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Male Reproductive System

by: Brooke Polinsky

Male Reproductive System BIOL 2510 - 001

Marketplace > Auburn University > Anatomy > BIOL 2510 - 001 > Male Reproductive System
Brooke Polinsky

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This is a study guide with questions and answers for the male reproductive system.
Human Anatomy & Physiology II
Dr. Shobnom Ferdous
Study Guide
Anatomy 2, Reproductive system
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brooke Polinsky on Sunday April 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 2510 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Shobnom Ferdous in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology II in Anatomy at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 04/10/16
Male Reproductive System Study Guide: • The reproductive system is the only system that....? ◦ is not essential to life of the human ◦ lies dormant until puberty ◦ has different organs/structures for males and females • What is the reproductive system's main function ◦ to produce offspring • What are the primary reproductive organs for males and females? ◦ Males=testes ◦ Females=ovaries • What are the primary reproductive organs responsible for? ◦ producing egg and sperm (gametes) ◦ producing hormones that are involved in the maturation of the reproductive system ◦ development of sexual characteristics ◦ regulating normal physiology of reproductive system • What are the secondary (accessory) reproductive organ? ◦ Reproductive tract= ducts and organs that receive,store,and transport gametes ◦ Accessory glands= secrete fluid that support the transmission of gametes from the male to the female ◦ External Genitalia= external organs that enable transmission of male gametes form the male to the female reproductive tract • Where do the testes lie? ◦ within scrotum ◦ keeps sperm 3 degrees C below core body temp • What are the two types of muscle in the testes? ◦ cremaster muscle= elevates or suspends testes to control temp ◦ dartos muscle= wrinkles the scrotal skin when cold • What is the diploid chromosomal number (2N)? ◦ chromosome number in most body cells ◦ 46 in humans (23 pairs of chromosomes) • What is the haploid chromosome number? ◦ number of chromosomes in gametes ◦ 23 in humans • What does mitosis do? ◦ most body cells divide;replicated chromosomes distributed equally to two daughter cells • What does meiosis do? ◦ nuclear division that forms gametes ◦ occurs in gonads • What are the seminiferous tubules? ◦ site of spermatogenesis which is the production of spermatozoa (sperm cells) • What are the three types of cells in semiferous tubules? ◦ Spermatogenic cells= cells in epithelial walls of semiferous tubules that give rise to sperm ‣ includes spermatogonia,spermatocytes,spermatids ◦ Sertoli cells= sustentocytes ‣ form blood-testis barrier- prevents cells of the immune system from attacking genetically unique sperm cells ‣ provide nutrients and signaling molecules to spermatogonia ‣ move spermatogenic cells along lumen ‣ phagocytize defective cells and excess cytoplasm of spermatids ‣ secrete inhibin and androgen binding protein (regulate spermatogenesis) ◦ Leydig Cells (interstitial endocrine cells)- produce testosterone • What is the process of spermatogenesis through mitosis and meiosis? ◦ stem cells divide through mitosis and become primary spermatocytes-->meiosis 1 forming secondary spermatocytes-->meiosis 2 forming spermatids-->spermatozoa • What are myoidcells in the testes? ◦ contract rhythmically to move sperm out of testes • What are rete testis in the testes? ◦ network of tubules,conveys sperm from ST to epididymis • How does sperm travel through the male reproductive system? ◦ 1.seminiferous tubules- sperm is produced ◦ 2.rate testis- receives sperm from seminiferous tubules ◦ 3.efferent ductules- receive sperm from rete testis ◦ 4.Epididymis- receives sperm from efferent ductules;matures and stores sperm ◦ 5.Vas (ductus) deferens- in spermatic cord;paired tubes that deliver sperm to ejaculatory duct ◦ 6.Ejaculatory Duct- connects vas deferens to urethra within prostate gland ◦ 7.Urethra:3 regions;prostatic,membranous,and spongy urethra • What is a penis? ◦ copulatory organ for delivering sperm to