Nutrition Midterm Study Guide
Nutrition Midterm Study Guide Nutri-130
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Erin Messier on Sunday February 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Nutri-130 at University of Massachusetts taught by Claire Norton in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 116 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Nutrition in Public Health at University of Massachusetts.
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Date Created: 02/08/15
Erin Messier Nutrition 130 Midterm Study Guide Chapter 1 Leading Causes of death in US population related to nutrition Heart Disease Cancer Stroke Type 2 Diabetes Good reporting of scienti c research the scienti c method and development of research based on nutrition knowledge Observationleypothesislj Experimentlmodi ed hypothesis Observationsl Data supports Hypothesisl Repeat Experimentl Accept Hypothesis OR Observationsl Data does not support hypothesisl RejectModify Hypothesis lilhsewalierle Hypothesis Experiment Modi ed hypelhesis Ghee eli ene late suppert hypetheels Date de neltsuppeut lhypetheeie Repeat experiment Rejeet hypothesis liletlila39 hypethesie Aeeept hypelheeie Theater Clinical Trial Shows cause effect change 1 variable same people very complex Epidemiological Case control observational cohort only Shows relationships 6 Classes of nutrients amp energy content Carbohydrates 4 calg Minerals Fats amp Oils 9 calg Vitamins Proteins 4 calg Water RDA Recommended Dietary Allowance average daily nutrient intake levels that meets the requirements of 9798 of healthy individuals Daily Values on right side amount person should consume per serving based on 2000 calorie diet and average adult EAR Estimated average requirements to ful ll needs of 12 healthy individuals in particular life stage or gender group Nutrients chemicals found in foods that are critical to human growth and func on Chapter 3 Organs and accessory organs of digestive tract Mouth mostly mechanical some chemical reward center Amaese Released Esophagus parastasis pushes food down to stomach no digestion occurs here Sphincter Keeps food in organs Stomach hydrochloric acid breaks down proteins and other compounds in food to prepare for absorption Small Intestine Most important organ ofabsorption chemical digestion acidic food comes from stomach Pancreatic enzymes enzymes on wall of intestine and bile help in absorption Accessory organs Salivary glands mouth liverbile pancreas digestive enzymes ampproduces insulin glucagon pepsin gallbladderstores bile Elimination Organs Large intestine rectum anus Disorders of SmallLarge Intestine Diarrhea constipation IBS Irritable bowel syndrome IBD In amed Bowel Disease Chron s Disease Diverticulitis Human Microbiome Known Bene ts Digest Fiber and other components of food prevent growth of harmful bacteria produces Vitamin K Stimulates Immune System Help in normal gut development release potentially bene cial chemicals from food Affected by what dietary components Proteins animals fats carbs Probiotic bene cial bacteria microorganisms in food if you eathelpful to heath Prebiotic substances found in foodthat enhance healthy bacteria growth Food Allergy An immune reaction to protein in food ex peanuts eggs Food Intolerance Discomfort from eating a food not caused by an immunological response ex Lactose intolerance bread and Milk Celiac Disease Gluten protein in wheat rye barley Autoimmune Response in ammatory response in GI poor absorption of nutrients located in gut other symptoms include Osteoporosis infertility and seizures Appetite Psychologicalphysical desire to eat a speci c food or type of food Smells sights of food advertising Hunger physiological sensation to eat Satiety physical feeling of being full Hunger stimulated by nervous system blood glucose Ghrelin HUNGRY Leptin FULLamp PYY higher when eat slowyeating less Hormones chemicals produced in cells that travel in the bloodstream to targets in other parts of the body Chapter 4 Carbohydrates Difference between simple and complex carbohydrates amp food sources Simple Disaccharides 2 sugars Lactose Maltose sucrose table sugar50 fructose they all break down into different monosaccharides Ex Sucrose glucose fructose sugar cane Complex Carbs Long chains of polysaccharides ex Starch Glycogen muscle ber support structure can t digest due to bonds and we don t have enzymes to break it down Whole grain Beans best source of ber fruits veggies Function of Carbs Energy source Brain works best with carbohydrates Primary source of energy