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Psychology Exam 1

by: Whitney Stilwell

Psychology Exam 1 PSY 101 Jonathon Weaver- Introduction to Psychology

Whitney Stilwell
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This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by Whitney Stilwell on Saturday February 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 101 Jonathon Weaver- Introduction to Psychology at Michigan State University taught by in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 95 views.

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Date Created: 02/07/15
Psychology Study Guide Exam 1 Prologue 2 questions from this material The Storv of Psvcholoov 0 First psychological experiment took place in the 7th Century BC 0 concluded that egyptians weren t the oldest race out there instead Phygians were Birth of contemporary psychology Wilhelm Wundt December 1879 Three kinds of psychology 0 Gestalt Psychology structuralism the whole is different from the sum of its parts 0 psychoanalysis Sigmund freud is the major person related to this Focused on the etiology development and treatment of abnormal behavior 0 behaviorism John Watson is the major person related to this Psychology was redefined as the scientific study of observable behavior how behaviors are learned and modified l BF skinner is the most important figure related to modern behaviorism 0 William James Important figure in history of American psychology 0 professor at an American University 1875 0 introduced Experimental psychology to the US 0 main influences included Function The Nature of the Mind the stream of thought the self Will The Unconscious and Emotion 0 Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes Ch 1 Thinking Critically with Psychological Science 12 questions on this Material The Need for Psvcholooical Science Q Hindsight Bias the tendency for people to exaggerate how much they could have predicted an outcome after knowing that it occurred 0 easier way to look at it gt common sense describes what has happened after the fact more easily than it predicts what will happen before the fact 0 example saying two people who barely know each other were meant to be together or not depending on their future I experiment with separation and romantic attraction 0 separation weakens romantic attraction gt people will say I already knew that its common sense 0 separation strengthens romantic attraction gt people answer As they say Absence makes the heart grow fonder 0 problems with common sense O can be contradictory there is a commonsensical explanation for just about any condition and its opposite 0 our common sense is different from others no way to resolve differences between the two 0 common sense will sometimes work but usually we use it because of the hindsight bias situation 0 typically common sense is based on private careless observation such as folklore stereotypes or parental teachings O unexpected things are the only things that sometimes get credit in the scientific part of psychology the rest is just considered common sense How do scientists ask and answer questions Q The scientific method 0 Theory an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations l summarizes some of the empirical knowledge we have I overarching idea I example sleep boosts memory 0 Hypothesis a testable prediction implied by a theory I very specific I a manipulation If then statement structure I example after a masculinity threat men will place higher bets during a gambling game 0 The major steps of the Scientific Method l 1 Generate a Research Question a question that can be answered through objective observations or data 0 simple observation simply observing the world around you and asking questions about why people thinkbehave the way they do 0 The bystander effect gt any given bystander is less likely to give aid to a victim if the other bystanders are present 0 personal experience 0 serendipity the act of discovering something while looking for something else entirely making fortunate discoveries by accident 0 the need to solve a practical problem 0 common sense shouldn t rely on common sense to draw a conclusion but can be sources of ideas 0 replication seeing whether a basic finding can be observed again with different participants and under different circumstances I 2 Establish Operational Definitions Q operational definition a specific statement of the procedures used to define research variables so as to allow others to replicate the original observations l 3 Choose a research design 0 3 major types of methods 0 descriptive method I the case study an in depth investigation of a single or very few subjectsparticipants 0 e xample 30 year case study with very smart parrot being able to comprehend numbers and categorize objects I survey an investigation of many cases in less depth by asking people to report opinions and behaviors l natural istic observation recording behavior in its natural environments and describing it in detail tudy of chimps showed behavior of these animals are far more complex than we know 0 experimental method purpose is to explore cause and effect by manipulating one or more factors while holding other factors constant I lndepe ndent variable IV the variable that is being manipulated by experimenters the one being studied to see if it will influence behavior I depen dent variable DV variable that is measured by experimenter Q epends upon the independent variable the outcome variable I control variable held constant during an experiment time of day temperature knowledge of subject l rando m assignment to condition The Great Equalizer means each participant has an equal chance of being in any particular condition 0 r andom assignment is necessary to establish causality in a true experiment 0 correlational method