CHM 116 Exam I Study Guide
CHM 116 Exam I Study Guide CHM 116
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gayatri on Saturday February 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CHM 116 at Purdue University taught by Dr. Nash in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 619 views. For similar materials see CHM 116 in Chemistry at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 02/07/15
CHM 11600 Exam 1 Study Guide Terms of Concentration o Molarity moles soluteLiters solution Molality moles solutekg solveny Parts by massvolume massvolume of solutemasvolume of solution Mole fraction X moles solutetotal moles solution Parts per million mass solutemass solution X 1000000 0 All but molarity are independent of temperature change Express rates of reaction with regard to reactant or product concentration changes 0 For the reaction aA bB 9 cC dD Rate in 2 LE 2 w a At b At c At d At Rate law general form Rate kAx where k rate constant affected by temp A concentration of reactant in molL and X reaction order determined experimentally Reaction order order or magnitude by which the concentration of a reactant affects the rate of the reaction 0 Can be 012etc Deriving the rate equation rate constant and reaction order from experimental data 0 Step 1 Look at data compare changes in rate with changes in reactant concentration I If conc doesn t affect rate 0 order I If 2x conc 9 2x rate 1 order I If 2x conc 9 4x rate 2 order 0 Step 2 Write general rate law using order and reactant 0 Step 3 Plug in values from data to nd k Units of Rate Constant k 0 0 order molLs o 1 order Us 0 2 order Lmols Differential rate as a function of concentration and integrated conc as a function of time rate laws for zero rst and second order reactions To determine the order of reaction using graph data check for linearity and inspect x and y values 0 If graph of A vs time is linear 0 order 0 If graph of In A vs time is linear 1 order 0 If graph of l A vs time is linear 2 order Halflife for zero rst and second order reactions 0 0 order half life Ainitial2k o 1 order half life ln 2k o 2 order half life lkAinitial Factors affecting reaction rates 0 Concentration if increased more particles are present which leads to more collisionstime which increases reaction rate 0 Temperature if increased particles move faster collision energy increases fraction of effective collisions with energy equal to or greater than Ea increase so reaction rate increases Ea on a reaction energy diagram distance from reactants to transition state calculate verticle distance potential energy Arrhenius equation used to nd Ea from experimental data 0 k AeAEaRT 0 Simpli ed usable version lnk2kl EaRTlTllT2 An elementary step represents a single molecular event and its molecularity equals the number of colliding particles OOOO o The rate law of an elementary step can be determined nonexperimentally just by looking at the coefficients of the reactants Relationship between reaction mechanisms and elementary steps 0 Reaction mechanisms are sequences of single reaction steps that sum up to make an overall reaction 0 Elementary steps are the single reaction steps Ratelimiting step slowest step in a reaction determines the rate law for the overall reaction Roles of catalysts 0 To speed up chemical reactions without being consumed by lowering activation energy through the means of providing an alternate reaction mechanism Two types I Homogenous exist in solution with the reactions I Heterogenous takes effect of reactants in a different phase
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