for the body composed of carbon hydrogen oxygen 1 gram 4kcal We should eat 5065 Kcal of Carbs Carbs on food label good source of whole grains amp Calculate sugar content 4 g per tsp Digestion of Carbohydrates and hormones involved in blood glucose control Most of chemical digestion occurs in small intestine pancreas sends enzymes to break down large molecules When it s all broken down and goes into cesblood owljblood goes single glucosefructose molecule goes directly to liver Fructose goes straight to liver it does not feed our brain can t handle in big doses Monosachharidesljabsorbed In small intestinetaken immediately to the liver for processingglucoseinto blood supply OR fat OR glycogen Hormones that regulate blood glucose control Blood glucose too highlleSULlN released from pancreas Blood glucose too lowleLUCAGON released from pancreas to keep blood glucose levels steady Glycemic Index Rating of the potential of a food to raise blood glucose levels Low raises blood sugars slowly special K Cereal easy to digest raises blood glucose fastest Things that affect Glycemic index Fiber in food how its prepared foods in combination ex Peanuts or white rice with meat and veggies Higher glycemic index foods Glucose instant mashed potatoes and rice krispies higher than jelly beans be contain fructose highest glycemic index white rice In uenced by type of CHO Preparation Fiber Whole Grain FIRST spot in ingredients AND 2 g Fiber per 100 Calories Serving Recommended Dietary Fiber Intake 25 gday WOMEN 38 gday MEN Beansbest source of ber Add inulin to get more ber Health bene t of dietary ber Lowers risk for CVD Lowers risk for type 2 diabetes lowers serum cholesterol promotes regular bowel movements less risk of diverticulosisdiverticulitis increased fullness sensation Food sources of soluble Fiber dissolved in water digested by bacteria in colon sources citrus berries oats beanslegumes Food sources of Insoluble Fiber not dissolved in water sources wheat bran whole grain and vegetables Health risks of high simple sugar intake Tooth decaybacteria eat simple CHO Bacteria produces acids blood lipidsincreased Heart Disease Risk obesitysoda sweetened green teaetc Speci c health risks of Fructose Large quantitiesBAD metabolized differently Increasing blood levels decreases body s system to detect fullness and increases visceral fat around organs Acts differently than glucose bc it is more readily taken up by the liber and converted to fat HFCS is bad compared to table sugarhoney because it is an increased amount of fructosebody cannot handle it AHA recommendations women65 teaspoons day 25 g men 95 teaspoonsday38 grams Hypoglycemia too much insulin is produced and low blood sugar Treatment low glycemic index meals example beansbrown ricenuts Diabetes Mellitus high blood glucose Type 1 born w it Type 2 insulin cannot serve its purpose anymore Gestational Food Labels Claim high ber5g of more per serving good source of ber 2449g ber per serving Sugar free less than 05 g sugar per serving Reduced sugar 25 less sugar than the referenced food Does NOT mean product has less kcal than comparable product How to calculate sugar content 1 teaspoon 4 g sugar Portion on label regulated by FDA Nutrition Facts Ingredient List De ne Label Health Claim 2 components Substance food food component dietary ingredients Disease or health related condition Ex Cheerios Health Claim on box Fiber containing fruits vegetables and grain products and risk of CHD Claim Along with eating a diet low in fat saturated fat and cholesterol ber may help reduce blood cholesterol levels and the risk for developing heart disease Ex A diet high in calcium reduces risk of osteoporosis MyPlate Carbohydrates recommendations Make half your grains Whole Grains Eat 3 oz of whole grains every day Eat 2 cups of fruit everyday Eat 25 cups of veggies everyday Limit fruit juice Limit sugar to 125 teaspoons 50g per day dietary guidelines Limit sugar to 65 tsp women 95 tsp men AHA Chapter 5 Lipids Saturated No double bonds ex butters long chain of saturated fatty acids stick well together to make solid forms at room temperature Monounsaturated 1 double bond ex peanutolive oil Polyunsaturated 2 double bonds Mono and Poly do not stick well together because they are bent chemically and are liquids at room temperature Omega 3 amp Omega 6 We cannot manufacture them essential fats Omega 3 rst double bond is 3rd from omega end Omega 6 6th carbon has double bond Trans Fatty Acids Altered the properties to get the properties you would get from butter but no longer bent Looks