purpose is to observe naturally occurring relationships between variables I this method is used when its not possible to conduct an experiment or is unethical to conduct an experiment I a relationship is established by finding the degree to which two variables vary together I want to see if two variables to up and down together or if one goes up while the other goes down I correla tion coefficient a statistical index 1 to 1 of the relationship between two variables 390 erfect positive correlation 1 390 erfect negative correlation 1 m catterplots are used to represent the values of the variables The slope of the line determines the direction of the relationship and the amount of scatter represents the strength I CORR ELATION IS NOT CAUSATION O t hird variable problem there is an underlying variable that links the two other variables together causing the relationship to turn out how it does 0 c orrelation is not sufficient to establish causality 0 Research Ethics 0 Experimenting on people gt ethical l Milgra m obedience studies 5 rong answerperson was shocked person answering the questions claimed to have a heart disease more intense shocks as more questions were answered wrong 65 of participants go all the way to the last shock because they were told to keep going I ethics to experimenting on people 0 1 Obtain informed consent give an overview of what the study is but not the hypothesis or theory Just enough information to ask if they want to participate 3 Protect them from harm 00 Maintain confidentiality 0 Debrief tell them what you were looking for and how you came about the results 0 experimenting on nonhuman animal subjects I without this researchexperimenting on these subjects we wouldn t have the knowledge of the human body that we have today l guideli nes ustify the study when potential for harm exists roper care for the animals during and after study I The 3 R s eplacement use alternatives to animals when possible efinement minimize or eliminate animal distress eduction do experiments that require the fewest number of animals possible Chapter 1 Review questions 1 Why do we need psychological science a Psychology makes the world a bettereasier place to live It helps us understand people better and allow our surroundings around us to match our needs Examples include red fire truck vs green fire truck Green is better seen by the human eye therefore we notice it quicker than red trucks Switching to green fire trucks has been proven to prevent less accidents on the road Another example is showing a witness suspects simultaneously vs separately A witness will pick the correct suspect more accurately when shown them separately instead of all at once 2 How do psychologists ask and answer questions a Scientists use the scientific method to ask and answer questions by creating a theory and then testing that theory with a measurable hypothesis 3 What are the major steps in the research process a The major steps in the research process consist of 1 Generating a research question 2 Establishing an operational definition 3 Choosing a research design that best fits 4 What are the major research methods that psychologists use a The major research methods used by psychologists are the descriptive methods consisting of case studies surveys and naturalistic observation experimental methods which include the independent variable dependent variable control variable and even random assignment and the correlational methods 5 Research ethics are a 1 Obtain informed consent 2 Protect them from harm 3 Maintain Confidentiality 4 Debrief Chapter 2 The Bioloov of the Mind 15 questions from this chapter 0 Biological Psychology 0 Assumption Everything psychological is biological O Phrenology a popular but wrongheaded theory that claimed that bumps on the skull could reveal mental abilities and character traits as specific as the desire to have children 0 Goal of biological psychology gt to study the link between biological activity and psychological events example what areas of the brain are responsible for our ability to perceive human faces 0 Neural communication 0 sensory neurons carry messages from the body s tissues and sensory organs inward to the brain and spinal cord for processing l converting outside energy sources to produce internal sensory neurons 0 Motor neurons carry messages from the brain and out to the body s tissues 0 Neuron Structure l Dendrites receive messages from other cells I cell body the cell s life support center I Axon passes messages away from the cell body to other neurons muscles or glands The neural impulse sends an electrical signal traveling down the axon Q sciatic nerve is the longest axon in the body goes from the end of the spinal cord to the foot I Myelin Sheath covers the axon of some neurons and helps spread neural impulses Q helps to speed up the impulse and will transmit the message faster 0 insulates the axon to make sure it doesn t lose its impulse energy I terminal branches of axonform junctions with other cells 0 How neurons communicate I when a neural impulse reaches the terminal of an axon it triggers release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic gap Q the synaptic gap is the small space between the dendrites and the cell body A positive charge on the cell body draws the energy into it I neurotransmitters and their function 0 acetylcholine ACh 0 function enables muscle action learning and memory 0 malfunction can cause alzheimers disease 0 used in botox O dopamine 0 function influences movement learning attention and emotion O malfunction excess dopamine is linked to schizophrenia Little amounts of dopamine the brain will produce tremors and decreased mobility of Parkinson s Disease 0 serotonin O functionaffects mood hunger sleep and arousal O malfunction undersupply linked to depression 0 These transmitters