208 Midterm Study Guide
208 Midterm Study Guide ARH 208
Popular in History of Chinese Art
Popular in Art History
This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dianna Montzka on Sunday February 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ARH 208 at University of Oregon taught by Charles Lachman in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 381 views. For similar materials see History of Chinese Art in Art History at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 02/08/15
1 classic decoration and urn shape Yangshao Pottery 3 Very Rare decoration Anthropomorphic forms Masklike face patterns Suggest a religious iconic art Shamanistic ritual or practice Yangshao Pottery was found in the tombs of the Yangshao Coil hand formed potterylow technology Baked at a low temperature not red in a kiln Only have decoration above the waist of the pot Decoration painted and burnished on the surface so it looked sort of shiny and glazed when in reality is was not Painted decoration does not hinder the function The decorations are mostly geometric with only a few excep tions of sh and oral pattems2 Same basic pot shape was found all through the period of the Langshao1 The fact that all this time and effort was put into making these pots when they were just going to be buried really shows the importance and value of the pots These objects were clearly ritual vessels Egalitarian culture rather than hierarchal ggsomewhat rare decoration Longshan Pottery GobletBeaker forms One exception to the thin black pottery was this odd three legged pitcher impractical form for its function looks hand built when all of their pottery was thrown on a wheel The Longshan had much more sophisticated pottery hand thrown pottery can tell because it is very very thin different composition of clay higher porcelain form ring at a higher temp in an actual kiln burnished and polished similar to the Yangshao but the nish was a metallic black no painted decoration only perforations or lines form itself becomes the primary form of meaning function Pieces were in some way ritualistically important decorative pieces not utilitariangt represented a hierarchical society Hongshan Jade Many differently shaped and formed jade pieces in the Hongshan culture jade pieces found in burials Extremely time consuming and complicated process to form the jadehad to be polished down to create any shape all pieces were one of a kind although there were large quantities of Pig Dragon snake like reptilian no idea of original intentions several perforations that were extremely time consuming to rub away and form the hole in the center sug gests it was suspended or worn around the neck of he deceased Jade Plaque placed on the body of the deceased cloud pattern enigmatic object Bat like plaque also placed on the body of the deceased facelike Lianzhu Jade Lianzhu had two main types of j ade pieces the bi disc and the cong tube both of which were produced by the hundreds bi was manufactured and buried in great quantities circular form could suggest a symbolic reference of the heavens cong rectangular chunks of j ade with a large hole bored through the center all the way through to the other side square and circle shape fused together model of the universe vary in size and surface decorationsome surface decorations consist ed of vertical and horizontal bands on some of the larger congs were face and masklike forms these mask like forms could be layered vertically and possibly repre sented different generations also gave a more 3d image to the piece as the face looked different depending on what angle you were looking at the cong bi disk cong tube Why have many Neolithic artifacts been How were Shang bronzes made interpreted as ritualistic objects decorated and used Shang bronzes were the rst bronzes up to this time A11 found in burials they were found in 2 primary contexts l ritual divinities 2set of objects found in a burial There were many tripod like shapes and bases that were called ding as well as pitchers and basins Many of the forms looked like past pottery shapes we have seen but they were being produced with a completely different technology shows the forms are derived from tradition consumption of these bronzes by the rich was a statement of wealth and power and there were NO anthropomorphic gures patterns etc All pieces clearly had much work detail and time put into them so to make such a work of art only to bury it shows the high value and ritualistic aspects of the cultures and their different objects There were such high quantities of all of these objects found in burials suggesting the making of these objects were important to each culture it was done over and over 39 quot 39 j and over again so it only seems that it would be an im 7 portant and ritualistic part of their culture How bronzes are made an alloy composite of other ores primarily copper and tin but also lead deposits of these ores were mined had to be extracted deep within rocks and smelted the fact they were able to mine all these ores tells us how advanced their technology was not only in mining technology but also transportation used the piecemold method to make the bronzes lpiecemold method consisted of creating the piece you want to make out of clay then using that form to create a mold out of more clay 2also needed a core in the middle to subtract the negative space 3the clay mold was in 34 pieces or more and was red and pinned together to be able to hold the shape 4the bronze was then poured in overall this was an extremely complicated and time consuming process that wasted many resources gives us further implications to how important and ritualistic these objects were How bronzes were