Nutrition 2030 Module 3 Exam Study Guide
Nutrition 2030 Module 3 Exam Study Guide 86563 - NUTR 2030 - 001
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86563 - NUTR 2030 - 001
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaitlin Samuels on Friday February 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 86563 - NUTR 2030 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Deborah Ann Hutcheon in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 114 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Principles of Human Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/26/16
Module 3 Study Guide Vitamins • Amines that are “vital for life”=vitamins • Deficiency can lead to chronic conditions (fat-soluble has less of a risk) • Structure o Solubility: water-soluble (hard to store) vs fat-soluble o In food: § water-soluble= fruits, vegetables, milk, yogurt, legumes; basically carbs w/high water content; vitamin C & B complex § fat-soluble= foods rich in fat; nuts, butter, meat, olives, avocado, vegetable oils, fatty fish, green leafy vegetables; vitamin A, D, E, & K • Can be destroyed by light, heat, oxygen (esp. water-soluble vitamins); organic (its structure contains carbons) o Baking, steaming, grilling, sautéing can help retain water-soluble vitamins o Boiling or cooking for long periods of time leads to loss of water-soluble vitamins • Function o Support/regulate body functions & processes by assisting in enzymatic pathways o Helps digest, absorb, & metabolism (esp. metabolism) • Bioavailability: amount absorbed & used by the body • Pro-Vitamins: inactive forms converted to active forms in the body o Ex. Beta-ceratine converted to vitamin A • Storage: liver & fat o Water-soluble= stored in the liver o Fat-soluble= liver & fat • Vitamin toxicity or hypervitaminosis: condition that results when a person ingests more vitamin than the body needs Water-Soluble Vitamins 1. Thiamin (vitamin B1) a. Food Sources: meat (especially pork & chicken), legumes, whole grains b. Main Function: helps body metabolize carbohydrates; energy transformation c. Deficiency: i. Beriberi • Who? Elderly & people w/ congestive heart failure • Why? Low intake/absorption & increased requirements • Experience weakness, wasting, edema, tiredness ii. Wernicke’s Encephalopathy & Korsakoff Syndrome • Who? Alcoholics & Malnutrition (fasting, anorexia) • Why? Low intake/absorption & increased requirements • Symptoms: muscle impairment, amnesia, psychosis, eye movements • Korsakoff Syndrome-permanent state of psychosis; occurs if Wernicke’s isn’t caught quick enough 2. Riboflavin (vitamin B2) a. Food Sources: milk (dairy: yogurt, cheese, etc.) & eggs b. Function: energy metabolism c. Deficiency: ariboflavinosis & oral abnormalities; cracks along the mouth, a lot of mouth sores are signs 3. Niacin (vitamin B3) a. Sources: food-meat, poultry, legumes, whole grains; synthesized in the liver from the amino acid tryptophan b. Function: coenzyme for metabolism of CHO, fatty acids, protein, & alcohol c. Deficiency: pellagra; symptoms 4 Ds: diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, death d. Toxicity i. Excess niacin can cause heartburn, nausea, vomiting; can be toxic to the liver & raise blood glucose levels ii. Overconsumption (via supplements or too many overly fortified foods) can cause flushing, a reddish coloring of the face, arms, & chest 4. Pantothenic Acid (vitamin B5) a. Food sources: in virtually all food sources b. Function: metabolism 5. Biotin a. Sources: food-peanuts, eggs, whole grains; GI bacteria b. Function: macronutrient metabolism & cell synthesis c. Deficiency symptoms: lethargy, alopecia, neurological impairment 6. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) a. Food sources: meat, fish, legumes, nuts b. Function: coenzyme for protein & AA (amino acid) metabolism c. Deficiency: i. Decreased production of neurotransmitters: depression & confusion ii. Alcoholism: alcohol destroys the enzyme iii. Microcytic anemia: too small red blood cells; can’t transport nutrients & blood efficiently d. Toxicity: too much can lead to neurological damage e. UL: 100 mg/day 7. Folate (vitamin B9) a. Food sources: fruit (citrus), vegetables (dark, green ex. Collard greens), fortified whole grains, legumes b. Function: coenzyme for AA, DNA, RNA synthesis; needed to replicate genetic code c. Folic acid i. B vitamin added to food (via enrichment / fortification) ii. Dietary supplement iii. 100% bioavailable d. Deficiency: i. Neural tube & other birth defects • Begin consumption prior to pregnancy (400 mcg) • Pregnant woman: 600 mcg/day • FDA mandate (1998): fortified cereal-grain ii. Folate-Deficiency anemia: can lead to malformation of red blood cells iii. alcoholics e. RDA: 400 mcg Dietary Folate Equivalents (DFE) per day i. 1 DFE=1 mcg food folate=0.6 mcg folic acid 8. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) a. Found in animal products (dairy, eggs, animal meat) & fortified food i. Only B vitamin NOT naturally found in plant products b. Digestion & absorption i. Stomach: release from proteins by pepsin (activated by HCl) & HCl ii. Binds to R protein (cobalophilins or haptocorrins) iii. Duodenum: hydrolyzed from R protein by proteases iv. Free cobalamin binds to intrinsic factor (IF); IF: produced in the stomach (upper part), high HCl production, absorbed in the small intestine v. Absorbed in distal ileum vi. In enterocyte, released from IF c. Functions: i. Coenzyme for activation of folate (methyl receptor) for AA, DNA, RNA synthesis ii. Coenzyme for conversion of homocysteine to methionine (methyl donor) for DNA synthesis d. Deficiency: Macrocytic Anemia (pernicious anemia-specific to B12) i. Strict vegan diet ii. Lack of IF iii. Achlorhydria (H2-blockers & proton pump inhibitors) iv. Decreased/injured surface of the small intestine v. Preventing/addressing deficiency • Intake of fortified food sources • Monthly intramuscular (IM) injections • Nasal supplements 9. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid/ascorbate) a. Found in citrus, strawberries, broccoli, peppers, potatoes b. Function: i. Antioxidant ii. Collagen synthesis: structure of skin, joints, muscles iii. Increased absorption of non-heme iron: helps absorb iron from plant (non-animal) sources (ex. Legumes, nuts, whole grain, green leafy vegetables); paired w/ citrus can help increase iron absorption c. Toxicity: osmotic diarrhea; UL 2 g/day d. Deficiency: scurvy e. RDA: men=90 mg/day; women=75 mg/day i. Increased w/smoking= +35 mg/day ii. Max daily absorption: 500 mg iii. Colds: no proven benefit in prevention or treatment Fat-Soluble Vitamins 1. Vitamin A a. Food: i. Retinoids: primary foods of animal origin (ex. Egg yolk, butter) ii. Carotenoids: red, orange, yellow, & green produce b. Functions: i. Vision: healthy eye cells (lens, cornea, etc.); helps you see in the dark ii. Skin health: healthy skin cells, hair cells, muscle cells iii. Immune system iv. Antioxidant v. Reproductive health c. Dietary forms i. Retinoids (retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, retinyl ester): preformed active vitamin A; found in animal products ii. Carotenoids: provitamin A (converted to retinol); not active • Color pigment found in fruits & vegetables (yellow, orange, red, green) • Beta-cartotene: most abundant & greatest activity (ex. Spinach, carrot, kale) • Alpha-carotene beta-cryptoxanthin • Non-provitamin A (can’t be d. Toxicity: problem w/ active vitamin A (high intake), not beta-carotene i. Carotene: yellowing of skin (ex. Eat a lot of carrots start to look orange/yellow; not harmful) ii. Active vitamin A: birth defects (teratogenic) 2. Vitamin D (calciferol-family of Vitamin D compounds) a. Sources: sun (body can produce through sun exposure), fortified foods, fatty fish, mushrooms (mainly animal products) b. Forms i. Ergocalciferol, vitamin D2: plants ii. Cholecalciferol, vitamin D3: skin of animals iii. Calcidiol, 25-OH D3: liver iv. Calcitriol, 1,25-(OH)2 D3: active form, kidneys c. Function i. Bone growth: active vitamin D helps body absorb calcium; regulates blood calcium concentration • Enhances calcium absorption from SI (small intestine) • Increases calcium resorption by kidneys • Stimulates calcium release from bone ii. Down-regulation of body processes • Immune system: autoimmune disorders • Lower blood pressure, stimulates insulin secretion • Cancer prevention d. Toxicity- liver problems e. Synthesis i. Eat vitamin D ii. Transports to liver-converted to calcidiol iii. Goes to the kidneys-converted to calcitriol iv. In Skin • UV hits skin-active comound (cholesterol present); synthesizes vitamin D3 • Goes to liver • Goes to kidneys f. RDA i. Adult (18-50 YO)= 600 IU ii. Older adult (>50)= 800 IU iii. Adult UL= 4000 UL, appears safe up to 10,000 IU 3. Vitamin E a. Most biologically active form: alpha-tocopherol b. Food sources: plant, nut, seed based oil (olive, canola, peanut, etc), foods from plant oils, bran & wheat germ, leafy green vegetables, seeds c. Function i. Antioxidant-maintain cell membrane ii. Reduce cholesterol metabolism iii. Suppress tumor growth & cell proliferation iv. Anticoagulant (reduce platelet aggregation) prevents blood clotting d. Toxicity: excess bleeding 4. Vitamin K a. Sources; leafy green vegetables (darker= more nutrients); can be synthesized by bacteria in GI tract b. Forms i. Vitamin K1 Phyllquinones: synthesis by green plants ii. Vitamin K2 Menaquinones: synthesized by bacteria iii. Vitamin K3 Menadiones: synthetic form (supplements) c. Function i. Blood coagulation (blood clotting) • In liver, helps produce 4 Vitamin K-dependent clotting factors ii. Bone formation: synthesis of bone proteins; minor role d. Deficiency i. Bleeding= hemophilia ii. Toxicity= excess clotting Minerals 1. Calcium a. Food sources: dairy products (best source), sardines, fortified forms i. 300 mg (30% of daily value)= 1 cup (8 fl oz), 1 ½ oz of cheese, cup of yogurt ii. green, leafy vegetables have calcium, but are bound by oxalate so you’ll have to eat more to get 300 mg of calcium • ex. 2 ¼ cups of broccoli, 8 cups of cooked spinach b. Functions i. Bone mineralization: 99% calcium stored in bone & teeth • Child & adolescence: increase in bone density • Early adulthood (age 30): peak bone mass • 50 & older: bone mineral density decline ii. Blood clotting, blood vessel dilation & contraction iii. Nerve & muscle contraction c. Deficiency i. At risk: vegetarians, post-menopausal women ii. Bone complications: rickets (kids) & osteoporosis iii. Muscle tetany d. Toxicity i. Calcification of soft tissues ii. constipation e. RDA: best absorbed in doses of <(or equal to) 500 mg at a time i. Children/teenagers: 1300 mg ii. Adult 19-50: 1000 mg iii. Adult 50 & older: 1200 mg f. Common supplement forms i. Calcium carbonate: most bioavailable (absorb 40%); requires good stomach acid, take w/acidic food ii. Calcium citrate: bioavailability-21%; used w/low stomach acid, take with/without food iii. Calcium lactate & gluconate: both have low bioavailability & good absorption g. Binders of calcium (chelators) i. Green leafy vegetables contain oxalates ii. Legumes & grains contain phytates 2. Phosphorus a. Food: whole grains, dairy, legumes, meat, nuts, seeds, chocolate, colas b. Function i. Bone mineralization: forms complexes with calcium ii. Nucleotide/nucleoside phosphates: DNA/RNA & energy storage/transfers (ATP & creatine phosphate) 3. Magnesium a. Food: coffee, tea, chocolate, nuts, legumes, green leafy vegetables, whole grains b. Function i. Component of bone tissue ii. Muscle & nerve function 4. Sodium a. Sources: primarily from added salt (NaCl); bread, cold cuts & deli meats, pizza, poultry, soup, sandwiches b. Function i. Fluid balance: primary extracellular cation c. Deficiency i. Hyponatremia- dangerously low level of sodium in the blood • can result from water intoxication or lack of sodium during heavy exercise • can also result from excess loss through the kidneys such as with the use of diuretics d. Toxicity i. High blood pressure (hypertension) ii. hypernatremia- excess amounts of sodium in the blood • most commonly due to not replacing water that was lost due to vomiting or diarrhea e. Intake i. Adequate intake (AI): 1500 mg/day (3/4 teaspoon or 3.75 grams of salt) ii. UL= 2300 mg/day (1 teaspoon or 6 grams of salt) 5. Potassium a. Sources: fruits & vegetables, dairy, legumes, nuts/seeds b. Function: major intracellular cation i. Contraction of smooth, skeletal, & cardiac