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Exam 1 study guide - BIOL 1320

by: Ailia Owen

Exam 1 study guide - BIOL 1320 BIOL 1320

Ailia Owen
GPA 2.9
General Biology
Brian C Mahon

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About this Document

Class and textbook notes from chapter 1, 20, and 26. Information not covered in class (that is in the textbook) is covered here. It is more detailed then what the professor outlined. There is also ...
General Biology
Brian C Mahon
Study Guide
mahon, Biology, Exam 1 university of houston class lecture 1320 biol BIO biology science basic
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This 31 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ailia Owen on Friday February 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1320 at University of Houston taught by Brian C Mahon in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 837 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Natural Sciences and Mathematics at University of Houston.

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Date Created: 02/06/15
Study points 2615 1126 PM Chapter 1 What is the definition of biology What are the properties of life List the hierarchy of organization What is systems biology At what level of organization does life occur What are the 2 types of cells and their characteristics What are 3 types of organisms in an ecosystem o What are the 2 dynamics of an ecosystem o How do they work and interact with organisms within an ecosystem What are genes What is DNA and its characteristics Nucleotides What is a genome What is genomics What is taxonomy What is the order of taxonomy from narrow to broad o What are the 5 kingdoms and what do they entail 0 Name the 3 domains their characteristics and the kingdoms within Who is the father of evolution 0 What definitions did he create 0 What observations and inferences did he contribute What is the process of science What is the difference between a hypothesis and theory List the 2 types of data How does a controlled experiment work What is artificial selection CHAPTER 20 Definition of anatomy Definition of physiology What is a tissue List the 4 types of tissues o What are the different kinds within each type 0 List their shape function physical characteristics and locations in the body What is an organ What types of tissue are in the heart What kinds of tissue are in the small intestine and how are they arranged What is bioengineering List each organ system and its main function List the components of the Integumentary system 0 Provide their structure and function What is external exchange What is internal regulation What is homeostasis and how does it work 0 Negative feedback List the feedback loop of body temperature regulation Chapter 26 What is the function of the endocrine system What is endocrine signaling What are the 2 types of hormones and how do they differ What is hormone signaling and how does it work What are endocrine glands What are endocrine cells What does the nervous system do What hormones have dual functions What are endocrine disruptors What are the glands of the vertebrate endocrine system What hormone does each gland produce 0 What do those hormones do and how do they work What is a cascading hormone pathway 0 Give and example of 1 What is diabetes and what are the different types 0 How does it work 0 What is the proper feedback loop for glucose What are steroids and which glands produce them What is androgen insensitivity syndrome What disorders can occur in the thyroid What are target cells What are neurosecretory cells 0 Which glands produce these 0 How do they work 2615 1126 PM 2615 1126 PM Chapter 1 Exploring Life 2615 1150 PM Biology is the scientific study of life Combination of anatomy and physiology cannot separate Themes 0 Novel properties emerge at each level of biological organization 0 Correlation of structure and function 0 Exchange of matter and energy with environment What are the properties of life CLASS INPUT Order structures defined organization 0 Organic matter Reaction to stimulus internalexternal Energetics Reproduction Genetic material DNA Interaction with environment Growth Order the highly ordered structure that typifies life Reproduction the ability of organisms to reproduce their own kind duplication of living cells 0 Sexual 2 o Asexua self Growth and Development consistent growth and development controlled by inherited DNA Energy Processing the use of chemical energy to power an organism s activities and chemical reactions Regulation an ability to control an organism s internal environment within the limits that sustains life homeostasis Response to the Environment an ability to respond to environmental stimuli 0 Venus fly trap does not get