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C OF C / Biology / BIOL 112 / Who are the ingestive eaters?

Who are the ingestive eaters?

Who are the ingestive eaters?

Description

School: College of Charleston
Department: Biology
Course: Evol, Form, and Func of Organisms
Professor: Bidwell
Term: Fall 2016
Tags:
Cost: Free
Name: Class Notes 3/1-3/17
Description: These, plus the next upload, will be on the third exam
Uploaded: 04/10/2016
8 Pages 353 Views 0 Unlocks
Reviews


ol.lst-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-7 0}.lst-kix_i9m4s65loxvq-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_i9m4s65loxvq-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_i9m4s65loxvq-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_b5wanci8yz6s-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_b5wanci8yz6s-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_c7kjjtwwkehh-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-4}.lst-kix_c7kjjtwwkehh-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_b5wanci8yz6s-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_b5wanci8yz6s-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_c7kjjtwwkehh-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_b5wanci8yz6s-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_cxcr3euklgsu-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-2}.lst-kix_c7kjjtwwkehh-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_cxcr3euklgsu-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-1 0}ul.lst-kix_cxcr3euklgsu-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cxcr3euklgsu-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-0,decimal) ". "}ul.lst-kix_cxcr3euklgsu-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_c7kjjtwwkehh-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_cxcr3euklgsu-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cxcr3euklgsu-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_c7kjjtwwkehh-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_cxcr3euklgsu-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_c7kjjtwwkehh-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_i9m4s65loxvq-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_fwp260q6bxr5-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_c7kjjtwwkehh-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_fwp260q6bxr5-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_i9m4s65loxvq-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_m1m8rxik90ag-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_i9m4s65loxvq-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_i9m4s65loxvq-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_fwp260q6bxr5-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_kvne7s6qelaq-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_i9m4s65loxvq-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_i9m4s65loxvq-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_m1m8rxik90ag-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_m1m8rxik90ag-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_fwp260q6bxr5-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_kvne7s6qelaq-1 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_m1m8rxik90ag-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_m1m8rxik90ag-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_kvne7s6qelaq-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_m1m8rxik90ag-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_m1m8rxik90ag-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_m1m8rxik90ag-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_m1m8rxik90ag-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-4,lower-latin) ". "}ul.lst-kix_cxcr3euklgsu-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_fwp260q6bxr5-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_kvne7s6qelaq-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_c7kjjtwwkehh-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_kvne7s6qelaq-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_48lqcldiqjo6-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_kvne7s6qelaq-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_kvne7s6qelaq-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_kvne7s6qelaq-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_48lqcldiqjo6-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_48lqcldiqjo6-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_b5wanci8yz6s-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_y4wna3epuaja-8 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_b5wanci8yz6s-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_b5wanci8yz6s-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_48lqcldiqjo6-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_b5wanci8yz6s-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_b5wanci8yz6s-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_kvne7s6qelaq-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_48lqcldiqjo6-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_b5wanci8yz6s-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_b5wanci8yz6s-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_n3ew2nkwq2t8-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_n3ew2nkwq2t8-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_n3ew2nkwq2t8-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_n3ew2nkwq2t8-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_n3ew2nkwq2t8-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_48lqcldiqjo6-8 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_n3ew2nkwq2t8-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_n3ew2nkwq2t8-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_48lqcldiqjo6-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_n3ew2nkwq2t8-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_n3ew2nkwq2t8-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ilx17e62lsl-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ilx17e62lsl-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_cxcr3euklgsu-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ilx17e62lsl-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_cxcr3euklgsu-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ilx17e62lsl-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-6 0}.lst-kix_7fte4xrw8gxy-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_7fte4xrw8gxy-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ilx17e62lsl-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_48lqcldiqjo6-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ilx17e62lsl-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ilx17e62lsl-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_48lqcldiqjo6-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ilx17e62lsl-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_jgz4mcbo49ay-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_jgz4mcbo49ay-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_jgz4mcbo49ay-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_o00cl6ot7yia-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_o00cl6ot7yia-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_jgz4mcbo49ay-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_jgz4mcbo49ay-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-0 0}.lst-kix_7fte4xrw8gxy-0 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_jgz4mcbo49ay-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ilx17e62lsl-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_jgz4mcbo49ay-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ilx17e62lsl-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ilx17e62lsl-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ilx17e62lsl-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_o00cl6ot7yia-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_o00cl6ot7yia-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_o00cl6ot7yia-8 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_ilx17e62lsl-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nd3mpwii54tl-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ilx17e62lsl-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nd3mpwii54tl-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_jgz4mcbo49ay-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ilx17e62lsl-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nd3mpwii54tl-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_jgz4mcbo49ay-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ilx17e62lsl-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nd3mpwii54tl-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ilx17e62lsl-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nd3mpwii54tl-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nd3mpwii54tl-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nd3mpwii54tl-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_7fte4xrw8gxy-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_nd3mpwii54tl-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nd3mpwii54tl-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_7fte4xrw8gxy-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_cxcr3euklgsu-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_7fte4xrw8gxy-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_cxcr3euklgsu-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-8}.lst-kix_y4wna3epuaja-0 