all the time ○ Walk bipedally a lot Hominid Traits (Hominin Traits) ● Bipedalism (definitive separation of humans and apes) ○ Pelvis Shape ○ Lumbar curve ○ Head balanced over body ● Thumb is longer and more flexible ● Larger brain size (based on body size) ○ Cerebral cortex ● Generalized teeth ○ Ushaped dental arch ○ Present of a chin ( recent evolutionary shift 40,000 yrs) Tooth Arcade Shape ● Earliest primates diverged in back ● Modern apes = rectangular ● Humans = parabolic (arch shaped) Taxonomy and Macroevolution Taxonomy ● Formal systematic organization of organisms into a coherent classification system ○ Hierarchical system ○ Linnaeus History of Taxonomy ● Linnaeus’ system based on similarities and difference ○ Objective = to reveal God’s plan ○ Static system ○ Binomial nomenclature ● Modern taxonomies reflect evolutionary relationships Steps in Taxonomy ● Define the unit of analysis = species ● Use morphological similarities and dissimilarities ● Select traits which reflect similarities resulting from evolutionary relationships ○ Problems with convergence Classifying Organisms ● Need to decide if similar traits: ○ Inherited from common ancestor or ○ Independent solutions to a particular problem ● Differentiating between Homologs and Analogs Taxonomy ● Derived= features are unique to a particular level ● Primitive = features are shared by a number of taxa ○ Don’t tell you much because so many animals have them Principles of Classification ● Homologies = similarities based on descent from a common ancestor ● Analogies = similarities based on common function ○ Convergence ○ Homoplasy Homology vs. Homoplasy ● Homology is any similarity between characteries that is due to their shared ancestry ● Homoplasy occurs when characters are similar but are not derived from a common ancestor.
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