female reproductive system • What makes up male external genitalia? ◦ penis and scrotum • What are the three parts of the penis? ◦ root= point of attachment to body ◦ shaft= body of penis that contains most of the erectile tissue ◦ glans penis= enlarged tip of penis • What are the two structures associated with the shaft? ◦ Corpus Spongiosum= midventral erectile tissue surrounding spongy urethra ◦ Corpora Cavernosa- paired dorsal erectile tissue (most abundant tissue of penis) ◦ dense CT,smooth muscle,vascular spaces • What is the structure associated with the glans penis? ◦ prepuce= foreskin that encloses the glans ◦ cut off during circumcision • What do the accessory glands do in the male reproductive system? ◦ produce semen- mile white mixture of sperm and testicular fluid and accessory gland secretions • What are the three accessory glands? ◦ Seminal vesicles (2)- secrete alkaline fluid with fructose,citric acid,coagulating enzyme,all enhance sperm motility,fertilizing ability,70 % of semen ◦ Prostate gland (1)- slightly acidic fluid activates sperm,contains citrate nutrient,enzymes,prostate specific antigen;20-30% of semen ◦ Bulbourethral gland (2)- secrete clear,thick music for lubrication and to neutralize urine • What is the composition and purpose of semen? ◦ relaxin- hormone that enhances sperm motility ◦ ATP- provides energy for sperm ◦ Prostaglandins- decrease viscosity of mucus at the cervix and stimulates sperm movement through female reproductive tract ◦ suppression of immune response in female reproductive tract ◦ antibiotics- destroy some bacteria ◦ clotting factors- cause coagulation to vagina wall • What is an erection? ◦ enlargement,stiffening of penis • What kind of reflex is an erection? ◦ parasympathetic reflex: ‣ nitric oxide related locally- vasodilation of arterioles supplying erectile tissue and blood fills vascular spaces ‣ expansion of corpora cavernous compresses drainage veins (to maintain erection) ‣ corpus Spongiosum keeps urethra open during ejaculation • What is ejaculation? ◦ propulsion of semen from male duct system • What kind of control is ejaculation under? ◦ sympathetic: ‣ bladder sphincter constricts (keeps urine and semen separate) ‣ repro ducts and accessory glands contract- empties content into urethra ‣ spinal reflex triggers muscle contraction and semen is related from urethra • What is the refractory period during ejaculation? ◦ time after ejaculation before another erection can be achieved (minutes to hours;depend on age/ circulating testosterone) • What axis is used for hormone regulation of the male reproductive system? ◦ Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis • What are the three steps of hormonal regulation? ◦ 1.Gonadotropin-releasing hormone from hypothalamus causes release of: ◦ 2.Luteinizing Hormone and follicle stimulating hormone from anterior pituitary ◦ 3.Testosterone from Leydog cells • What does LH and FSH cause? ◦ LH- Leydig cells secrete testosterone for spermatogenesis ◦ FSH- Sertoli cells to secrete inhibin andABP ‣ Inhibin:when high sperm count • high inhibin secretion-->inhibits FSH and GnRH secretion ‣ ABP-keeps theT high in semen tubules for spermatogenesis • Testosterone is necessary for what? ◦ fetal development of male external genitalia ◦ stimulates development of male secondary sexual characteristics at puberty including: ‣ pubic,facial,axillary,and chest hair ‣ deepening of voice ‣ skin thickness and becomes oily ‣ bones grow and increase in density ‣ skeletal muscles increase in size and mass ◦ is the basis of libido in male and female • What kind of hormonal regulation is in the male repro system? ◦ Negative feedback • What is cryptorchidism? ◦ testes that don't descend fully during development,a cause of infertility and testicular cancer • What is prostate cancer? ◦ 2nd most common cause of death in men ◦ Risk factors:fatty diet,genetics,retrovirus ◦ Detection:palpation,ultrasound,blood levels of PSA ◦ Treatment:monitoring,surgery,castration,androgen,receptor blockers,drugs to inhibit GnRH release • What comprises the male duct system? ◦ Epididymis,ductus deferent,ejaculatory duct,urethra ◦ carry sperm from testes to body's exterior • What are the three parts of the epididymis? ◦ Head- contains efferent ductules and is located in