like saturated but has double bond Negative health effects Recommendation is lt2 gday Note even if label says no trans fat Hydrogenated is trans fat Impact on Cardiovascular Health Organ Protection glycerol cell membranes affects transportpermeability hormone production nerves brain is made of fat fuel source 9 Kcalg Role of Cholesterol in Health Bile made in Gallbladder Involved in cell membranes precursor to sex hormones precursor to Vitamin D Digestive amp Accessory Organs Gallbladder releases bile into small intestine Bile breaks fat down into smaller droplets Lipid digesting enzymes from pancreas break triglycerides into smaller particles Bile made of cholesterol being reabsorbed plant from of cholesterol competes for absorptioneliminate Fat goes directly to bloodstream not liver rst HDL Highdensity lipoproteins are half protein accounting for their high density more protein little less fat GOOD cholesterol clears out plaque from picking up Cholesterol from dying cells LDL Low density Lipoproteins are half cholesterol accounting for their implication in heart disease BAD cholesterol Delivers cholesterol to cells Cardiovascular Heart Disease Development of Heart Disease Smoking oxidized LDL reacts with walls of vascular system in ammatory response plaque formation narrowing of blood vessel clot formation Risk Factors Physical inactivity smoking high blood pressure diabetes in ammation abnormal blood lipids gender age family history overweightobesity trans fat intake Food Meals Fats Examples look over in Notes Monounsaturated VERY bene cial fat Trans Fat BAD BAD BAD Restriction 2 g day Saturated Fat AS increased LDL seems to increase HDL Controversial Fatty Acids incorporated into cell walls indicators of health LDL can be involved in build up of plaque Raising HDL some foods may increase HDL main way to raise is through aerobics LDL affected by DIET Eat more monounsaturated fats less trans fats Watch carb intake Food label regulation Claim Meaning Fat Free 05 g serving Low Fat lt 3 gserving Reduced Fat 25 less than reference food Trans Fat Free 0g 05 gserving Lite 13 fewer Kcal MyPlate Recommendations Choose low fat or fat free dairy products Choose lowfat or lean meats and poultry Eat small amounts of healthpromoting oils each day and limit or eliminate solid fats Dietary Guidelines 2035 kCal 10 saturated 2 g Trans fat Cholesterol intake less than 300mg The Mediterranean Diet 0 Change in focus from lowfat to type of fat 0 Focus Foods Whoe grains Vegetabes Legumes Feta cheese or plain yogurt Olives and olive oil Fish Fruit Chicken a few eggs Very little red meat Health Claim Diseasecondition AND Food Nutrient Chapter 1 Alcohol chemical name Ethanol 7 Kcalg Organs involved in alcohol absorption stomach absorbedsmall intestine absorbediverBlood Stream Determinants of alcohol absorption and metabolism Gender men can metabolize more per hour due to more enzymes in stomachs than women Body Size Food Consumed good eat while drinking Amount and frequency a person drinks body will build up enzymes to counteract poison What is one drink 12 ounce pure alcohol 12 ounce beer 10 oz wine cooler 45 ounce of wine 15 of distilled alc shot Moderate Drinking 1 drink per day Women 2 drinks per day Men Health outcomes associated with heavy drinking Cancer Cirrhosis heart disease malnutrition obesity nervous disorders psychological disturbances Binge Drinking drinking 5 drinks within 35 hours Effect of alcohol on metabolism and health Increase in ghrelin reduce insulin sensitivity in cells increase risk of diabetes weight increase FAS Fetal Alcohol Syndrome low birth rate high infant death facial features FAE Fetal Alcohol Effects impaired learning disabilities behavioral problems Never drink while pregnant or breastfeeding Health bene ts of moderate alc consumption Social Enjoyment relaxation decreases heart disease risk good blood lipid pro le raises HDL lowers LDL Alcohol consumed up to 6 hours before you sleep will negatively affect your sleep cycle Chapter 6 Proteins Functions of Protein Cell growth and repair Enzymes Hormones ex Protein hormoneinsulin Fluid and Electrolyte Balance Antibodies Energy 4 Kcalg Proteins enzymes they make metabolic reactions happen need vitamins to be activated Calculate Person s Protein Requirement RDA 081gkg body weight 14 gkg endurance athletesbody builders Too little protein Muscle Wasting Weight loss EDEMA starving children bellies wasted Reduced Immunity Retarded Growth and development in children Whey Protein 30g short term higher increase in plasma amino acid concentration