all nutrients it needs nitrogen from water eats insects to balance Evolutionary Adaptations adaptations evolve over many generations as individuals with traits best suited to their environments have greater reproductive success and pass their traits to offspring survival of the fittest 0 Snowy Owls Insulated feathers good sight senses for aerial hunting color matches environment Hierarchy of Organization Biosphere all environments on earth that support life 0 Most regions of land bodies of water and lower atmosphere 0 Earth view from space largely water can see climates and temperatures 0 Ecosystem all organisms in particular area and physical components with which the organisms interact 0 Air soil water and sunlight o In atmosphere see water different types of plants higher scale of a distinct location and climate 0 Community all organisms of an ecosystem 0 Species each unique form of life Identified about 18 million Estimated total number 10 100 million 0 On the ground see animals foliage look under water insects Population individuals of a species living in a specific area 0 Categorizing different species trees different animals gather more information about a few kinds random samples 0 Organisms an individual living thing 0 dissecting and looking at how it functions and what it is composed of from the inside Tree branches trunk leaves 0 Organ Systems several organs that cooperate in a specific function 0 System combination of components forming a more complex organization not unique to life ex Bicycle 0 Systems Biology the study of a biological system and the modeling of its dynamic behavior by analyzing the interaction among its parts I From function of biosphere to molecular machinery of an organelle 0 Organ a structure composed of tissue 0 reductionism reduce complexity to manageable amounts leaves roots Each leaf as an individual organ physical components use instruments cut and microscope Tissues A group of similar cells that perform a specific function 0 different components of an organ 0 Cells the fundamental unit of life life emerges 0 Lowest level that can perform all activities required for life 0 light through microscope Organelles a membraneenclosed structure that performs a specific structure within a cell 0 little organsquot 0 Molecule a cluster of small chemical units called atoms held together by chemical bonds 0 DNA molecule of inheritance Emergent properties new properties that arise in each step upward in hierarchy of life from the arrangement and interactions among component parts the whole is greater then the sum of its partsquot Illustrate the correlation of structure and function form fits function 0 A cell can 0 Regulate internal environment intake and removing waste 0 Take in and use energy sunlight food converted to useable forms 0 Respond to environment 0 Develop and maintain complex organization 0 Give rise to new cells 0 All cells 0 Are enclosed by a membrane that regulates the passage of materials between the cell and its surroundings Plants cell wall 0 Use DNA as genetic information o 2 types 0 Prokaryotic came first First to evolve sole inhabitants on earth for 15 billion years Simpler and smaller than Eukaryotic 1100th No nucleus Most either harmless or helpful bacteria Rod or round shaped o Eukaryotic evolved from prokaryotic eu you 18 billion years ago Plants animals fungi and protists Organelles Nucleus houses DNA that is membrane enclosed Most ecosystems Producers plants provide food 0 Photosynthesis tree leaves use sunlight energy to convert C02 carbon dioxide and H20 water into sugar and 02 oxygen 0 Consumers eat plants and other animals 0 Release energy from food by taking in 02 and releasing C02 0 Wastes release other chemicals into environment 0 Decomposers act as recycler change complex matter into simpler chemicals that plants can absorb and use 2 dynamics 0 Recycling chemicals retained 0 Basic chemicals necessary for life C02 02 H20 various minerals 0 Cycle Air and soil gt plants gt animals and decomposers gt air and soil 0 Energy flow energy is constantly gained and lost 0 Sun mechanical energy gt plants photosynthesize gt chemical energy gt pass through consumers gt decomposers chemicals to soil Some chemical energy is converted and lost as heat ONLY ABOUT 10 is retained in each cycle most lost as heat 0 Enter as light exit as heat Evolution The Core Theme of Biology 0 Genes unit of inheritance that transmit information from parents to offspring 0 DNA chemical substance of genes in every cell Blueprint for making proteins tools that build and maintain the cell and carry out activities 2 long chains Double helix coil winding staircase Nucleotides building blocks of DNA alphabet of inhertance n A T G C Cell division a DNA replicated copied double