superior aspect of testis ◦ Body andTail- located on posterolateral area of testis ◦ Duct of the epididymis- 6m in length;microvilli absorb testicular fluid and pass nutrients to stored sperm • What does the epididymis do? ◦ where nonmotile sperm enters and pass slowly through and become motile ◦ can be stored here several months • What does the epididymis do during ejaculation? ◦ contracts,expelling sperm into ductus deferens • What is the ductus deferens? ◦ passes thought the inguinal canal to the pelvic cavity ◦ expands to form ampulla ◦ joint the duct of seminal vesicle to form ejaculatory duct • What propels sperm from epididymis to urethra? ◦ smooth muscle in walls • What is a vasectomy? ◦ cutting nd ligating ductus deferens ◦ nearly 100% effective of birth control • What does the urethra convey at different times? ◦ urine and semen • Where are the three regions of the urethra located? ◦ prostatic urethra- surrounded by prostate ◦ intermediate part of urethra- in urogenital diaphragm ◦ spongy urethra- runs through one's and opens at external urethral orifice • How long does spermatogenesis take? ◦ 64-72 days if conditions are hospitable • Where do sperm get the ability to swim? ◦ testicular fluid pushes immotile sperm into epididymis,where they gain motility and fertilizing power • Where are the seminal glands? ◦ posterior badder surface • What do the seminal glands contain? ◦ smooth muscle that contracts during ejaculation • What do the seminal glands produce? ◦ viscous alkaline seminal fluid ‣ fructose,citric acid.,coagulating enzyme (vesiculate) and prostaglandins ‣ yellow pigment florueces with UV light ‣ compromises 70% of semen • What does the seminal gland join to form ejaculatory duct? ◦ ductus deferen • Where is the prostate located and how big is it? ◦ encircles the urethra and is inferior to the bladder ◦ size of a peach pit • What does the prostate consist of? ◦ smooth muscle that contracts during ejcualtion • What does the prostate do? ◦ secretes milky,slight acidic fluid ‣ contains citrate,enzymes and prostate specific antigens ‣ plays a role in sperm activation ‣ enters prostatic urethra during ejucualtion ‣ makes up one third of semen volume • Where are the Bulbo-urethral glands located? ◦ pea sized glands inferior to the prostate • What do the bulbs-urethral glands produce? ◦ thick,clear mucus during sexual arousal ◦ lubricates glans penis ◦ ****nuetralizes traces of acidic urine in urethra • What is semen? ◦ milky-white mixture of sperm and accessory gland secretions ‣ 2-5ml of semen are ejculated containing 20-150 million sperm/ml • What does semen contain? ◦ fructose forATP production,protects and activates sperm,and facilities sperm movement ◦ alkaline fluid neutralizes acidity of male urethra and female vagina and enhances motility • What happens to the arterioles during an erection? ◦ normally constricted ◦ sexual excitement causes CNS activation of parasympathetic neurons,which relies nitric oxide ◦ nitric oxide causes relaxation of local vascular smooth muscle • What happen when smooth muscles relax during an erection? ◦ arterioles dilate • What prevents kinking and bulking of erect penis? ◦ longitudinal and circular collagen fibers around penis • What keeps the urethra opens? ◦ corpus spongiosum • What do bulbospongiosus muscles undergo? ◦ rapid series of contractions that cause expulsion of semen • What is the ejaculatory event called? ◦ climax and orgasm • What is erectile Dysfunction? ◦ parasympathetic nerves of penis to relate too little NO ◦ possible cause:alcohol,drugs,hormones,blood vessel or nervous system problems,incompetent venous valves that fail to retain blood in penis ◦ new drugs (Viagra,Cialis) potentiate existing NO effects • What are male infant testosterone levels before birth? ◦ 2/3 of an adult ◦ soon after birth,levels recede and remain low through childhood until puberty • What does the hypothalamic pituarity gonadal axis do? ◦ production of gametes and sex hormones is regulated by sequence of hormonal events involving the hypothalamus,anterior pituarity gland,and testes ◦ involves hormones:GnRH,FSH,LH,testosterone,and inhibin • What happens without GnRH and gonadotropins? ◦ testes atrophy,sperm and testosterone production


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