Male Reproductive System
Male Reproductive System BIOL 2510 - 001
Popular in Human Anatomy & Physiology II
Popular in Anatomy
This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brooke Polinsky on Sunday April 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 2510 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Shobnom Ferdous in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology II in Anatomy at Auburn University.
Reviews for Male Reproductive System
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 04/10/16
Male Reproductive System Study Guide: • The reproductive system is the only system that....? ◦ is not essential to life of the human ◦ lies dormant until puberty ◦ has different organs/structures for males and females • What is the reproductive system's main function ◦ to produce offspring • What are the primary reproductive organs for males and females? ◦ Males=testes ◦ Females=ovaries • What are the primary reproductive organs responsible for? ◦ producing egg and sperm (gametes) ◦ producing hormones that are involved in the maturation of the reproductive system ◦ development of sexual characteristics ◦ regulating normal physiology of reproductive system • What are the secondary (accessory) reproductive organ? ◦ Reproductive tract= ducts and organs that receive,store,and transport gametes ◦ Accessory glands= secrete ﬂuid that support the transmission of gametes from the male to the female ◦ External Genitalia= external organs that enable transmission of male gametes form the male to the female reproductive tract • Where do the testes lie? ◦ within scrotum ◦ keeps sperm 3 degrees C below core body temp • What are the two types of muscle in the testes? ◦ cremaster muscle= elevates or suspends testes to control temp ◦ dartos muscle= wrinkles the scrotal skin when cold • What is the diploid chromosomal number (2N)? ◦ chromosome number in most body cells ◦ 46 in humans (23 pairs of chromosomes) • What is the haploid chromosome number? ◦ number of chromosomes in gametes ◦ 23 in humans • What does mitosis do? ◦ most body cells divide;replicated chromosomes distributed equally to two daughter cells • What does meiosis do? ◦ nuclear division that forms gametes ◦ occurs in gonads • What are the seminiferous tubules? ◦ site of spermatogenesis which is the production of spermatozoa (sperm cells) • What are the three types of cells in semiferous tubules? ◦ Spermatogenic cells= cells in epithelial walls of semiferous tubules that give rise to sperm ‣ includes spermatogonia,spermatocytes,spermatids ◦ Sertoli cells= sustentocytes ‣ form blood-testis barrier- prevents cells of the immune system from attacking genetically unique sperm cells ‣ provide nutrients and signaling molecules to spermatogonia ‣ move spermatogenic cells along lumen ‣ phagocytize defective cells and excess cytoplasm of spermatids ‣ secrete inhibin and androgen binding protein (regulate spermatogenesis) ◦ Leydig Cells (interstitial endocrine cells)- produce testosterone • What is the process of spermatogenesis through mitosis and meiosis? ◦ stem cells divide through mitosis and become primary spermatocytes-->meiosis 1 forming secondary spermatocytes-->meiosis 2 forming spermatids-->spermatozoa • What are myoidcells in the testes? ◦ contract rhythmically to move sperm out of testes • What are rete testis in the testes? ◦ network of tubules,conveys sperm from ST to epididymis • How does sperm travel through the male reproductive system? ◦ 1.seminiferous tubules- sperm is produced ◦ 2.rate testis- receives sperm from seminiferous tubules ◦ 3.efferent ductules- receive sperm from rete testis ◦ 4.Epididymis- receives sperm from efferent ductules;matures and stores sperm ◦ 5.Vas (ductus) deferens- in spermatic cord;paired tubes that deliver sperm to ejaculatory duct ◦ 6.Ejaculatory Duct- connects vas deferens to urethra within prostate gland ◦ 7.Urethra:3 regions;prostatic,membranous,and spongy urethra • What is a penis? ◦ copulatory organ for delivering sperm to female reproductive system • What makes up male external genitalia? ◦ penis and scrotum • What are the three parts of the penis? ◦ root= point of attachment to body ◦ shaft= body of penis