helix unzips complementary strips are assembled along separated strands a Each new cell inherits a complete set of DNA identical to parent cell 0 Grouped into Chromosomes a very long DNA molecule Humans 2 similar sets 3 billion nucleotide pairs 0 Control activities of cell 0 Genome entire library of genetic instructions that are inherited o Scientist have determined entire sequence of nucleotides in human genome Geonomics study of whole sets of genes in species then compared across multiple species 0 Benefits identifying genes in cancer revealing evolutionary relationships among diverse organisms based on similar genomes o Affirms unity of life based on DNA Taxonomy naming and classification of species 0 Order narrow to broad o Genus Family Order Class Phylum Kingdom 5 Monera Protista Fungi members mostly decompose the remains of dead organisms and organic wastes and absorb the nutrients into their cells n mushrooms Animalia eat other organisms Plantae produce food by photosynthesis In plants 0 Domain 3 Bacteria prokaryotes most diverse and widespread Archaea prokaryotes live in earth s extreme environment volcanoes Eukarya Eukaryotes n Protists multiple kingdoms mostly single celled organisms In Kingdom Plantae n Kingdom Animalia n Kingdom Fungi OOOOO Evolution process of change that has transformed life in Earth from beginning to diversity of organisms today edit population 0 Fossil record documents 0 Life evolving for billions of years 0 The pattern of ancestry deeper in ground older Charles Darwin 1859 On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection o Descent with modification Species today descended from ancestral species Unity and diversity of life 0 Natural Selection mechanism for evolutions 2 observations n Individual variation individuals in a population vary in their traits passed from parents to offspring n Overproduction of offspring too many offspring for environment to support 2 Inferences from observation I Unequal Reproductive Success Individuals with traits best suited for environment are more likely to survive then ones with less suitable traits n Accumulation of favorable traits over time increasing proportion of individuals will have advantageous traits 0 Evolution explains unity and diversity of life 0 Numerous small changes on populations can lead to major alterations of species 0 Fossil record supports this The Process of Science 0 Studying natures form observations and test hypothesis proposed explanations for a set of observations 0 Science is 0 Based on inquiry search for information and explanation of natural phenomena 0 A social activity Work in teams Share information peer review meetings personal communication 0 2 types of data 0 Qualitative descriptive 0 Quantitative numerical measurements 0 Scientific Theory broader in scope then hypothesis supported by large and growing evidence 0 Controlled experiment compare experimental group with controlled one variable difference 0 Test the hypothesis that color patterns have evolved as adaptations to protect animals from predation o Noncamoflauged mice uncontrolled and camouflaged mice controlled 0 Results camouflaged mice had a much lower rate of predation 0 Field study not done in lab Biology and Everyday Life 0 Artificial Selection the selective breeding of plants and animals to produce 0 More productive crops 0 Better livestock o A great variety of pets little resemblance to ancestors Unintentional causes 0 Antibiotic resistant bacteria conservative efforts 0 Pesticideresistant pests 0 Loss of species through Habitat loss Global climate change CONNECTIONS sciencetechnologysociety Watson and Crick 60 years ago 0 Discovery of DNA structure led to technology advances of DNA manipulation Science discoveries Technology inventions Cons global climate change toxic waste deforestation nuclear accidents 0 Solutions politics economics and social values Chapter 20 Unifying Structure and Function2615 1149 PM STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION IN ANIMAL TISSUES 0 Body plandesign of organism O O 0 Relationship between form and function Results from natural selection structure in ancestral organism can be adapted to function in a descendant organism Convergent evolution similar structures across species Does not imply conscious invention never perfect Anatomy study of form Physiology function of structures TISSUES integrated group of similar cells that perform a common function and combine to form organs Latin for weave 4 main categories of tissues Epithelial Tissues epithelia sheets of closely packed cells O O 0 Cover body surfaces Line internal organs and cavities Tightly knit cells protective barrier surface for exchange with the fluidair on the other side Attached on either side Basal lamina