when compared to Casein FAST Casein Protein 7 hours later higher concentration of amino aids when compared to whey SLOW COMPLETE Contains more milk protein than Whey To achieve highest LONG TERM increase in plasma amino acids an athlete should consume CASEIN longer term Protein Quality Complete Protein Incomplete Protein Casein milk protein Egg white soybean Beef How well does the protein in the food satisfy our amino acid requirements Incomplete Protein Missing 1 essential amino acids ex Pea our kidney beans chickpeas pinto beans rolled oats lentils peanut meal whole wheat Complementing Proteins high in amino acids low in amino acids Legumes Nuts and seeds or Legumes Grains LEGUMES ANYTHING Good source of complete protein Eggs and soybeans ex rice and beans How is this bene cial to Vegetarian Diets Risks of inadequate protein intake Biological Genetics DNA amp Sex Hormones Environment Diet routines rituals Stressstress hormones toxins air pollution Global Effects of ProteinEnergy Malnutrition Disorder caused by inadequate intake of protein and energy l Masasmus amp Kwashiorkor Epigenetics teaches us that identical twins always have same disease risk gt FALSE Epigenetics may explain how diet body weight physical activity stress and exposure to chemicals may increase or decrease our risk of heart disease cancer and diabetes lTRUE MyPlate Protein Recommendations More sh beans nuts and seeds Legumes including peas and lentils less meat Protein Formation Cells have DNA Sections of DNA code for Proteins Cell receives message to activate DNA Cells use DNA info to make proteins Proteins run the show and affect health Vitamins and Minerals Chapter 6 In Depth Difference between Water soluble and fat soluble vitamins Water soluble B vitamins thiamin ribo avin niacin B6 Folate Folic Acid B12 amp Vit C Minimal Storage capacity needed every 13 days Fat soluble Vitamin A Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin K Large storage capacity toxicity possible with supplement use needed in periodic dosesweekly or monthly Supplementation Pros Folate for women of childbearing age B12 elderly Vitamin D many people Consover supplementation Unsure of long term outcome toxic overload competition between nutrients for absorption missing many dietary factors whole food is more healthful than individual nutrients Dietary Reference Intake DRI A set of nutritional reference values for the US that applies to healthy people Vitamins that have been identi ed as nutrients that many Americans eat too little of Vitamin D Vitamin B12 lron Mineral Supplements true Supplements taken in large quantities may be toxic supplements of one mineral can compromise the absorption of other minerals the outcome of longterm supplementations over the RDA is unknown Chapter 10 Nutrients involved in Energy Metabolism and Blood health Role of Macronutrients amp Micronutrients in the metabolism Involved in Metabolic processes of body ALL B VlTAMlNSwater solubleThiamin Folateimportant for blood health Ribo avin Vitamin B12 important for blood health Niacin Vitamin B6 lronimportant for blood health lodine Thiamin De ciency symptom Beriberi thin Chronic Alcoholics at risk Good sources whole and enriched grains and pork Niacin De ciency Symptom Pallagra Good sources Whole and enriched grains and meats Was common in southern states in prisons Ribo avin most limited Found in milk and beer Destroyed by light Good sources mushroom and milk B6 related to PMS Food sources Whole grains meat sh some starchy veggies bananas Enriched grains some of the nutrients that are removed during processing are replaced Zinc and ber are NOT replaced lron Niacin and Thiamin ARE REPLACED Forti ed bread means vitamins or minerals have been added to a food in quantities greater than were organically in food ex saltiodine lodine Signi cant good sources lodized Salt seafood bread dairy plants grown in iodine rich soils animals fed those plants De ciency ln adultsleOITER and Uteroduring pregnancyCRETlNlSM amp Mental Retardation Folate De ciency causes NEURAL TUBE defects Function of Coenzyme vitamins act as coenzymes without activation by coenzymes most reactions in the body could not take place Anemia most common nutrient de ciency pale skin exhaustion shortness of breath dif culty focusing reduced performance in academics amp athletics affects 35 million Americans Anemia Folate amp 812 de ciency Folate Causes Anemia Involved in DNA synthesis cell division Women s need increases dramatically during pregnancy De ciency causes neural tube defects Vulnerable groups Pregnant