that contains most of the erectile tissue ◦ glans penis= enlarged tip of penis • What are the two structures associated with the shaft? ◦ Corpus Spongiosum= midventral erectile tissue surrounding spongy urethra ◦ Corpora Cavernosa- paired dorsal erectile tissue (most abundant tissue of penis) ◦ dense CT,smooth muscle,vascular spaces • What is the structure associated with the glans penis? ◦ prepuce= foreskin that encloses the glans ◦ cut off during circumcision • What do the accessory glands do in the male reproductive system? ◦ produce semen- mile white mixture of sperm and testicular ﬂuid and accessory gland secretions • What are the three accessory glands? ◦ Seminal vesicles (2)- secrete alkaline ﬂuid with fructose,citric acid,coagulating enzyme,all enhance sperm motility,fertilizing ability,70 % of semen ◦ Prostate gland (1)- slightly acidic ﬂuid activates sperm,contains citrate nutrient,enzymes,prostate speciﬁc antigen;20-30% of semen ◦ Bulbourethral gland (2)- secrete clear,thick music for lubrication and to neutralize urine • What is the composition and purpose of semen? ◦ relaxin- hormone that enhances sperm motility ◦ ATP- provides energy for sperm ◦ Prostaglandins- decrease viscosity of mucus at the cervix and stimulates sperm movement through female reproductive tract ◦ suppression of immune response in female reproductive tract ◦ antibiotics- destroy some bacteria ◦ clotting factors- cause coagulation to vagina wall • What is an erection? ◦ enlargement,stiffening of penis • What kind of reﬂex is an erection? ◦ parasympathetic reﬂex: ‣ nitric oxide related locally- vasodilation of arterioles supplying erectile tissue and blood ﬁlls vascular spaces ‣ expansion of corpora cavernous compresses drainage veins (to maintain erection) ‣ corpus Spongiosum keeps urethra open during ejaculation • What is ejaculation? ◦ propulsion of semen from male duct system • What kind of control is ejaculation under? ◦ sympathetic: ‣ bladder sphincter constricts (keeps urine and semen separate) ‣ repro ducts and accessory glands contract- empties content into urethra ‣ spinal reﬂex triggers muscle contraction and semen is related from urethra • What is the refractory period during ejaculation? ◦ time after ejaculation before another erection can be achieved (minutes to hours;depend on age/ circulating testosterone) • What axis is used for hormone regulation of the male reproductive system? ◦ Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis • What are the three steps of hormonal regulation? ◦ 1.Gonadotropin-releasing hormone from hypothalamus causes release of: ◦ 2.Luteinizing Hormone and follicle stimulating hormone from anterior pituitary ◦ 3.Testosterone from Leydog cells • What does LH and FSH cause? ◦ LH- Leydig cells secrete testosterone for spermatogenesis ◦ FSH- Sertoli cells to secrete inhibin andABP ‣ Inhibin:when high sperm count • high inhibin secretion-->inhibits FSH and GnRH secretion ‣ ABP-keeps theT high in semen tubules for spermatogenesis • Testosterone is necessary for what? ◦ fetal development of male external genitalia ◦ stimulates development of male secondary sexual characteristics at puberty including: ‣ pubic,facial,axillary,and chest hair ‣ deepening of voice ‣ skin thickness and becomes oily ‣ bones grow and increase in density ‣ skeletal muscles increase in size and mass ◦ is the basis of libido in male and female • What kind of hormonal regulation is in the male repro system? ◦ Negative feedback • What is cryptorchidism? ◦ testes that don't descend fully during development,a cause of infertility and testicular cancer • What is prostate cancer? ◦ 2nd most common cause of death in men ◦ Risk factors:fatty diet,genetics,retrovirus ◦ Detection:palpation,ultrasound,blood levels of PSA ◦ Treatment:monitoring,surgery,castration,androgen,receptor blockers,drugs to inhibit GnRH release • What comprises the male duct system? ◦ Epididymis,ductus deferent,ejaculatory duct,urethra ◦ carry sperm from testes to body's exterior • What are the three parts of the epididymis? ◦ Head- contains efferent ductules and is located in superior aspect of testis ◦ Body andTail- located on posterolateral area of testis ◦ Duct of the