dense mat of extracellular matrix a Fibrous proteins and sticky polysaccharides Apical surface faces the outside of an organ or the inside of a tubepassageway Named according to of layers Simple 1 layer Stratified 2 layers and shape of apical surface Squamous like a fried eggtile flat square a simple thin and leaky Exchange materials by diffusion Lines capillaries and air sacs of lungs n Stratified line surfaces subject to abrasion skin Regenerates rapidly by cellular division near basal lamina Cuboidal as tall as they are wide cube I Found in glands Columnar taller then they are wide columns a Simple lines intestines n Microvilli densely packed projections increase surface area a Cilia long motile projections move material along respiratory tract Cuboidal and columnar Large amount of cytoplasm secretion and absorption of materials 0 Connective Tissue Sparse cells in extracellular matrix 0 Cells produce and secrete matrix web of fibers in jelly liquid or solid 0 Binds and supports other tissues 0 Loose lose weave in watery fluid Collagen strong ropelike protein Other fibers elastic Resilient and strong Bind epithelia to underlying tissue and hold organs in place 0 Fibrous Densely packed collagen fibers Tendons muscles to clone Ligaments bone to bone at joints 0 Adipose sparse matrix of loose fiber and fluid Stores fat in large closely packed cells Pads and insulates body Stores energy Each cell has large fat droplet n Swells fat is stored a Shrivels fat is used as fuel 0 Cartilage matrix of collagen fiber in rubbery material Surrounds end of bones shock absorbing Strong and flexible skeletal material Ears nose cushion between vertebrae 0 Bone Matrix of collagen fibers embedded in a hard mineral substance containing calcium magnesium and phosphate Strong without being brittle Compact region repeating circular units of matrix Central canal blood vessels and nerves Living cells grows and mends 0 Blood matrix is plasma water salts and dissolved proteins Transports substances throughout body Suspended in plasma a Red blood cells carry oxygen a White blood cells defense against infection a Platelets clot blood Muscle Tissue Long cells fibers with contractile proteins 0 most abundant tissues in animals 0 Skeletal causes voluntary movement Attached to bone by tendons Stripedstriated 0 Cardiac pumps blood only in heart Involuntary Striated branched fibers interconnect at specialized junctions to rapidly relay contraction signal 0 Smooth moves walls of internal organs small intestines Not striated Involuntary Spindle shaped cells slow and sustained contraction Nervous Tissue Neurons with branching extensions supporting cells 0 senses stimuli and rapidly transmits information 0 Brain spinal cord and nerves 0 Neuron carry signals by conducting electrical impulses Cell body nucleus and organelles receive Slender extensions n Dendrites receive impulse n Axon bundled together into nerves transmit signal to neurons or effector cell 0 Supporting cells Insulate axons Nourish neurons Regulate fluid around neurons ORGAN made of 2 tissues working together to perform a specific function 0 m muscle that generates contractions o Epithelial tissue Line heart chambers Prevent leaks Form a smooth surface for blood flow 0 Connective Tissue Make heart elastic and strong 0 Neurons that regulate contractions Small Intestine layers 0 Lumen interior space Columnar Epithelial villi lines secreted digestive juices and absorbs nutrients o Connective Tissues containing blood vessels Underneath and inside villi 0 Smooth muscles 2 layers in different directions to propel food 0 Connective o Epithelial outer layer Bioengineering seeking ways to repair damaged organs and Ussues 0 New tissues grown from scaffold of connective tissue from donated organs 0 Decellularized pig heart bleached and stimulated with human stems cells 0 Others use desktop printers to create layers of different cells resembling structures of organs ORGAN SYSTEMS consist of many organs performing 1 function work together Circulatory System Distributes gases nutrients and wastes through body Interstitial fluid fluid that bathes body cells place materials are exchanged between blood and body 0 Delivers oxygen and nutrients to body cells 0 Transports C02 to ungs 0 Metabolic waste to kidneys Respiratory System Exchanges gases with the environment and blood 0 Supply blood with Oxygen inhale o Disposes of C02 exhale Integumentary System 0 Protects against physical injury infection excessive heat or cold drying out 0 Metabolic functions 0 Synthesize vitamin D required for absorbing calcium UV starts conversion of a derivative of cholesterol to vitamin D 0 Exposure to UV light 0 Melanin released tan 0 Damages DNA of skin cells Premature aging Cataracts Skin cancer Skin 0 