decorated 2 ways that the bronzes could have decoration added to them 1 decorations on the clay piece to make the mold could have decoration 2 adding decoration to the mold would leave decoration on the bronze These decoration methods were probably discovered on accident At rst only had single bands of decoration and eventually the entire surface was decorated Principals and features of the decoration were very consistent taotie pattern was the masklike monster face that was on many bronzes as the primary decorative element had a ritualistic meaning Secondary decorative element was the square spiral Square spiral lled in the blank spaces and was symmetrical in theory but in the small details the two sides of the piece would be slightly different in the forming and rhythm of these square spirals Other basic geometric shapes were used as grid lines separators seams etc 5 types of decoration 1 Really simple threadlike patterns 2 Thicker lines in bands 3 curvilinear patterns 4 zoomorphic gures 5 zoomorphic with 39 extreme background pattern How bronzes were used The bronzes were exclusively a ritualistic material and burial object Scapulimancy was the ritual practice where scapula bones and turtle shells with gouges and inscriptions would be used for divinations These bones and shells also had inscriptions on them that were the FIRST script found in china Heat was applied to the bone and wherever it would or would not crack would tell the diviner high powered person the answer to his ques tions During this process of connecting with the deceased there would be bronze offerings given to make the deceased happy and keep things on earth going smoothly The bronzes were requirements for carrying out the sacri cial ritual for appeasement of the dead Bronzes in burials were often found in sets which made them more valu able and meaningful Bronzes found in tomb of FuHaofemale Shang Kingvery militaristic had an extremely large bronze trough type object For this hi39l39 fJ ut SliJiE cider brother of R1 Bing a pig is brought as a sacri ce Eur thc deceased mother iii by the name IIi Ding a pig is also slaughtered Mao for the deceased mother Mon a pig Man a pig for Father Ti Sanxingdui Bronzes All of the bronzes and objects found from the SanXingdui site were not in burials or tombs but 4 massive pits not much evidence to support the pits and explain where and who they came from There were no human remains in the pits This site was very far away from the Shang where the only known bronzes were at the time yet these pits were lled with many bronze objects The pits were lled with hundreds of bronze objects of all differ ent shapes styles many were broken or looked like they had been purposely set on re Image 1 shows the only fully intact 9 anthropomorphic gure found in the pits Was thought to be holding an elephant tusk Image 2 shows a head remain from the pits these heads were thought to be mounted on a pole or pedestal of some sort or be able to be connected to a bronze body part if mounted on a pole the neck goes down in a V so that actual cloth robes could be put on to make a whole gure face looks to have a mask gold coating makes the gold look like an additional mask layer ears are very protruding and also have holes in them Image 3 shows the largest bronze piece they found about 8 from ear to ear and took many people or a forklift to carry it eyes are protruding out of the mask Other objects found in the pits looked like steering wheels or plaquesarchitectural elements to hang on walls etc Zhou Bronzes Meanings and Uses The Zhou was a much more militaristic culture that took over the Shang had an emperor who was the tian ming or mandate of Heaven had many vessels for food and fewer for beverages made of bronze this showed that they were more sincere and wanted to portray themselves as responsible unlike the Shang who didn t rule respon sibly and drank a lot Bronzes were decorated with many different patterns unlike the Shang who had only a few patterns they used over and over again Bronzes were still ritualistic but also had other purposes and func tions such as wedding gifts lost wax method was used for the intricate detailing decoration for some of these pieces peicemold method used in collaboration with lost wax Many bronze pieces were found in the Tomb of Marquis Yi Its WSCflplIO reads quotT duke of Gr ot the Jiang tamnly made this premous 1m vessel tor his second daughter In marriage May It glue her long Irte for ten tt rouaand year39s physrcal wellrbemg always and may generations preserve and use It foreverquot Burial Practices of Warring States Period gtgtMarquis Yi 433 BCE The Tomb of Marquis Yi was from the State of Chu very architecturally focused tomb with different rooms large timbers spanned the top of the tomb like a roof had an enclosure of timber planks charcoal packed clay and packed earth which preserved the tomb exceptionally well Section 1 was seen as the entrance hall to the tomb and had many musical instruments including massive bronze bells that were different from bells we are used to because they didn t have the thing inside to make noise they were played with mallets These things in the entrance hall were to show the wealth of Marquis Yi Some of the bronzes had gold or gem inlays Entire bronze or gold pieces used the lost wax method Section 2 is where Marquis Yi s body was along with his personal items and all of his wives Section 3 was the store house where there was food and weapons Section 4 held various cof ns with his servants All of the bodies found were real bodies not replicas in wood or bronze or terra cotta like we see in some other tombs Gold vessel using the lost waX method Marquis Yi s tomb which was made of