epididymis- 6m in length;microvilli absorb testicular ﬂuid and pass nutrients to stored sperm • What does the epididymis do? ◦ where nonmotile sperm enters and pass slowly through and become motile ◦ can be stored here several months • What does the epididymis do during ejaculation? ◦ contracts,expelling sperm into ductus deferens • What is the ductus deferens? ◦ passes thought the inguinal canal to the pelvic cavity ◦ expands to form ampulla ◦ joint the duct of seminal vesicle to form ejaculatory duct • What propels sperm from epididymis to urethra? ◦ smooth muscle in walls • What is a vasectomy? ◦ cutting nd ligating ductus deferens ◦ nearly 100% effective of birth control • What does the urethra convey at different times? ◦ urine and semen • Where are the three regions of the urethra located? ◦ prostatic urethra- surrounded by prostate ◦ intermediate part of urethra- in urogenital diaphragm ◦ spongy urethra- runs through one's and opens at external urethral oriﬁce • How long does spermatogenesis take? ◦ 64-72 days if conditions are hospitable • Where do sperm get the ability to swim? ◦ testicular ﬂuid pushes immotile sperm into epididymis,where they gain motility and fertilizing power • Where are the seminal glands? ◦ posterior badder surface • What do the seminal glands contain? ◦ smooth muscle that contracts during ejaculation • What do the seminal glands produce? ◦ viscous alkaline seminal ﬂuid ‣ fructose,citric acid.,coagulating enzyme (vesiculate) and prostaglandins ‣ yellow pigment ﬂorueces with UV light ‣ compromises 70% of semen • What does the seminal gland join to form ejaculatory duct? ◦ ductus deferen • Where is the prostate located and how big is it? ◦ encircles the urethra and is inferior to the bladder ◦ size of a peach pit • What does the prostate consist of? ◦ smooth muscle that contracts during ejcualtion • What does the prostate do? ◦ secretes milky,slight acidic ﬂuid ‣ contains citrate,enzymes and prostate speciﬁc antigens ‣ plays a role in sperm activation ‣ enters prostatic urethra during ejucualtion ‣ makes up one third of semen volume • Where are the Bulbo-urethral glands located? ◦ pea sized glands inferior to the prostate • What do the bulbs-urethral glands produce? ◦ thick,clear mucus during sexual arousal ◦ lubricates glans penis ◦ ****nuetralizes traces of acidic urine in urethra • What is semen? ◦ milky-white mixture of sperm and accessory gland secretions ‣ 2-5ml of semen are ejculated containing 20-150 million sperm/ml • What does semen contain? ◦ fructose forATP production,protects and activates sperm,and facilities sperm movement ◦ alkaline ﬂuid neutralizes acidity of male urethra and female vagina and enhances motility • What happens to the arterioles during an erection? ◦ normally constricted ◦ sexual excitement causes CNS activation of parasympathetic neurons,which relies nitric oxide ◦ nitric oxide causes relaxation of local vascular smooth muscle • What happen when smooth muscles relax during an erection? ◦ arterioles dilate • What prevents kinking and bulking of erect penis? ◦ longitudinal and circular collagen ﬁbers around penis • What keeps the urethra opens? ◦ corpus spongiosum • What do bulbospongiosus muscles undergo? ◦ rapid series of contractions that cause expulsion of semen • What is the ejaculatory event called? ◦ climax and orgasm • What is erectile Dysfunction? ◦ parasympathetic nerves of penis to relate too little NO ◦ possible cause:alcohol,drugs,hormones,blood vessel or nervous system problems,incompetent venous valves that fail to retain blood in penis ◦ new drugs (Viagra,Cialis) potentiate existing NO effects • What are male infant testosterone levels before birth? ◦ 2/3 of an adult ◦ soon after birth,levels recede and remain low through childhood until puberty • What does the hypothalamic pituarity gonadal axis do? ◦ production of gametes and sex hormones is regulated by sequence of hormonal events involving the hypothalamus,anterior pituarity gland,and testes ◦ involves hormones:GnRH,FSH,LH,testosterone,and inhibin • What happens without GnRH and gonadotropins? ◦ testes atrophy,sperm and testosterone production
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'