Nutrition, Metabolism, and Energy Balance
Nutrition, Metabolism, and Energy Balance BIOL 2510 - 001
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brooke Polinsky on Sunday April 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 2510 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Shobnom Ferdous in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology II in Anatomy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/10/16
Nutrition,Metabolism,and Energy Balance Study Guide: • What are micronutrients? ◦ two other nutrients that are required,but only in small amounts ◦ vitamins and minerals • Is water considered a nutrient? ◦ Yes because it is required to sustain life • What are essential nutrients? ◦ nutrients that must be eaten because body cannot synthesize these from other nutrients ◦ 45-50 are considered essential • Are nonessential nutrients vital to life? ◦ Yes but if not enough are available,then the liver can usually convert another nutrient into one needed • What are the three macronutrients? ◦ Carbs,lipids,and proteins • What are the two micronutrients? ◦ Vitamins= organic molecules ◦ Minerals= structure (bone) and ion balance (action potentials) ‣ Ca,P,K,Su,Na,Cl,Mg • What is the function of vitamins? ◦ coenzyme ◦ most dietary ◦ D-made in skin ◦ B and K synthesize internal bacteria ◦ A converted from beta carotene • Most vitamins are ingested except which ones? ◦ D,B and K,andA ◦ no one food group contains all the vitamins • What are the two types of vitamins? ◦ Water soluble and fat soluble • What are water soluble vitamins? ◦ B complex and C are absorbed with water ◦ B12 absorption requires intrinsic factor ◦ not stored in body- any not used within one hour are excreted • What are fat soluble vitamins? ◦ A,D,E, and K are absorbed with lipid digestion products ◦ stored in bod except for vitamin K ◦ excessive consumption can cause health problems • What is Metabolism? ◦ sum of all biochemical reactions inside a cell involving nutrients • What is cellular respiration? ◦ catabolic breakdown of food fuels whereby energy from food is captured to formATP cells • What is the goal of cellular respiration? ◦ to trap chemical energy inATP ◦ energy can also be stored in glycogen and fat,which can be broken down later • What is phosphorylation? ◦ enzymes shift high energy phosphate groups ofATP to other molecules ◦ when activated they perform cellular functions • What are the three stages in processing nutrients? ◦ 1.digestion,absorption,and transport to tissues ◦ 2.Cellular processing (in cytoplasm) ‣ Synthesis of Lipids,proteins,and glycogen or ‣ Catabolism into pyruvic acid and acetyl CoA ◦ 3.Oxidative breakdown of intermediates into CO2,water,andATP ‣ in mitochondria • What does cellular reparation consist of? ◦ glycosides of stage 2 and all of stage 3 • What is an oxidation reaction? ◦ involves the loss or gain of of oxygen and hydrogen atoms and their electrons • What happens in an oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction? ◦ Oxidized substances lose electrons and energy ◦ reduces substances gain electrons and energy • Redox reactions are catalyzed by what? ◦ enzymes that usually require a B vitamin coenzyme • What is dehydrogenase and oxidases? ◦ dehydrogenases= catalyze removal of hydrogen atoms ◦ oxidase= catalyze transfer of oxygen • What two coenzymes act as hydrogen or electron acceptors in oxidative pathway? ◦ Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide ◦ Flavin adenine nucleotide • Oxidative phosphorylation produces mostly what? ◦ ATP • Oxidative phosphorylation is a chemoisotonic process meaning what? ◦ couples of movement substances across membranes to chemical reactions ◦ energy released from oxidation of food is used to pump H+across inner mitochondrial membrane, creating a steep H+ concentration gradient ◦ As H+ ﬂows back throughATP synthase membrane channel protein,energy from ﬂow is used to phosphorylateADP • How are carbs used in the body? ◦ glucose- fuel most cells use to makeATP ◦ some cells use fat for energy • Neurons and RBCs rely entirely on what? ◦ glucose ◦ neurons die quickly without it • What is done with the excess glucose in your body? ◦ converted to glycogen and fat,then stored • What are fructose and Galactose converted to by the liver? ◦ glucose • Glucose is catabolized through what reaction? ◦ glucose-->water +oxygen+32ATP+ heat • What three pathways are required by glucose catabolism? ◦ Glycolysis,Krebs Cycle,and oxidative phosphorylation and electron transport chain • What are the three major stages of glycolysis? ◦ 1.sugar activation ◦ 2.sugar cleavage ◦ 3.sugar oxidation andATP formation • What are lipids uses in the body ◦ adipose tissue-offers protection,insulation and fuel storage ◦ helps absorb fat soluble vitamins ◦ major fuel of hepatocytes and skeletal muscle • What is the use of phospholipids and cholesterol in lipids? ◦ phospholipids=essential in myelin sheath and all cell membranes ◦ cholesterol= stabilizes membranes,precursor of bole salts,steroid hormones • What are prostaglandins involved in? ◦ smooth muscle contraction,BP control,and inﬂammation
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