Lacquer tree sap decoration was transformational as many of the geometric designs were actually gures Bronze vessel us ing the 105tW3X Massive bronze bells that were played with mallets methOd by 2 or 3 people at one time also not pictures was a brass chime set on a wooden frame found in his tomb Tomb of The First Emperor of Qin Background The Qin Dynasty was very short but very important 221207 It was the start of Imperial China as it took over 7 other states to become a large dynasty First emperor was Qinshi Huangdi Standardized weights measurements and currency as well as script so that even if people didn t speak the same language they could read the same language nished the great wall of china by joining the sections that had already been built slave culture Tomb of Emperor Qinshi Huangdi Terra Cotta Army Tomb had a pyramid shape structure In the middle of a persimmon eld clay body parts emerged which turned out to be 20000 gures representing the imperial army pro tecting the Emperor s tomb The gures found were completely accurate with weapons and clothing originally painted but once the gures were dug up the paint dis integrated with the humidity in the air There were a number of different body positions which showed rank Each soldier was individual although they weren t made as portraits of the actual army it was just an allegory for an actual army O LIEILJIEE39TI I Helga quot Ram huul1 quoti quota39iDlllFrH Rum 1 Munsolemn ufhlw Fir 1 Erngwmr Efm j ylrhgunm p11 V r I Wuill Unl 39 WJIEI E H 7 3 ii Wuilbnr 35ml Prisoner Iiiamount j I i t39ml Fit n 751th i Pinti l Trimwarn Army 7 W 39l39n nishnd Ancient l quot 39 Pal1E E i E uJ Top image shows the actual tomb of the emperor Middle image shows the terra cotta army in their courtyard complex Bottom image the army was assembled in assembly lines of modular production with a number of different hands heads and facial features to make each one look different Tomb of Lady Di 168 BCE Han Dynasty 206 BCE220 CE The Tomb of Lady Di in Mawangdui was 1 of two tombs in the Han Dynasty Lady Di s tomb was of a similar architecture structure like Marquis Yi different rooms or sections to the tomb Lady Di s was only one room but the one room had different sections The walls of the side sections of the tomb were covered in silk and con tained goods that were covered in lacquer to be preserved These lacquer vessels were meant to mimic bronze vessels There was continuity of shape of the different objects like past tombs we see but the material was different The tomb contained text writing on silk and bamboo strips that were the earliest version of hand scrolls DIFFERENT from tombs we ve seen prior to this was that Lady Di had no human sacri ces only miniature substitute gures out of wood Also in this time period we realize a change that more people have access to bronzes not just the extremely wealthy quot coal clay and packed earth to preserve the body and all the goods in side the cof n ml WE I Mml l m 22 mm j napalm mm m Eat 1m 35 slim Name Banner or Flying Banner Fei Yi portrait of a woman who was thought to be Lady Di because her autopsy showed she had a hip de fect and would need a cane I 39 to walk and in the image is 2 a lady with a cane Banner was in a T shape 39 l which mimics a ceramic shape known as Penglai or the Island of Immortals the different areas of the banner were broken down into realms with gateway guards small wooden gures instead of actual human The inner cof n of Lady Di was decorated with red and gold imagery of doors and windows to escape in the after world as well as mountains and animals body was wrapped in silk 9 silk bands which is a symbolic number in Chinese cosmology Tomb of Liu Sheng in Mancheng 113 BCE Han Dynasty 206 BCE220 CE Liu Sheng was related to the Han Imperial Line and was more royal than Lady Di This tomb is much more architecturally different than the tombs we see before The tomb was carved out of the mountain side and is more hori zontal than vertical This structure gave actual architectural space not just a hole in the ground tomb Tomb had wood structure but over time it had collapsed The goods in the tomb re ected social status and were shapes and objects we have not seen before The bronzes had inlays of gold and silver similar to warring states period Transformative imagery on objects with geometric shapes form ing gures and animals Oil Lamps found in the tomb symbolic to illuminating the space for the comfort of the deceased The tomb had main spaces which re ected the everyday world and a private space where the body was which was the space of immortality in the space of im mortality everything is made of stonerep 7 resenting permanence and preservation Boshanlu lamp type sculpture with inlaid bronzebottom portion held incense and smoke would come up f through the perforations in the top portion imagery of mountain dragon patterns associated with water Penglai imagery island of immortals Backside of a mirror TLV pattern associated with divinations shows a diagram of the universe stylized mountain motif around the edge cosmological imagery connecting to the 5 sacred mountains nob with perforations in the middle The body was in a Jade shroud which was extremely rare and shows the wealth he had represents the transformation of the deceased into a jade being with a sense of permanence jade plugs found in every opening of the body as well Mingqi Burial Objects Mingqi burial objects Made of clay these objects were made speci cally for burials Similar purpose of the terra cotta army and the wooden gures in the tomb of Lady Di It was taboo to have these objects laying around as everyday objects Produced very inexpensively which allowed many people to