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Learning and Guidance Quiz 1 Material

by: Alyssa Steves

Learning and Guidance Quiz 1 Material HD 341

Marketplace > Washington State University > HD 341 > Learning and Guidance Quiz 1 Material
Alyssa Steves
GPA 2.94
Learning and Guidance in Early Childhood
Samantha Grant

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Study guide including vocabulary, theories, and textbook references for the Unit 1 quiz.
Learning and Guidance in Early Childhood
Samantha Grant
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alyssa Steves on Friday February 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HD 341 at Washington State University taught by Samantha Grant in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 209 views.


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Date Created: 02/06/15
CHAPTER 1 o responsiveness o p 7 0 one of the elements of a person s caregiving style 0 whether an adult meets a child s needs and understand child development 0 warmth o p 8 o emotional expression of fondness 0 child development knowledge 0 p 9 o ability to describe and explain different aspects of children s growth 0 communication style 0 p 10 o manner in which an adult delivers messages to children 0 indicative of the adult s view of children 0 demandingness o p 11 0 one of the elements of a person s caregiving style whether and how the person sets limits and monitors supervises and faces issues 0 style of confrontation o p 12 o facing something often irritating or hurtful and coping with it o authoritative style of caregiving o p 14 o combination of high demandingness and high responsiveness 0 considered a positive approach 0 authoritative teachersparents help children form selfcontrol by 0 model selfcontrol 0 clearly communicate their expectation that children will show the level of selfcontrol that they are capable of showing give specific information on how children can control themselves recognize and encourage children who act in an ageappropriate selfcontrolled way 0 p 15 o authoritarian style of caregiving o p 16 o combination of high demandingness and low responsiveness 0 considered a negative approach 0 permissive style of caregiving o p 20 0 low in demandingness o indulgentpermissive style of caregiving o p 20 o combination of low demandingness and high responsiveness 0 person chooses to be permissive o uninvolvedpermissive style of caregiving o p 20 o combination of low demandingness and low responsiveness 0 also known as unengaged 0 person would rather not be permissive 0 basic processes of influencing children 0 p 22 0 direct and indirect methods of persuasion used by any adult in an interaction with a child 0 modeling 0 p 22 o performing an activity and having a child observe it o imitation o p 22 o performing an action modeled by someone else 0 feedback 0 p 24 0 information that an adult gives to a child about how the child did something 0 the two major caregiving styles 0 1 responsiveness o 2 demandingness o the styles of caregiving are 0 authoritative o authoritarian o indulgentpermissive o uninvolvedpermissive CHAPTER 2 o theory 0 p 32 0 not a hunch or a guess 0 an explanation about something in the natural world substantiated by observations facts and research 0 ecology of human development 0 p 32 o concept that children grow up and develop in different systems all nested within one another 0 five environments p 32 o microsystem I includes a child her family school peer group child care center and neighborhood I relationships within families and the resources in a neighborhood all affect a child s development 0 mesosystem I the connected network formed by the differen microsystems I children benefit greatly when the different systems function harmoniously o exosystem I the groups farther away from the child but still affecting his development 0 macrosystem I a larger system comprised of the values of the culture type of government social trends and major events such as natural disasters I theses values and major events affect every other system 0 chronosystem I the degree of change or consistency of various systems over time that ultimately affects children s development features of family systems particularly relevant to early childhood teachers p 34 o boundanes o rules 0 roles four primary interests of children p 37 o desire to investigate and discover things I children are interested in the process of inquiry to carry out investigators 0 need to communicate 0 joy in construction I children find pleasure in making and building things 0 artistic expression constructivism o p 38 0 children s building or constructing knowledge assimilation o p 38 0 process of incorporating new information into an existing concept accomodation o p 38 0 process of changing an existing concept to include new information stages of cognitive development p 39 0 stage 1 I sensorimotor stage 0 stage 2 I preoperational 0 stage 3 I concrete operations represent experiences o p 41 0 major cognitive accomplishment of pre operational thinkers o ability to describe an experience using a variety of means deferred imitation o p 41 o observing an action but delaying imitating it until later egocentric o p 42 o focused on one s own viewpoint perspective taking 0 p 42 o a basic cognitive developmental skill o ability to see things from another s perspective Levels of perspectivetaking o p 42 gt figure 23 scaffolding o p 44 0 an adult s modifying support as children develop new knowledge or skills zone of proximal development ZPD o p 45 0 space in which learning and development occur psychosocial crisis 0 p 47 0 challenges presented at different ages and resolved in either a positive or negative way problem ownership 0 p 51 o concept from ROgerian theory referring to deciding who in a relationship has the problem social learning principles and child guidance p 54 o principle 1 I social learning theorists do not emphasize stages of development principle 2 I development occurs because of learning from the environment 0 principle 3 I modeling influences much of children s learning 0 principle 4 I children learn complex behaviors in big chunks rather than in tiny steps 0 principle 5 I behavior can be changed if a child s social environment is changed 0 principle 6 I children can learn behaviors without reinforcement o principle 7 O I reinforcement gives information to children 0 token o p 56 0 an object that can be felt or held 0 something tangible o praise o p 57 o a form of intangible feedback for children CHAPTER3 o perception o p65 0 process that children use for organizing the information that they gain through sight hearing touch smell 0 problems affecting how young children pay attention p 66 0 they do not search or scan very well 0 they have difficulty ignoring irrelevant information 0 they focus on only one thing at a time o impulsiveness affects perception 0 some disabilities affect perception 0 change in perception help children pay attention better as they get older p 67 0 they get better at selecting between what they ignore and what they pay a en onto 0 they spend more time on task as they get older 0 they are better able to redirect their attention as they get older 0 memory 0 p 68 0 process used to store information and later retrieve it o longterm memory 0 p 68 0 storage site for permanently stored information o shortterm memory 0 p 68 o temporary storage site for information with which a child needs to work 0 the child retrieves the information form longterm memory 0 working memory 0 recognition memory 0 p 69 o feeling of familiarity with something that we know about from our past and that we encounter again 0 recall memory 0 p 70 o memories for which a child has to call forth information either with or without a reminder or cue social cognition o p 71 0 how children think about how other people feel about their motives behavior and feelings selfcontrol o p 73 o regulating behavior internally and voluntarily how children demonstrate selfcontrol p 74 0 control impulses wait and postpone action 0 tolerate frustration o postpone immediate gratification set a plan in motion and carry it out how self control evolves p 74 o selfcontrol evolves from the outside to the inside 0 selfcontrol develops slowly o selfcontrol evolves haltingly in a sometimes you see it and sometimes you don t fashion prosocial behavior 0 p 75 o actions like sharing helping or cooperating that promote the wellbeing of others shanng o p 76 0 giving donating o a type of prosocial behavior forms of prosocial behavior p 76 o shanng o helping o cooperating helping o p 77 o assisting performing acts of kindness rescuing 0 one type of prosocial behavior cooperating o p 77 0 working collaboratively to complete a job or task 0 a type of prosocial behavior three competencies children must have to act compassionately p 77 o cognitive competences I i can making things happen 0 emotional competency I i am beginning to understand what somebody needs 0 specific skills I l have some sharing skills 0 cognitive competencies o p 78 0 sense of self 0 identify needs 0 make things happen 0 language 0 memory 0 emotional competencies p 78 o decoding emotion in another person s face 0 responding to the emotions of others 0 demonstrating empathy o empathy o p 79 o able to participate in another person39s or animal s feelings 0 one person s emotional state is similar to the other person s emotional state


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