have designated pathways where it operates in the brain 0 The Nervous System 0 Peripheral Nervous System I The somatic nervous system enables voluntary control of skeletal muscles 0 sensory input gt integration braingt motor output I The autonomic nervous system controls our glands and the muscles of our internal organs acts like an autopilot to our body but can be overridden Q sympathetic system expands energyaccelerates heart rate raises blood pressure Fight or flight reaction 0 parasympathetic system conserves energydeacclerates heart rate lowers blood pressure 0 remember this as the Purrsympathetic gt cats purr when they are calm happy and feel relaxed 0 Central Nervous System The brain and spinal cord l The brain 0 around 400 trillion synaptic connec ons 0 methods and tools of discovery 0 clinical observation phineas gage with rod through his head damage to frontal lobe changed his personality and ambitions O lesions and transections patient had life threatening seizures the doctors removed parts of hippocampus and the patient could no longer make new memories 0 transcranial magnetic stimulation procedure for inducing temporary lesions in which a magnetic field is passed over a particular brain region Q neuroimaging techniques 0 EEG provides amplified tracings of waves of electrical activity in the brain can t tell you exact areas in the brain 0 fMRl detects changes in blood oxygenation in different brain regions looks at where the flow of blood is at real time 0 Major Brain Structures l Older brain structures Sustain basic life functions and enable memory emotions and basic drives 0 The Brainstem the oldest and innermost region of the brain which is responsible for primitive functions such as control of heartbeat and breathing O medulla the base of the brainstem that controls involuntary functions such as heartbeat and breathing I helps control autonomic system controls arousal and sleep 0 reticular formation filters incoming stimuli from the spinal cord and relays information to other areas of the brain I determ ines is information is important enough to move up to the brain I sleep wake up function Q The thalamus receives information from all the sense except smell and routes it to higher brain regions 0 acts as the switchboard operator 0 sits on top of the brainstem 0 sends information to parts of the brain to help with seeing hearing etc 0 the Cerebellum is the little brain thats attached to the rear of the brainstem O helps coordinate voluntary movements and balance also plays a role in learning motor skills 0 helps judge time 0 gets affected by alcohol 0 damage to right side will affect the body movements on the left side and vice versa 0 the limbic svstem associated with emotions drives and memory formation 0 hippocampus involved in acquisition of memories brings short term memory in and consolidates them into long term memories looks like a seahorse O amygdala regulates fear and aggression I most heavily studied function I also associated with social groups and gaining friends 0 hypothalamus regulates the four F s gt fighting fleeing feeding and reproduction l hyp0 below thalamus l helps regulate blood controls I respon sible for hormone production I Cerebral cortex convoluted mass that enables higherlevel functions including perceiving thinking and speaking Q 23 of the total mass of the brain 0 convoluted to account for more space 0 ultimate control of the information the thinking crown 0 each brain hemisphere is divided into four lobes separated by fissures O occipital lobes involved with vision contains the visual cortex l damag e to the visual cortex disrupts consciousness I blind sight I located on the back lower sides of the brain 0 temporal lobes involved in hearing understanding language and storing autobiographical memories contains the auditory cortex I located on the sides of the brain by the ears I organi zation in sensory input I hippoc ampus is involved with this part of the brain I wernic ke s area gt spans the region between left temporal and parietal lobes O a ssociated with the processing of words that we hear being spoken or language mm 0 Parietal Lobes involved in sensations of touch pain and temperature contains somatosensory cortex I back top part of the brain I control 3 the joints bones and cardiovascular system I the sensory cortex parietal cortexgt receives information from skin surface and sense organs h ands lips and nose are very important in sensory O P hantom limb O Frontal lobes involved in motor function language and memory and other executive functions I consid ered to be the personality control I broca s area gt the area of the frontal lobe usually in the left hemisphere Associated with the production of language or language outputs 0 e xpressive evasia O k now the information but can t get the information out can write things down but can t productoutput speech to say the things I motor cortex the area at the rear of the frontal lobes that control voluntary movements 0 h ands lips tongue eyes are all major parts 0 Associated areas are found in all four lobes and are responsible for integrating information linking sensory inputs with stored memories 0 learning remembering speaking O are NOT involved with motor or sensory areas 0 probing these areas doesn t trigger any observable response but they are still responsible for specific functions O damage to these areas in the frontal lobe can alter the personality remove inhibitions and disrupt the ability to plan and reason Chapter Review Questions 1 What do biological psychologists study a The link between biological activity and psychological events 2 how does neural communication occur a When a neural impulse reaches the terminal of an axon it triggers the release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic gap i 1 Electrical impulses travel