Epidermis stratified squamous epithelium outer Cell division beneath od ces replaces old as they fall off 2 weeks Filled with fibrous protein keratin and release waterproofing gycoipid Waterproofing prevents dehydration and microbial penetration o Dermis dense connective tissues elastic and collagen fibers hair follicles n Acne follicles become clogged with dead cells and oil Propionibacterium acnes bacteria that becomes trapped in follicle Rupture into the epidermis results in white blood cells immune system to acculumate into pus oil glands associated with hair follicles n lubricate hair a condition the skin I prevent bacteria growth sweat glands muscle cells nerves sensory receptors blood vessels Collect sensory information Helps regulate body temperature Thinning wrinkles and sagging skin 0 Hyperdermis layer of adipose tissue 0 Hair Flexible shaft of flattened keratinfilled dead cells produced by hair follicle oil glands o Wrapped in nerve endings 0 Important sensory function 0 Insulates body of mammals Humans limited to head Land animals reaction to cold raises hair and traps a layer of air on top of skin a Muscles attached to hair are responsible for raising Nails protective covering composed of keratin o Facilitate fine manipulation Skeletal System 0 Supports the body Protects organs brain lungs spinal cord Provides the framework for muscle movement Muscular System Moves the body Maintains posture Produces heat Urinary System Removes wastes from blood Excretes metabolic waste 0 Regulates pH chemical makeup and water balance of blood Digestive System IngestDigest food Absorb nutrients Eliminates undigested food Endocrine System Secretes hormones that regulate body activities Nervous System Coordinates body activity 0 Detecting stimuli 0 Integrating information o Directing responses Lymphatic and Immune System 0 Protect body from infection and cancer 0 Returns excess body fluid to the circulatory system Reproductive System Gametes 0 Sex Hormones Female 0 Supports developing embryo o Produces milk ORGANISM number of organ systems working together as an integrated coordinated unit EXTERNAL EXCHANGE AND INTERNAL REGULATION 0 Structural adaptations enhance exchange with the environment 0 Every organism is an open system that exchanges matter and energy with its surrounding 0 Cells in small and flat animals can exchange material directly with environment 0 Organisms gt increase in size surface area Is too small for corresponding volume Is too far away from the deepest cells of the body 0 In larger organisms evolutionary adaptations Branched or folded surfaces increasing surface area Allow for sufficient exchange with environment 0 Exchange within the body 0 Direct exchange does not occur between blood and cells and tissues of organs occurs in Interstitial fluid a fluid that bathes body cells internal environment 0 Homeostasis active maintenance of a steady state within the body 0 External conditions fluctuate constantly 0 Animals regulate their internal environment 0 Control systems Detect change Direct responses 0 Negativefeedback change in a variable that triggers mechanisms that reverse that change Keep internal variables steady Allow small changes around set points 0 Positive feedback not responsible for homeostasis o Regulates a response for a period of time Fever reaction response to infection 0 Oxytocin Birthing contractions Milk release in pregnancy 0 Feedback control of body temperature approx 37 C 0 Temp rises above set point Hypothalamus activates cooling mechanism a Blood vessels dilate increasing heat loss a Glands secrete sweat that evaporates cooling body Temp decreases n Hypothalamus shuts off cooling mechanism 0 Temp falls below set point Hypothalamus activates heating mechanism a Skeletal muscles contract generate heat a Blood vessels contract minimizing heat loss Temperature increases n Hypothalamus shuts off heating mechanism Hormones and the Endocrine System 2615 1149 PM THE NATURE OF CHEMICAL REGULATION chemical and electrical signals coordinate body functions through Endocrine system group of interacting glands and tissues throughout the body that produce and secrete hormones that maintain body functions and activities lasts longer 0 Gradual changes 0 Endocrine signaling Secretory vesicle filled with hormones in endocrine cell gt endocrine cell secretes hormone into blood vessel gt hormones travel in blood through circulatory system to target cells 0 Components Hormones chemical signals released into bloodstream by endocrine cells and transported throughout the body One hormone can trigger a variety of responses within a target cell because each cell may contain different receptors for that hormone or different signal transduction pathways In 2 different chemical properties 