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_kvne7s6qelaq-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_cxcr3euklgsu-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_kvne7s6qelaq-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_y4wna3epuaja-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_kvne7s6qelaq-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_kvne7s6qelaq-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_b5wanci8yz6s-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_kvne7s6qelaq-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_b5wanci8yz6s-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_kvne7s6qelaq-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_y4wna3epuaja-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_y4wna3epuaja-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_kvne7s6qelaq-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_kvne7s6qelaq-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_kvne7s6qelaq-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-2 0}.lst-kix_nd3mpwii54tl-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_fwp260q6bxr5-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_fwp260q6bxr5-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_n4bb53w7bbag-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_m1m8rxik90ag-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_n4bb53w7bbag-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_c7kjjtwwkehh-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_b5wanci8yz6s-1 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_c7kjjtwwkehh-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_c7kjjtwwkehh-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_c7kjjtwwkehh-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_c7kjjtwwkehh-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_c7kjjtwwkehh-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_c7kjjtwwkehh-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_m1m8rxik90ag-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_c7kjjtwwkehh-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_b5wanci8yz6s-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_c7kjjtwwkehh-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_48lqcldiqjo6-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_48lqcldiqjo6-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_48lqcldiqjo6-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_48lqcldiqjo6-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_m1m8rxik90ag-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_48lqcldiqjo6-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_48lqcldiqjo6-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_48lqcldiqjo6-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_m1m8rxik90ag-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-3 0}ul.lst-kix_48lqcldiqjo6-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_48lqcldiqjo6-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_dp4coahf315l-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_dp4coahf315l-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_dp4coahf315l-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_dp4coahf315l-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_dp4coahf315l-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_o00cl6ot7yia-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_o00cl6ot7yia-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_dp4coahf315l-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-3}ul.lst-kix_o00cl6ot7yia-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_o00cl6ot7yia-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_766pon3jq985-1 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-4 0}.lst-kix_766pon3jq985-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_766pon3jq985-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_766pon3jq985-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_dp4coahf315l-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_766pon3jq985-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-5}.lst-kix_n4bb53w7bbag-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_n4bb53w7bbag-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_n4bb53w7bbag-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_n4bb53w7bbag-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_n4bb53w7bbag-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_nd3mpwii54tl-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_o00cl6ot7yia-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_nd3mpwii54tl-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_o00cl6ot7yia-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_o00cl6ot7yia-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_o00cl6ot7yia-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_n4bb53w7bbag-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_nd3mpwii54tl-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_o00cl6ot7yia-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_nd3mpwii54tl-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_nd3mpwii54tl-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_nd3mpwii54tl-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_766pon3jq985-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_766pon3jq985-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_766pon3jq985-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_766pon3jq985-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_nd3mpwii54tl-8 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_766pon3jq985-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_766pon3jq985-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_766pon3jq985-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_766pon3jq985-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-1}ol.lst-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-5 0}ul.lst-kix_766pon3jq985-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_jgz4mcbo49ay-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_jgz4mcbo49ay-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_jgz4mcbo49ay-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_nicuwcqg8tcp-7}.lst-kix_jgz4mcbo49ay-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_n3ew2nkwq2t8-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_n3ew2nkwq2t8-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_jgz4mcbo49ay-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_766pon3jq985-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_jgz4mcbo49ay-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_766pon3jq985-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_n3ew2nkwq2t8-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_n3ew2nkwq2t8-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_jgz4mcbo49ay-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_jgz4mcbo49ay-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_766pon3jq985-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_n3ew2nkwq2t8-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_766pon3jq985-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_n4bb53w7bbag-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_jgz4mcbo49ay-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_n4bb53w7bbag-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_n4bb53w7bbag-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_n3ew2nkwq2t8-0 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_n4bb53w7bbag-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_n4bb53w7bbag-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_n3ew2nkwq2t8-1 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_n4bb53w7bbag-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_n4bb53w7bbag-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_dp4coahf315l-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_n4bb53w7bbag-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_n4bb53w7bbag-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_n3ew2nkwq2t8-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_n3ew2nkwq2t8-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_dp4coahf315l-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_o00cl6ot7yia-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_o00cl6ot7yia-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_o00cl6ot7yia-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_7fte4xrw8gxy-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_o00cl6ot7yia-7 > li:before{content:"- 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EXAM 3 Don't forget about the age old question of the value of the housing services provided by the economy's owner-occupied houses is
We also discuss several other topics like Name the 3 bones responsible for sound.