down a neurons axon until reaching the tiny junction called the synapse ii 2 when the electrical impulse reaches an axon terminal it releases the neurotransmitters These molecules cross the synaptic gap and bind to receptor sites on receiving neurons 3 How do biological psychologists study brain behavior relationships a Through methods like clinical observations lesions and transections of the brain transcranial magnetic stimulation and neuroimaging techniques 4 what are the major structures of the brain a The brainstem medulla reticular formation the thalamus the cerebellum and the limbic system hippocampus amygdala hypothalamus Our Divided Brain extra material not covered in class Q When split in half the left and right hemisphere of the brain look exactly alike but act differently when it comes to certain things 0 Damage to the left hemisphere such as accidents strokes or tumors is said to impair reading writing speaking arithmetic reasoning and understanding 0 similar lesions to the right hemisphere have barely any dramatic effects 0 corpus callosum the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them 0 split brain a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brains two hemispheres by cutting the fibers mainly the corpus callosum connecting them I no damage was done to patients with this procedure strokes were said to go away I this surgery leaves people with two separate minds each half acts individually from one another 0 left hemisphere is good at making quick literal interpretations of language 0 right hemisphere is good at excelling in making inferences modulating our speech to make meaning more clear and orchestrating our sense of self Chapter 3 Consciousness and the twotrack Mind 0 What is consciousness 0 our awareness of ourselves and our environment 0 states of consciousness l occur spontaneously gt daydreaming drowsiness dreaming I are physiologically induced gt hallucinations orgasm food or oxygen starvation l are psychologically induced gt sensory deprivation hypnosis meditation 0 Key functions of consciousness l cognitive neuroscience the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with our mental processes including consciousness 0 brain activity still takes place even if no outward signs of conscious awareness are given 0 Brain and ConsciousnessDual Processing 0 perception memory thinking language and most all other aspects of psychological functioning operate on two levels I the High Road conscious deliberate processing of which we are aware 0 most of our lives are focused on this 0 example traveling by car in a new pace where you ve never been you re constantly having to pay attention I the Low Road unconscious automatic processing of which we are unaware 0 much faster than conscious processing 0 like your brain running on autopilot 0 much of the brain is working in the unconscious mind 0 example can drive a familiar route without realizing whats going on around you O Sigmund Freud was the first psychologist to recognize this process 0 blindsight have no awareness whatsoever of any stimuli but are able to process aspects of a visual stimuli such as location 0 Brain and Consciousness Selective Attention 0 selective attention a mental spotlight that focuses conscious awareness on a very limited aspect of all that you experience I allows you to concentrate on what you re doing and filter out any irrelevant sights or sounds I hearing your name will pop you out of concentration 0 dichotic listening task I tv announcers ability to hear many things going on in their head and still talk about what they need to say 0 Brain and Consciousness lnattentional blindness O inattentional blindness a phenomenon where we can miss things that happen right before our eyes if we are distracted by something else focusing on one thing and missing things going on around you Brain and Consciousness Change Blindness 0 not paying attention to small details of the things around you 0 not necessarily focused on something when change blindness occurs 0 experiment with the guy not noticing when the person he was giving directions to changed into a different person Sleep and Dreams Biological rhythms and sleep 0 circadian rhythmoccur on a 24hour cycle and include sleep and wakefulness Our Biological clock can be altered by artificial light I light triggers the suprachiasmatic nucleus to decrease melatonin in the morning from the pineal gland and increase melatonin at night I least amount of melatonin is in the morning and at night melatonin is produced 0 sleep stages I measuring sleep every 90 minutes we pass through a cycle of five distinct sleep stages which researchers identify by measuring brain activity eye movements and muscle tension l awake but relaxed when an individual closes hisher eyes but remains awake brain activity slows down to a large amplitude and slow regular alpha waves l nonREM stage 1 NREM1 marked by irregular brain waves 0 early light sleep with hallucinations nearwaking transition from alpha waves to theta waves muscles are active 0 drowsy sleep sensation of falling and can jolt awake Q feel pinned down I NREM2 theta waves sleep spindles muscle twitches restless leg syndrome harder to awaken conscious awareness of the external environment disappears occupies 4555 of total sleep in aduHs Q brainstem stops signals from moving UIO l NREM3 deep sleep slow delta waves hard to awaken night terrors and sleepwalking occur during this stage 0 children may wet the bed in this stage 0 about 1 hour after falling asleep you enter this stage 0 after reaching the deepest sleep stage the sleep cycle starts moving backwards towards NREMf l REM sleep the brain engages in lowamplitude fast and regular beta waves much like awakearoused state 0 are essentially paralyzed and cannot be easily awakened Q dreams occur in this stage even if