0 Watersoluble WSH most do not have to enter cell 0 Proteins Short polypeptides Single amino acids modified versions 0 cannot pass through phospholipid bilayer of plasma membrane Lipidsoluble LSH enters cell 0 Steroids small molecules made from cholesterol Sex organs and adrenal cortex 0 Nonsteroidal thyroid 0 Can pass through phospholipid bilayer Signaling n Reception hormone binds to a specific receptor shape protein on or in target cell a Signal Transduction converts signal from one form to another a Response change in the cell s behavior a Process of WSH Binds to receptor protein activation gt receptor relay initiates signal transduction gt final relay molecule activates protein that carries out cells response a Process of LSH Enters cell by diffusion gt binds to open receptor in cytoplasm or nucleus gt hormone receptor complex carries out signal transduction transcription factor gene activator or repressor gt hormone receptor complex attaches to specific site on cell s DNA gt binding to DNA stimulates gene regulation turning genes on oro Endocrine glands make and secrete hormones Endocrine cells release hormones into blood vessels n Secretory Vesicle where hormones are stored Target cells hormones only affect cells that have receptors for a specific hormone Nervous system communicates regulates and uses electrical signals by neurons 0 0 Fast reaction Neuron signaling travel distinct pathways along neurons to specific cells Stimulus originates in cell body of neuron Nerve impulse travels along axons Response limited to cells that connect by specialized junctions to an axon transmitting an impulse Organ system have to communicate with each other to Maintain homeostasis Carry out coordinated functions Neurosecratory cells specialized neurons that perform functions in both nervous and endocrine system Conduct electrical signals Make and secrete hormones into blood SCIENTIFIC THINKING Endocrine disruptors mimic estrogen LSH o Atrazine weed killers o BPS food and beverage containers 0 Controlled experiment 0 Exposed growing male frogs to low levels of atrazine for 3 years Equal number of controlled and exposed male frogs were put into a space with female frogs Mating contest between controlled and exposed male frogs n Recorded male frog s ability to hold female with its front arms during mating amplexus Demasculating results from atrazine 0 Reduced mating behavior 0 Testosterone deficiencies 0 Some sex reversal THE VERTEBRATE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM 12 major glands Some glands secrete hormones to blood thyroid Some glands have endocrine and nonendocrine functions pancreas Other organs are nonendocrine but secrete some hormones heart and liver Penal gland pea sized near center of brain 0 Melatonin helps regulate biological circadian rhythms in connection with environment light conditions sleepwake cycle the dark hormonequot o Diurnal day animals production peaks in middle of night and gradually falls 0 Do not know exact effect it has on the body Hypothalamus main control center of endocrinepart of the brain 0 Integrates nervous and endocrine system 0 Receives input from nerves about the internal conditions of the body and external environment 0 Responds by sending nervous or endocrine signal Directly controls pituitary gland uses to relay directives to other glands Pituitary gland regulates growth and reproduction 0 base of brain Anterior endocrine cells synthesize and excrete directly to blood 0 TSH Thyroidstimulating hormone gt Thyroid o Regulates hormone production 0 ACTH Adrenocorticopropic hormone gt stimulates Adrenal cortex 0 FSH Follicestimulating hormone and LH Luteinizing hormone gt stimulates Testes or ovaries o PRL prolactin gt Mammary glands 0 Does not lead to secretion of other hormones 0 Growth hormone CH gt entire body Broadest effect Promotes protein synthesis and use of fat for energy Young mammals promotes development and enlargement of all parts of the body Levels fluctuate throughout the day peak at night right after sleep gt not released until next sleep a High levels gigantism a Low levels Dwarfism Fixed with GH injections 0 Set of neurosecretory cells secrete 2 kinds of hormones into short blood vessels that connect to PP Releasing hormones stimulate AP to secrete 1 specific hormones Inhibiting hormones induce AP to stop secretion of 1 specific hormones Posterior nerve tissues extension of hypothalamus 0 Stores and secretes 2 hormones made in hypothalamus 0 Set of neurosecretory cells extends from the hypothalamus into the PP Oxytocin stimulates mammary gland cells contraction of uterus and promotes mating and maternal bonds n Levels rise when n mothers look into eyes of their babies I dogs stare into owners eyes Antidiuretic hormone ADH