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UCONN - PNB 3260 - Class Notes - Week 7

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UCONN - PNB 3260 - Class Notes - Week 7

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background image PNB 3260 Exam 2 material  Anna Ciara Mason   Lec 10: Adult stem cells and adult stem cell niches  Adult stem cell niche    adult stem cells are quiescent (periods stopped in one spot in cell cycle/division)  increased division can increase mutation potential  divide infrequently to generate one stem cell copy and a rapidly cycling cell    Microenvironment is both proliferation-limiting and differentiation-limiting  type of cells made, extent of differentiation etc.    Niche is unique for each organ and tissue type  there are many overlapping systems    Required for day to day physiological replacement and injury related replacement in an organ    Rapidly cycling cells (transit-amplifying cells) undergo a limited number of cell divisions before  terminally differentiating to functional cells of tissue    symmetric division- cancer treatments may lower amount of stem cells. quiescent stem cell that  wasn't targeted in the chemotherapy can start dividing    stem cell can generate 2 transindental cells - lose cell line  stem cell might only be able to undergo a certain amount of divisions    Stem cell niches    A) A germination of the ovary   organization is important in the ovary and testes    stem cells attach to somatic cells to anchor themselves    B) the apex of the testes  only stem cells that are attached to hub will remain as stem cells - limits number of stem  cells possible    C) The subventricular zone (SVZ) of the brain  2 stem cell niches in the brain    subventricular zone - rodents    humans - pretty much limited at 2 years old    epithelial cells that line the ventricle - stem cells attach here and also help to  circulate cerebral spinal fluid    stem cells generate these epithelial cells    D) Hair follicle as a niche  Regeneration of hair follicles in skin ~1 - 1.5 months    E) The crypt of an intestinal villus  Protected region where stem cells are located because so much is coming through    F) The bone marrow 
background image Hemaptopoetic also attached to stromal cells in bone marrow  can go on to make multipotent  can make lymphoid or myloid lineages  Asymmetric vs Symmetric cell division    only a certain number of stem cells can go around a hub- way of restricting the stem cells    committed cell is trans and amplifying cell  Adherens junctions    help maintain stem cells in niche via somatic cell contact  Adult stem cells     divide relatively infrequectly depending on organ system    generate one stem cell copy and rapidly cycling cell (transit-amplifying cell)    transit-amplifying cell: limited number    **  Intestine    Lining made up of villi to increase the surface area    Complete cell turn over: 2-3 days    Each villi has a crypt area and each contribute to the cells that line the villa    Intestinal stem cells (ISCs)  secrete antimicrobials  red are molecular signals from crypt  2 kinds of stem cells    +4 markers    label retention    cell takes up marker in division    if cell is quicent - keeps marker     if division continues then marker will be diluted    CBC markers    not label retaining - means they are more actively proliferating  localized in intestinal crypt  regenerate entire villus every 3-5 days  Generate paneth, enteroendocrine  cells at top of villus are constantly shedding  Stomach    lining of stomach is highly regenerative     pyloric region is most studied    stem cells are found throughout but we're talking about pyloric 

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School: University of Connecticut
Department: Physiology
Course: Stem Cell Biology
Professor: Conover
Term: Spring 2016
Tags:
Name: stem cell exam 2 lec 1 notes
Description: lec 10 notes
Uploaded: 02/27/2016
5 Pages 22 Views 17 Unlocks
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