Study Guide Review For Test # 1
Study Guide Review For Test # 1 BSC-1010C
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexandria Benavides on Friday February 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BSC-1010C at a university taught by Dr. Mason in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 327 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
1 a Explain the structure of an atom Be sure to name the particles their locations and charges The structure of an atom contains three subatomic particles that are protons neutrons and electrons The protons and neutrons are confined to a very small volume at the center of an atom the atomic nucleus whereas the electrons are found in the region is at various distances from the nucleus Protons have one unit of positive charges electrons have one unit of negative charge and neutrons are electrically neutral b Given the atomic number and mass of a certain atom draw and label a simple diagram of that atom c Why do most atoms form chemical bonds How many covalent bonds would the atom in your diagram above form Most atoms form chemical bonds to remain most stable The atom that I drew would have only one covalent bond formed 1 a Explain the structural levels of a protein Be sure to include what determines each structural level types of chemical bonds andor chemical interactions The structural levels of a protein contain 4 levels Primary secondary tertiary and quaternary The primary structure is determined by genes since it carries information for the production of polypeptide with specific amino acids like NH3 and COO to create a straight chain The secondary structure is determined by the amino acid sequence that form hydrogen bonds that causes the region to fold into a spiral olt helix or sheet B pleated sheet The tertiary structure is the coiled and zigzag folded chain folds up into a precise 3 dimensional structure which is held by chemical interactions among R groups such as ionic hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions hydrogen bonds and disulfide bridges 8 8 The quaternary structure is two or more tertiary proteins that are held together by chemical interactions and function as a unit b Provide an example of a quaternary level protein and explain why it is quaternary An example of quaternary level protein is the oxygen binding protein called hemogoblin that transports oxygen in a red blood cell and its quaternary because it consists of 4 tertiary level polypeptides c Explain what happens when the temperature increases or pH is changed be sure to use and define the appropriate vocabulary word When temperature increases or pH is changed Hydroxide ions that exist as single protons breaks increases and molecules of water escape and decrease the pH level 3 Explain six functions of proteins include examples where applicable 0 Meter protein initiates movement Ex Miysoin provides the contactile force of muscles 0 Defense proteins protect organisms against diseases Ex The Antibodies help destroy bacteria or virus 0 Metabolic enzymes increase rates of chemical reaction Ex Hexokinase is an enzyme involved in sugar metabolism 0 Cell signing proteins enable cells to communicate with each other and with the environment Ex taste receptors in the tongue allows animals to taste molecules in food 0 Structural Proteins support and strengthens structures Ex Actin provides shape to the cytoplasm of plant and animal cells 0 Transporters promote movement of solutes across plasma membranes Ex Glucose transporters move glucose from outside cells to inside cells where its used for energy 4 Explain information flow through the cell the central dogma of cell biology DNA that carries the gene instruction goes to the RNA that acts as a messenger to the protein to carry out the func on 5 a List the 3 tenets of the cell theory b Explain the difference between a scientific hypothesis and a scientific theory textbook p 66 and Ch4 ppt slide 3 0 All living things are composed of one or more cells 0 Cells are the smallest units of life 0 New cells come only from pre existing cells y cell division Scientific hypothesis is an educated guess that can only be proven wrong whereas scientific theory is a well substantiated explanation for a set of verified proven hypotheses 6 Describe the structure and functions of the various organelles that comprise the endomembrane system of a cell The endomembrane svstem Nuclear Envelone Keeos chromatin DNA inside double membrane w pore Rouqh endonlasmic reticulum Makes proteins that end up in vesicles Smooth Endonlasmic Reticulum Make lipids amp certain carbs Goldi Apparatus Sorts processes packages molecules made in ER Vesicles a Lysosome Digestive enzymes 3900 b eroxisome Detox Enzymes Vacoule Funct Plasma Membrane 7 Explain how a cell makes and secretes a protein to the environment by drawing a flow chart from beginning to end that includes cellular locations and organelles with brief descriptions How Proteins are made 1 Nucleus genes codes for proteins 2 MRNA messenger made from gene Rough ER MRNA is read by ribosomes attached to ER protiens made Golgi Apparatus protein in gets motified pkg into vesicles Vesicle Plasma membrane Excocytosis vesicle fuses w pm Protein outside N97951 8 a Draw a diagram of the plasma membrane and label the following phospholipid hydrophilic head hydrophobic tail phosphate group fatty acids integral protein peripheral protein cholesterol carbohydrate b Title your diagramin other words what is this general design called Fluid Mosaic Model c List 3 features of lipid composition that affect the fluidity of the plasma membrane Explain how they change when environmental temperature changes 0 Length of fatty acid tails where longer tails is less fluid and shorter tails are less likely to interact which makes the membrane more fluid 0 Double bonds create a kink in the fatty acid tail that makes it more difficult for neighboring tails to interact and making the bilayer more fluid 0 cholesterol stabilize movement and its effect vary depending on temperature d List 3 functions of proteins in the plasma membrane and one function of carbohydrates in the plasma membrane 0 Receptors 0 transport 0 Anchor Support Carbohydrates 0 Protection 9 Why does 8801 01 DC or any introductory level biology class for majorsmedical fields cover only molecularcellular processes 8801 0100 cover only molecularcellular processes because overall cells are life Everything is made of cells from the drugs that affect protein and protein are in the building blocks of cells Everything from finding new treatments for illness or researching on how to build more muscle mass for athletes comes down to a single cell
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