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Bo Exam II Study Guide

by: Emmanuel Notetaker

Bo Exam II Study Guide BIOL1082

Marketplace > University of Cincinnati > Biology > BIOL1082 > Bo Exam II Study Guide
Emmanuel Notetaker

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About this Document

These notes cover everything from Chap 35,36,38,40,42,43,and 47.
Biology II: Evolution, Physiology, and Ecology
Dr. Beyette
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emmanuel Notetaker on Friday February 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL1082 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Beyette in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 289 views. For similar materials see Biology II: Evolution, Physiology, and Ecology in Biology at University of Cincinnati.


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Date Created: 02/26/16
Biology Exam II Study Guide What is the petiole? Answer: The part that joins the leaf to the stem of the node. What are the 3 tissue systems of a plant? Answer: Dermal, vascular and ground tissue. What is dermal tissue and the functions? Ans: The plants outer protective covering. Forms the first line of defense against physical damage and pathogens. What is the epidermis? What is the function of the epidermis? Ans: The epidermis are tightly packed cells.  In roots, Water and minerals through the epidermis.  In shoots, specialized epidermis cells are involved in gaseous exchange. What is the cuticle? The waxy epidermal coating that help prevent water loss. What is the periderm? Ans:The covering of woody plants. What is the vascular tissue system? The vascular tissue system that facilitate the transport of materials through the plant and to  provide mechanical support. What are 2 types of vascular tissue? What are they called collectively? The xylem and pholem. Collectively they are called the stele. What is the purpose of the xylem? Conducts water and dissolved minerals upward from roots in the shoot. What is the purpose of the pholem? It transport sugars from where the are made (the source, usually leaves), to where they are  needed (the sink) What are ground tissue? and their function? Tissue that is neither dermal tissue or vascular tissue. function: photosynthesis and storage food, short distance transport What are 2 types of ground tissue? The pith: ground tissue that is internal in the xylem?  Which of these is NOT one of the four major categories of tissue? Answer: blood What type of epithelium would you expect to find covering a surface subject to physical forces? Answer: stratified epithelium What type of epithelial tissue, found in the intestines, absorbs nutrients? Answer: simple columnar epithelium Which of these tissues, found in the lungs, permits gas exchange by diffusion? Answer: simple squamous epithelium What type of epithelial tissue lines kidney tubules? Answer: simple cuboidal cells How does connective tissue differ from the other three major tissue types?Answer: Connective  tissue often consists of relatively few cells embedded in an extracellular matrix. Which of these describes loose connective tissue? Answer: It is a loose weave of fibers that functions as a packing material. Cartilage is found _____. Answer: at the ends of bones such as the femur _____ is the connective tissue specialized for transport. Answer: Blood A neuron consists of _____. Answer: dendrites, a cell body, and axons Nervous tissue functions _____. Answer: to sense stimuli What type of muscle is responsible for contractions of the digestive tract and arteries? Answer: smooth muscle Cardiac muscle is the only muscle composed of _____ fibers. Answer: branched _____ Muscle is attached to bones. Answer: Skeletal Which of these is an example of negative feedback? Answer: After you eat, insulin stimulates the lowering of blood sugar levels. Carbon dioxide enters the blood at the _____. Answer:capillaries of the head, forelimbs, abdominal organs, and hind limbs The _____ has(have) the thinnest walls. Answer:capillaries  ( The thin walls of the capillaries facilitate gas exchange.) Blood pressure is highest in the _____. Answer: aorta Most carbon dioxide is carried from the body tissues to the lungs _____. Answer:as bicarbonate ions (HCO3­) By picking up hydrogen ions, hemoglobin prevents the blood from becoming too _____. Answer:acidic In the blood most of the oxygen that will be used in cellular respiration is carried from the lungs  to the body tissues _____. Answer:combined with hemoglobinHow does maintenance of stable conditions internal  environments affect the body? Ans:Keep physiology within a ""normal"" range & Temperature What are the two feedback systems? Positive and Negative Negative Feedback Ans:Returns a variable to its set point (stablizing) Positive Feedback Ans:Amplifies response (destablizing) What are the two basic cell types of Nervous Tissue? Neurons(produce and transmit impulses) and Glial Cells(support and nourish neurons,  gets rid of pathogens) Dendrites (Nervous Tissue) Receive signals and transmit them to the cell body Axon (Nervous Tissue) Ans;Transmits signal to other neurons, a muscle, or a gland How can cooling the hypothalamus cause body temperature to rise? Ans:Constricting blood vessels to the skin ( Increasing metabolic rate ) How can warming the hypothalamus lower body temperature? Ans:Dilating blood vessels to the skin (sweating or panting) Respiratory surface Answer:the thin, moist part of an animal where oxygen from the environment diffuses into living cells and carbon dioxide diffuses out to the surrounding environment, must be in contact with an  environmental source of oxygen and must be large enough to take in oxygen for every cell in the  body. oxygen and carbon dioxide must be in a solution to diffuse trachea Ans: tube with cartilaginous rings that conveys inhaled air from the larynx to the bronchi bronchi ans:two short branches located at the lower end of the trachea that carry air into the lungs. bronchioles ans:progressively smaller tubular branches of the airways alveoli Answer: tiny sacs of lung tissue specialized for the movement of gases between air and blood Where do antigens originate from, their composition and their function in adaptive ammunition? Ans: Antigens are any substance that elicts a B or T cell response. They are usually foreign and are typically large molecules wither proteins or polysaccharides.  Many putrude from the surface of foreign cells or viruses. Other antigens are secreted by bacteria and released into the extracellular fluid. One major advantage of using Arabidopsis thaliana as a model system for studies of plant form  and function is it's  a. fast generation time b. exceptionally large genome c. large seeds d. high tolerance to stress e. high mutation rate Studies using arabidopsis thaliana have led to important advances in all of the following  except  a. gene mapping b. impact of point mutations on gene function c. gene expression during plant  d. evolutionary history of plants e. how genes potentially interact with other genes number of genes in a species' genome is not necessarily a good indicator of biological  complexity because  A) most genes are never turned on.  B) many genes are repeats.  C) this does not take into account the alternative splicing of pre­mRNA.  D) this does not take into account mRNA­mRNA interactions.  E) this does not take into account protein­mRNA interactions. In the early development of an amphibian embryo, Spemann's "organizer" is located in the A.)archenteron roof. B.)dorsal ectoderm. C.)dorsal lip of the blastopore. D.)notochord. E.)neural tube. The archenteron develops into the A.)blastocoel. B.)mesoderm. C.)endoderm. D.)lumen of the digestive tract. E.)placenta. D.)lumen of the digestive tract. In an amphibian embryo, a band of cells called the neural crest A.)induces the formation of the notochord. B.)rolls up and forms the neural tube. C.)has been shown by experiments to be the organizer region of the developing embryo. D.)produces cells that migrate to form teeth, skull bones, and other structures in the embryo. E.)develops into the main sections of the brain. D.)produces cells that migrate to form teeth, skull bones, and other structures in the embryo. If you watch a frog develop from fertilization, you will see a single cell divide to eventually  produce a ball of cells that changes shape and forms gills, a heart, and a twitching tail. This idea  that a tiny sphere can rearrange itself into the complex organization of a tadpole is a clear  example of the process known as _____.  A.)cellular differentiation B.)preformation C.)cleavage D.)the acrosomal reaction E.)epigenesis


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