Animals

Animals are the species that dominate the earth

Ingestive Consumers → Eats (venus fly trap, some bacteria)

  • Excrete excess nitrogen
  • Multicellular
  • heterotroph 
  • Eukaryotic

We also discuss several other topics like What are the general trends of resonance?

usually...

  • no cell walls
  • sexually reproduce (some asexually)
  • diploid (except for gametes)
  • excitable (nervous and muscular) tissue
  • similar embryology (blastula and gastrula)

  • oldest fossil animals are 700 myo
  • evolved from ancestor of Colonial choanoflagellate protist 
  • ingested food but ≠ multicellular
  • thus plants are cells that colonize → (colonial)

Don't forget about the age old question of Give an example of a parallel inpendence.

Colony

  • not necessarily specialized or differentiated
  • each cell feeds for itself completely even though they grow together

We also discuss several other topics like 4 chordate characteristics

Multicellular

  • Independence - interdependence
  • specialization (undergone differentiation)
  • Feeding cells
  • Reproduce cells

If you want to learn more check out Explain what atomic spectroscopy is.

Porifera: Mannesponge

  • First animals
  • No organs! (heart, head, muscles, nerves)
  • Colonial, but cell have differentiated

Cnidaria: soft bodies - anemones

Ctenophores: jellies

  • Nerves and eat! (like the first)

Bilateral - symmetrical from side to side

Breakthrough - now we have a head (sensory organs)

  • Advance in muscles
  • Deuterostomes - chordates - vertebrates

                          - echinoderms (radially symmetrical)

  • Protostomia

*Metamorphism is much more common than live birth

(butterflies, crustaceans, frogs, fish)

Animal Cells

  • No cell wall
  • No chloroplasts
  • Have centrioles and centrosomes, smooth and rough ER, mitochondria, nucleus

Organization:

Atoms → molecule →organelle → cell(muscle) → tissue → organ → organ system

Types of Cells

Sperm digest their way through the jelly

*human eggs have thick vitelline envelope

 = zona pellucida (no jelly)

  • Head digest through the jelly
  • Contains nucleus
  • Is chemosensory to follow chemical tails
  • Mitochondria power the movement

of flagella

  • Humans do not need vacuole (sugar and  storage) because the semen has its own sugar
  • Humans have a specialize “super” mitochondria

*rarely that an animal will self fertilize

Cell signaling: (prezygotic barriers)

  • Prevent wrong species from penetrating the egg

Polyspermy: - prevents more than one sperms from penetrating the egg

        *chemoattraction - proteins on egg and sperm surface attract each other

    - Chemical signal sent out

        Once in, sperm and nuclei fuze = Zygote (2n)

  • Sperm only gives nucleus

Acrosome

   

Makes digestive enzymes to get through egg

   

Not activated until surface proteins light up

Differential gene expression

  • Multicellular individual have same genes, but look and act differently
  • It is not what genes the cell has, but what genes they use
  • Pattern of gene expression = cell differentiation

  • Cells figure out what they will be in embryogenesis
  1. Cell division (mitosis)
  2. Cell movement/expansion
  3. Cell death
  4. Cell specialization/differentiation
  5. Cell interaction

Cortical granules

  • Triggered by sperm connecting with plasma membrane
  • Create biochemical changes that left and separate the vitelline envelope from the plasma membrane (which prevents polyspermy)
  • Triggers a wave of cations that cause osmosis and flow of water that prevents other sperm from entering

Apoptosis - programmed cell death

Pattern Formation: (body plan)

  • Early signal are master regulators
  • Have cascading effects
  • Position of cells determines fate
  • Turn on genes that control other genes
  • i.e. transcription factors, molecules that activate/ deactivate genes

Maternal Effect genes - Master regulators - determine anterior and posterior

Gap genes - formed on by MEG and define several broad areas to regulate

(ex: head, thorax abdomen)

Pair rule genes activated by gap - split each segment to anterior and posterior parts

        (ex anterior thorax and posterior thorax)

        

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