have them Categories of Mingqi dwellings with many storiesmountain motifs courtyard structures small clay warriors to serve as protectors sleeve dancer gures ritual storyteller gures with drums animals dogs farm animals many different gure styles QMhWNt K Admonitions Scroll by Gu Kaizhi late 4th Century Typical features of early gure paintings various writings and seals interacting with the image which was part of the original composition not a later comment illustrated text shows the code of etiquette and behavior for women in the court painting is a dialect of moral obligations behaviors teachings painting is read from right to left gures are silhouette against the backgroundthere is no back ground image or ground plane everything is outlines in a thin black line through the positioning of bodies in space the artist creates depth and space image is sort of a pivot reversal on the right there is a mirror where you see the face of the woman who is painted with her back facing the audience and on the left side you see the back of a mirror and the front side of the two women 19 r as w W j ah glibE l i t quot391 I v 739i 39 3quot Pl 3 7 I H i quot 394 l it 1m quot5 q I War 1 39 a all 39u 39139 39 lI D quotLin if I I Major categories of Tang Dynasty Painting w 171 Yan Liben l3 Emperors hand scroll work produced by and for the court portraits of a series of emperors accompanied by ministers and servants gures are plain silhouette against the silk no background or ground plane only a think black outline combination of text and image hierarchy of scalesize of the gure is direct correlation with their importance emperors themselves exude their importance LINE is the basic element of composition political dimension of the gures Yan Liben Tibetan Envoys hand scroll depicts people coming to pay homage to the court others coming to acknowledge the emperor same basic characteristics or silhouetted images with thin black outlines and no background image space is formed by the positions of the gures Yan Liben Tribute Bearers hand scroll depiction of foreigners bringing exotic goods and animals to the emperor respecting and abiding to the emperors power and bringing him your best goods showed the movement of goods west along the Silk Road not only objects but ideas too like Buddhism ideological aspects rare setting in that there is more of a background image but the gures still play a big role in creating the space in the painting Zhou Fang Tuning a Zither Painting of beautiful women of the court in leisure sort of advertisement for the emperor that things were leisurely and well for the court that the emperor was a kind good ruler also shows a small level of background same basic characteristics of the silhouetted images with thin black outlines All of these paintings were politically sponsored Shows Emperor as an important gure Indirectly shows his popularity by having people come to visit and give him their most valued possessions and things from other countries Depictions of the women show how they are supposed to act and behave Shows the court as being peaceful harmonious and wealthy to advertise that the Emperor is good and can create a good environment for his family Some eroticized elements to the paintings of the women either showing the back of their necks or their forearms STUD IMAGE 58 ZHEU FANG TANG DYNASTY LAEIIES WEARING FLOWEES HANDSCR LL INK FIGMENT EN SILK HE E TAIL Only image of the Tang that is very different from the others is below Shows a full background image to create a complete story beginning of landscape painting scale of the different elements is skewed exhibits spatial features and vanishing points with placement of gures atmospheric and optical perspective has a foreground a midground and a background STUDY lMAEE 59 ATTR ZHANG XUFAN TANG DYNRETY PREPARING SILK HANDSCROLL INK FIGI39MENT39 ON SJLK DETAIL 4 wrzm ww awe 1quot die 3345 k11nu4w ac wryya STUDquot IMAGE 60 HAN SAN TANG DYNASTY NIGHTSHJNING WHITE HANDSCROLL lNK Plt aMENT ON SILK STUE IY IMAGE 611114 ZHAU AO TANG DYNASTY MINE HURNE39S FLIGHT TD SHU HANE EERLL INK PJGMENT EN SILK Buddhist Caves at Yungang Datong New ideas and practices associated with Buddhism Buddhism in China occurred of a very long period of time as the ideas of Buddhism were being brought over slowly from India and slowly adapted and understood by the Chinese Silk Road Images and gures were what told the stories of Buddhism Buddha the enlightened one deeper realization Shakyamuni clan name of the Buddhist Siddhartha Gautama THE Buddha Bodhisattva Father of the Buddha still in the world to help other beings not in the Higher World Can be many Buddhists but only one Buddha 4 main in uence at the Caves of Yungang 1 Stone as a material for architecture 2 Stone as a material for sculpture 3 Iconic anthropomorphic deity 4 Monumentalism The caves were architectural and monumental in size Stone was the material that was used for the structure and the sculp ture stone is associated with permanence and immortality there was much destruction at the caves where heads arms or parts of painting had been cut off to preserve them when in actuality they were ruining the whole image caves are relatively shallow and narrowritual practices for small intimate groups were performed in the cave around the gure circumambulation power and awe associated with these large monumental gures some caves has a built front while others have deteriorated and are open to see the gure in its entirety small cutouts in the back of the cave show where large timbers woul have been as a support structure STUB39Y HMAGE 65 YUNGRNC n GENE 20 Six DYNHSTIES SEAT39EEI BUDEHEI HHASEJ
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