POL 203 study guide
POL 203 study guide POL 203
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Frannie Notetaker on Saturday February 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to POL 203 at University of Miami taught by in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 233 views. For similar materials see International Relations in Political Science at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 02/07/15
POL 203 PREP Chapter 1 Collective good problem the problem of how to provide something that bene ts all members of a group regardless of what each member contributes to it Collective goods are easier to provide in small groups than in large ones Three basic principles dominance reciprocity and identity offer possible solutions to the core problems of getting individuals to cooperate for the common good without a central authority to make them do so Dominance establishing a power hierarchy in which those at the top control those below like a government but without an actual government eg UN ve superpowers hold vetoes Pros order stability predictability Cons oppression resentment Reciprocity rewarding behavior that contributes to the group and punishing behavior that pursues selfinterest at the expense of the group Pros Incentives for mutual cooperation Cons downward spirals complex accounting Identity it does not rely on selfinterest members of an identity community care about the interest of other in that community enough to sacri ce their own interests to bene t others Eg ethic group gender group or the world s scientists Pros sacri ce for group rede ne interest Cons demonizing an outgroup Levels of analysis individual domestic interstate and global FrancoPrussian War 18701871 WWI 19141918 WWII 19391945 Chapter 2 Realism explains international relations in terms of power Liberalism eg Woodrow Wilson emphasizes international law morality and international organizations rather than power alone as the key in uences on international events Sun Tzu showed rulers how to use power to advance their interests and protect their survivals Same time Thucydides wrote an account of the Peloponnesian War focusing on relative power among the Greek city states stating that quotthe strong do what they have the power to do and weak accept what they have to acceptquot Machiavellian refers to excessively manipulative power maneuvers After World War II scholar Hans Morgenthau argued that international politics is governed by objective universal laws based on national interests de ned in terms of power not psychological motives of decision makers He reasoned that no nation had quotGod on its sidequot a universal morality and that all nations had to base their actions on prudence and practicality He opposed the Vietnam War arguing in 1965 that a communist Vietnam would not harm US national interests Power is often de ned as the ability to get another actor to do what it would not otherwise have done Power In uence Relative power is the ratio of power that two states can bring to bear against each other What realists care about Realists believe that the international system exists in anarchy a term implies not complete chaos or absence of structure and rules but rather the lack of a central government that can enforce the rules Most realists think that IR cannot escape from a state of anarchy and will continue to be dangerous as a result In this anarchic world realists emphasize prudence as a great virtue in foreign policy Thus states should pay attention not to the intentions of other states but their capabilities Norms of behavior Sovereignty means that states should not intervene in the internal affairs of other states Realists acknowledge that the rules of IR often create a security dilemma a situation in which states actions taken to ensure their own security threaten the security of other states The responses of these other states in turn threaten the rst state The dilemma is a prime cause of arm races The security dilemma is a negative consequence of anarchy in international system Realists tend to see the dilemma unsolvable whereas liberals that it can be solved through development of institution Balance of power refers to the general concept of one or more states power being used to balance that of another state or group of states This makes the system stable that the states sovereignty does not collapse into a universal empire however it doesn t imply peace Bandwagoning opposed to balance weak states ally with a strong state Great powers strong military forces and economics Neorealism explains patterns of international events in terms of the system structure rather than in terms of the internal makeup of individual states Power transition theory holds that the largest wars result from challenges to the top position in the status hierarchy when a rising power is surpassing the most powerful state According to this theory peace among great powers results when one state is rmly in the top position and the positions of the others in the hierarchy are clearly de ned and correspond with their actual underlying power Hegemony is one state s holding a preponderance of power in the international system allowing it to singlehandedly dominate the rules and arrangements by which international political and economic relations are conducted Hegemonic stability theory holds that hegemony provides some order similar to a central government in the international system Hegemons can help resolve or at least keep in check con icts among middle powers or small states maintain free trade and global economic growth Alliance longer term Coalitionshorter term NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization Article V members to come to the defense of a fellow member under attack Statecraft the art of managing state affairs and effectively maneuvering in a world of power politics among sovereign states Strategy of deterrence uses threat to punish another actor if it takes a certain negative action Strategy of compellance used after deterrence failed refers to threat of force to make another actor take some action Prisoners Dilemma The collective goods problem is A quotquotU 00 the problem of how to provide something that bene ts all members of a group regardless of what each member attributes that states are taking unilateral security actions that the majority of world s resources are consumed by a small percentage of the world population that communes are no longer promoting economic growth that the global nancial system that is increasingly interconnected How do dominance and reciprocity compare as solutions to collective goods problems Dominance A B C D E relies on a power as a central authority whereas reciprocity operates without any central authority has advantages and disadvantages whereas reciprocity only has advantages forms the basis of most institutions in the international system whereas reciprocity has limited application is the basis of cooperation in the International Relations whereas reciprocity typically leads to con ict works best in small groups whereas reciprocity works better in large groups In 2010 Russia promised to give Iran nuclear fuel in return for its enriched uranium This type of nuclear deal can be considered as an example of which principal W009 Dominance Reciprocity Identity Collective Interest Collective Good Chapter 3 Liberal Theorists generally see the rules of International Relations as slowly incrementally evolving through time and becoming more and more peaceful This evolution results primarily from the gradual build of international organizations and mutual cooperation reciprocity and secondarily from changes in norms and public opinion identity Kent gave three answers based on reciprocity principle states could develop the organizations and rules to facilitate cooperation speci cally by forming a world federation UN at a lower level of analysis peace depends on the internal character of governments trade promotes peace economic interdependence An international regime is a set of rules norms and procedures around which the expectations of actors converge in a certain issue area Collective security refers to the formation of a broad alliance of most major actors in an international system for the purpose forjointly opposing aggression by any actor Democratic peace refers to that although the democratic state ght war against authoritarian states democracies almost never ght each other Constructivism asks how states construct their interest through their interactions with one another Most con ict resolution uses a third party whose role is mediation between two con icting countries If both sides agree in advance to abide by a solution devised by a mediator the process is called arbitration Militarism is the glori cation of war military force and violence through TV lms books and other such avenues Realism recognizes only a negative kind of peace the temporary absence of war Positive peace refers to a peace that resolves the underlying reason of a war peace that is not just a cease re but a transformation of relationships Constructivist argue that state identities are constructed through socialization Based on the de nition of the term all but which of the following are likely agents of socialization the media elements of power educa on public discourse government institutions W009 When US PresidentJimmy Carter invited Palestinian and isreali leaders to camp david in 1978 to discuss a possible peace treaty this illustrate the concept of mediation citizen diplomacy arbitration anage shuttle diplomacy W009 The glori cation of war and military force and the structuring of society around war is known as the militaryindustrial complex national security militarism warrior cult structural violence W009 Negative Peace A focuses on the underlying reasons for war positive peace B is initiated by the aggressive party to the war C refers to proxy wars D refers to the temporary absence of war
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