we can t remember them 0 2025 of total sleep time in adults 80 for newborns Q Why do we sleep I protection sleeping the the darkness when predators loomed about kept our ancestors out of harms way I recuperation sleep helps restore and repair brain ssue l consolidation of memories sleep restores and rebuilds our fading memories I feeds creative thinking I may help play a role in the growth process during sleep the pituary gland releases growth hormone Older people release less of this and sleep less 0 effects of sleep loss I 1 Impaired concentration I 2 emotional irritability l 3 depressed immune system more likely to catch a cold I 4 greater vulnerability I 5 death 0 Sleep disorders l insomnia a persistent inability to fall asleep or to stay asleep I narcolepsy overpowering urge to fall asleep that may occur while talking or standing up I sleep apnea failure to breathe when asleep I fatal familial insomnia an extremely rare disease that prevents a person from sleeping resulting in death 0 dreams I about 600 hours per year are spent dreaming I 80 of dreams are marked by atleast one negative event Most dreams incorporate previous days experiences and preoccupations l common themes gt falling sexual dreams 0 dream theories I wish fulfillment dreams provide a psychic safety valve through which we express unacceptable feelings and fulfill forbidden wishes 0 we dream about things that we can t have I information processing dreams play a role in filing away memories 0 learning new things before bed and then being woken up many times during sleep will result in less memory of the things learned I physiological function brain activity during REM sleep provides the brain with periodic stimulation and especially in infants this may help to establish neural pathways l Activation synthesis dreaming is nothing more than the brains attempt to make sense of random neural activity that spreads upward through the brain from the brainstem Chapter Review Questions 1 How do psychologists think about consciousness a They say it is our awareness of ourselves and our environment They also agree that there are some key functions consciousness serves such as the link between brain activity and our mental processes including consciousness 2 What is the notion of dual processing a dual processing refers to the idea that our brain deals with psychological functioning on two different levels the high road of being able to process the things which we are aware of and the low road in which our brain automatically processes things going on around us which we are not aware of 3 What is selection attention and associated phenomena of inattentional and change blindness a Selection attention is the mental spotlight that focuses conscious awareness on a very limited aspect of all that we experience It allows us to concentrate on what we need to be doing and block outor filter out the sights and sounds around us lnattentional blindness refers to the phenomenon that can happen when we are distracted and can miss out on things happening right in front of our eyes Change blindness is the phenomenon that happens when you don t pay attention to little details around you and can miss changes that take place 4 How do we sleep and why do we sleep and dream a our sleep is based on our body s biological clock called the circadian rhythm When asleep we sleep in stages that are separated into 5 different stages each with distinct brain activity taking place We sleep for protection recuperation consolidation of memories to help feed our creative thinking and to help with the growth process Chapter 4 Nature Nurture and Human Diversitv Q What causes our striking diversity in psychological functioning and our shared identity 0 Type A personality more aggressive ambitious and controlling 0 Type B personality people are more passive and easygoing 0 people differ in many aspects of psychological functioning but are also very similar in some aspects as well I all humans share similar kinds of body mechanisms 0 Behavioral Genetics the study of effects of environmental and genetic factors and their interplay on differences in psychological traits 0 genes our codes for life I every cell in the body contains chromosomes 46 total 23 from each parent I each chromosome is made up of two strands of DNA connected in a double helix Genes are small segments of DNA molecules l genes gt DNA gt chromosomes I genes are hereditary Q can be repressed or activated 0 environment plays a role in activating certain genes 0 think of genes as a tea bag that you put into the water the environment and the genes are released activated into the water 0 Twin and adoption studies I identical twins develop from a single fertile egg and are genetically identical 0 same DNA different environment gt if intelligence is the same it must be due to genetics If intelligence is different it must be due to the environment I fraternal twins develop from separate fertilized eggs and share half their genes just like siblings 0 different DNA Same environment gt if intelligence is the same amongst the twins than it is due to the environment If intelligence is different it must be due to genetics 0 Separated Twins l identical twins separated at birth and raised apart tend to be more similar in their psychological makeup than fraternal twins I example of Jim Lewis and Jim Springer living almost the exact same life while being separated from one another 0 Biological Vs Adoptive relatives l adoptive children do not closely resemble their adoptive parents and more similar to their biological parents I environmental influence is higher on choosen things like religion morals politics and manners l Environment has a modest effect among the adoptive situation I siblings can be very different due to the different in environment or how they were raised before