muscle ii. Nerve tissue excitability iii. Maintenance of electrolyte & pH balance c. Deficiency i. Hypokalemia • May occur during bouts of vomiting or diarrhea; observed in individuals who suffer from anorexia or bulimia • Can cause weak muscles, cramps, glucose intolerance, irregular heartbeat, and paralysis d. Intake i. 4700mg/day (AI) 6. Iron a. Sources: heme iron (animals) & non-heme (plants) b. Bioavailability +2 i. Heme iron (ferr+3s form Fe ) more bioavailable than non-heme iron (ferric form Fe ) ii. MFP factors in meat, fish, poultry & vitamin C enhance non-heme iron absorption iii. Inhibitors of iron absorption: phytates, oxalates, vegetable proteins (soy), calcium, & tannic acid (tea & red wine) c. Function i. Oxygen transport d. Location: red blood cells (hemoglobin) & myoglobin (muscle) e. RDA i. 8 mg/day men ii. 18 mg/day women; 27 mg/day when pregnant f. Deficiency: Microcytic anemia (RBC that are too small) i. Who? Kids, pregnant women, vegetarians ii. Causes: inadequate intake or absorption, blood losses iii. Symptoms: fatigue, loss of appetite, paleness; nails: brittle, form ridges iv. Pica: craving for non-food substances (ex. Dirt, metal, chalk) 7. Iodine a. Sources: fortified salt, seafood, food grow in iodin rich soil b. Function i. Component of thyroid hormones ii. Thyroxine (T4) & thriiodothyronine (T3) c. Deficiency i. Goiter (goitrogens: foods that inhibit iodine) ii. Cretinism: mental/physical retardation in infants iii. Iodized salt 8. Zinc a. Food: red meat, whole grains, shellfish b. Function i. Zinc-dependent enzymes (many) ii. Tissue & cell growth (wound healing) iii. Association w/ taste iv. Cell-mediated immunity & humoral immunity c. UL= 40 mg/day ; consumption above the UL can lead to copper deficiency 9. Fluoride a. Sources: fluoridated water & tea b. Functions: mineralization of teeth & bones c. Deficiency: dental carries d. Toxicity: fluorosis-brittle teeth & bones; sign-dark brown spots on teeth Water • Body weight o Birth: 75-85% o Lean adult: 60-70% o Obese adult: 45-55% • Metabolically active cells (muscle & organs) have highest concentration • Any liquid at room temp (except alcohol) counts as a person’s water intake • Function o Digestion, absorption, metabolism, excretion o Structure of molecules & cells o Circulatory systems: maintain blood volume o Transport medium for nutrients & substances o Lubricant & cushioning o Body temp regulation • Water balance o Water intake (food & fluid)= water output (excretion) o Water intoxication: intake > output (ex. Sweating, talking, feces, etc.) o Lose about 1.5 L of fluid through urination & about 1 L through other excretion § Need about 8 cups of fluid per day o Kidneys regulate a lot of fluid balance o Loss of 10% body water can cause impairment o Loss of 20% body water can lead to death o Thirst= already dehydrated (loss of about 1-2%) o Healthy adults can last 5-10 days w/water § Kids can last 5 days • Recommended intake o 1 mL of water(fluid) for every calorie they eat o minimum: 1500 mL= 6 cups of water per day o 1 cup (8 fl oz)= 240 mL of fluid (ex. 2400 calories diet would need 10 cups of fluid) o more fresh fruit & vegetables= the more fluid o needs depend on: body size, body composition, physical activity, age, health Function Vitamins/Mineral Antioxidants Vitamin A, C, E Bone Mineralization/Health Vitamin D, A, K, C; calcium, phosphorus Bound by Phytates & Oxalates Iron Electrolytes Potassium Energy metabolism (part of co-enzyme Thiamin (vitamin B1), Riboflavin (vitamin B2), complex to metabolize macrtonutrients) Niacin (vitamin B3), Folate, vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin B12 (cobalamin), biotin, panthothenic acid Higher risk of deficiency in vegetarian (vegan) Vitamin B12 (cobalamin), iron diets May be produced by the body (in small Niacin (Vitamin B3), Vitamin K amounts) Nerve conduction & muscle contraction Potassium, magnesium, calcium Red blood cell formation Iron, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, folate Requires good stomach acid for Vitamin B12, iron, calcium digestion/absorption Skin Health Vitamin A, C
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