promotes retention of water by kidneys Feedback control of Hypothalamus and Pituitary Hormone cascade pathway TRHTHSthyroid hormone o Hypothalamus secretes TRH TSHreleasing hormone gt TRH stimulates anterior pituitary to produce TSH gt TSH causes thyroid to grow and secrete TH into blood gt increases metabolic rate warming body Thyroid gland on neck wraps around trachea just under larynx regulates metabolism Thyroid hormone affects metabolic processes pair 0 Thyroxine T4 4 idodine atoms 0 Triiodothyronine T3 3 idodine atoms T4 is converted to T3 in target cells Cruicial role in development and maturation Maintain normal blood pressure heart rate muscle tone digestion and reproduction Increase oxygen consumption and cellular metabolism Hyperthyroidism excess T3 and T4 in blood a overheat irritability high blood pressure weight loss Graves disease a protruding eyes fluid build up behind eyeballs a dietary disorders n goiter enlargement of thyroid iodine deficiency not enough idodine to synthesize T3 and T4 messes up feedback loop thyroid continues to produce thyroid hormone Hypothyroidism insufficient T3 and T4 in blood a Weight gain lethargy intolerance to cold I Autoimmune reaction 0 Calcitonin lowers blood calcium Parathyroid gland Parathyroid hormone raises blood calcium 0 Low calcium can lead to convulsive contraction in skeletal muscle Adrenal glands atop kidneys Adrenal medulla o Epinephrine adrenalin fight or flight hormone in endocrine system neurotransmitter in nervous system Neurotransmitter chemical that carries information from one neuron to anotherfrom a neuron to another kind to cell that will react Heart speeds up heart rate Liver break down glycogen provide glucose to blood 0 Norepinephrine raise blood glucose increase metabolic activities and constrict some blood vessels Adrenal cortex 0 Glucocorticoids raise blood glucose 0 Mineralocorticoids promote reabsorption of sodium Na and excrete potassium K in kidneys Pancreas dual functions 0 Secretes digestive enzymes to small intestines Maintains homeostatic set pointquot of glucose level Antagonistic hormones effects of one oppose effects of the other 2 negative feedbacks Insulin lowers blood glucose 0 Stimulus breakfast gt BCL rise stimulating pancreas gt Beta cells release insulin gt Insulin stimulates all cells to take up glucose gt Liver and muscle cells use glucose to form glycogen stores gt BCL decreases beta cells stop gt set pointquot achieved 0 Diabetes mellitus inability to produce andor use insulin Hyperglycemia decreased glucose absorption from blood raises BCL Muscle or fat cells take up glucose to lower BCL Type 1 insulindependent autoimmune disease destruction of insulinproducing cells a Treatment multiple human insulin engineered injections daily Type 2 noninsulin dependent reduced response to insulin from being overweightunderactive 90 Gestational diabetes can affect pregnant women and can lead to dangerously large babiescomplicated delivery 0 Hypoglycemia low BCL 24 hours after eat Glucagon raises blood glucose Stimulus skipped lunch gt BCL lowers stimulating pancreas gt Alpha cells release glucogen gt Liver cells break down glycogen stores return glucose to blood gt BCL increases alpha cells stop gt set pointquot achieved Testes males Androgens support sperm formation and promote development of male secondary sex characteristics determine sex Ovaries females Estrogen stimulate uterine lining growth and promote development of female secondary sex characteristics Progestines promote uterine lining growth What stimulates an endocrine gland to produce a hormone Stimulus 3 types 0 Change in levels of certain ions and nutrients o Stimulated directly by nervous system 0 Hormones Effects 0 Regulating ion and nutrient levels water balance and metabolism 0 Controlling reproduction development and growth 0 Initiating responses to stress and the environment HORMONES AND HOMEOSTASIS Gonads sex glands 0 Secret sex hormones Estrogens Progestins progesterone prepare uterus for embryo Androgens testosterone a 7th week of development in male embryos develop into male 0 Gametes ova and sperm Steroid sex hormones o Affect growth and development 0 Regulates reproductive cycles and sexual behavior 0 Synthesis of sex hormones o Regulated by hypothalamus and pituitary Hypothalamus gt releasing hormone gt Anterior pituitary gt FSH and LH gt Gonads gt sex hormones Androgen insensitivity syndrome 0 X linked recessive trait Testosterone enters target cell but cannot bind to nuclear receptors defective o Inherited Affected are genetic males with one x chromosome and y choromosome born with external female genetalia male testes in abdomen 0 Male external genetalia and ovaries do not develop


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