the other sibling came along 0 molecular genetics l the goal of molecular genetics is to identify specific genes that influence normal human traits such as body weight sexual orientation and basic personality traits l genes do influence behavior I scientists are trying to find genes that produce diseases amongst people by finding a family member with a positive test result for that disease and comparing other family members genomes to see if they have it as well 0 Heritability of a trait is a mathematical estimate of the extent to which variation among individuals can be attributed to their offspring genes it can range from O to 1 l Personality 4050 Schizophrenia 80 Major depression 40 Q Evolutionary Psychology 0 Misunderstandings l evolution does not equal genetic determinism l evolution does not mean our behavior cannot be changed I evolutionary theory does not mean organisms can compute complex mathematical formulas l evolutionary psychology does not claim that the current collection of adaptive mechanisms that make up humans is any way optimally designed I it is not all about gene reproduction but the products of natural selection tend to be problem specific 0 Natural selection organisms varied offspring compete for survival Certain behavioral characteristics increase odds of survival in a particular environment Offspring that survive can reproduce and pass on their genes l changes in gene frequencies l building bodies that work better 0 evolutionary psychologists believe our tendencies as humans have been shaped by evolution 0 Gender differences in sexuality 0 female reproductive strategies I produce fewer children over limited life span l females seek males who have resources to protect them and their offspring l females evaluate males on basis of earning capacity ambition industry status and maturity l females attracted to male love acts that display his resources 0 male reproduction strategies I can conceive from puberty until death lots of potential offspring l males seek females who can reproduce l males evaluate females on basic of youth health and beauty I males attracted to female love acts that signal reproduction capabilities 0 men and woman by nature must differ in their optimal mating behaviors 0 universal tendency in desired age for potential mate I men tend to seek younger women who are most likely to be fertile l women tend to desire older men who are most likely to have financial resources 0 men and women become jealous for different reasons I men become more upset by sexual infidelity l women feel more threatened by emotional infidelity 0 men have a lower threshold for perceiving warm responses as a sexual comeon Experience and brain development 0 whether early environment is impoverished or enriched has a major impact on brain development I a more enriched environment allowed the cortex to develop large and thicker in rats than an impoverished environment 0 a trained brain a well learned finger tapping task practiced thousands of times activated more motor cortex neurons than were active in the same brain before training I if you don t use the neural connections they will be lost and go away parents and peers 0 parents especially extreme have an impact on their children Abused children are more likely to abuse their own children when they are older But shared environmental influences on personality and intelligence are fairly small impacts 0 peers have large influences on a variety of behaviors and traits They play a larger role in shaping personality that parents do cultural influences 0 culture behavior ideas attitudes values and tradtions shared by a group transmitted from one generation to the next 0 animals can t build a culture amongst themselves The major thing that separates humans from animals is the mastery of language 0 cultural norms rules for expected and accepted behavior I personal space culture and the self 0 individualistic cultures western culture I self is independent emphasizes the virtues of independence autonomy and selfreliance I define themselves by internal thoughts feelings and actions opposed to others I these cultures value uniqueness I you are your own thing and everyone around you is their own thing I people strive for personal achievement 0 have the tendency to overestimate own contributions to team effort take credit for self and blame others for failure 0 collectivist cultures l self as interdependent emphasizes the virtues of interdependence cooperation and social harmony l connection between people is valued over uniqueness I you are a part of everyone around you I people derive more satisfaction from the status of the valued group 0 tendency to underestimate own role and present self in more modest selfeffacing terms in relation to other members of the group Chapter Review Questions 1 What does the subfield of behavioral genetics focus on a The study of effects on environmental and genetic factors and their interplay on differences in psychological traits what do evolutionary psychologists study a They look at how our tendencies as humans have been shaped by evolution what is known about peer versus parent influences on traits a Peers have a much larger influence on our traits than parents do Parents have a very small influence on our personality and intelligence what is known about gender differences and similarities a There are striking differences between males and females such as women having a more keen sense of smell and being twice as vulnerable to depression and anxiety well as girls trend to be more cooperative and less competitive in their play than bays Men are mo rec pro he to physical aggression than women and more omjinant forceful and independent than women But the gender differences are actually quite small between the two


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