and Fertile Women Good sources Forti ed Bread Products Legumes Green leafy veggies Forti ed Bread vitamins or minerals have been added to food in quantities greater than were originally in food 812 Causes Anemia Coenzyme for blood formation Nerve functioning can be permanent Vulnerable group vegans vegetarians and elderly Good food sources animal products Iron Trace mineral Part of protein hemoglobin and myoglobin in muscle cells Involved in metabolism of carbs Dietary sources Clams Kellog s cereal turkey giblets soybeans pork and beans tomato paste lentils spinach cooked chill with beans beef High risk for iron de ciency Women in reproductive years pregnant women infants young children teens and endurance athletes Iron Toxicity and De ciency Too little in diet Fatigue decreased academic performance and weakness Anemia Most common nutrient de ciency in world Too much in diet Child Death Severe damage to heart central nervous system liver kidneys competition for absorption Most common cause for death in Children Risks of Mineral Supplementation Overdoing it or upsetting balance Associated with neural tube defects Folate Associated with Goiter and Cretinism Iodine De ciencies in Iron Folate 812 can cause Anemia Chapter 9 Bone Health Micronutrients Related to Bone health Calcium Bone Growth and Bone Mass timeline Bone Growth Age 01417 years old Determines bone size begins in womb continues until early adulthood Bone Modeling Young Adult Determines bone shape begins in womb continues until early adulthood Bone Remodeling Throughout life Maintains integrity of bone replaces old bone with new bone to maintain mineral balance involved bone resorption and formations occurs predominantly during adulthood Peek Bone Massdensity Age 30 Bone Density Decreases after Age 40 Calcium 99 of body calcium is found in bone blood calcium level tightly controlled adequate intake values 10001200 mg per day in adults Too little intakeljosteoporosis Major source Milk products some sh some legumes Alternative Sources lima beans sardines plain skim milk yogurt tofu swiss cheese collard greens Functions of Calcium Form and maintain bones and teeth Transmission of nerve impulses Assists in muscle contraction Vitamin D Sources Sunlight exposure full body 300020000 lU Salmon 35 oz of fresh wild salmon 6001000 lU Forti ed Whole Milk 100 IU Forti ed Multi Vitamin 400 IU Func ons Required for calcium and phosphorus absorption Regulates blood calcium levels Stimulates bone growth Necessary for calci cation of bone Vitamin D Toxicity and De ciency De ciency Rickets children Osteoporosis adults Vulnerable Groups Breastfed infants older adults people with dark skin osteoporosis adults Overall loss of bone density beginning when a person reaches 40 years of age Risk Factors of Osteoporsis Calcium reduced intake Vitamin D sunshine or supplements Genetics family member with osteoporosis more likely to develop disease Alcohol excessive alc intake gonna increase keep it moderate Smoking Caffeine intake when calcium intake is low Gender women more at risk than men Menses bone densities Weight Baring Exercise switch up exercises Age MyPlate Recommendations regarding nutrients involved in Bone Health Get 3 cups of low fat dairy or equivalent every day Diagnosed with osteoporosis To help in recover do which of following Drink more milk make sure to get enough sunlight on skin lift weights to the best of her ability TEST Honey has less fructose than table sugar FALSE De ciency of which of the following can cause anemia lron Folate Vitamin 812 Sex Hormones cholesterol Myplate recommends More sh nuts beans Lipids differ in degree of saturation or unsaturation due to double bonds between carbon atoms Which causes increase in LDL Saturated Fat Fundamenta abnormality in type 2 diabetes is the pancreas produces normal insulin but the cells insulin recepetors stop functioning normally NOT factor in development of Coronary Heart Disease high HDL Health problems related to an excessive intake of fructose in comparison to glucose Increase in blood lipids visceral fat disruption of body s normal fullness cueing Following NOT considered complete protein source Kidney Beans Turkey avocado sandwhich on seseme seed bread apple dipped in PB salt with almonds and seseme seeds with olive oil dressing Monounsaturated Fat After digestion what organ is rst to receive nutrient rich blood Liver Vegan which nutrient would u recommend as supplement to bill Vitamin 812 Good source of calcium Milk yogurt collard greens
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