Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide Comm 2321
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Becca Rickard on Sunday February 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Comm 2321 at Ohio State University taught by Dr. Hillary Schulman in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 154 views. For similar materials see Writing for Strat Comm in Communication Studies at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 02/08/15
1st Exam Review Guide COMM 2321 Writing for Strategic Communication Please note that parts of the lecture and book are redundant Thus I did not include all concepts under the book that I already listed under quotlecture This does not mean ignore the book s mentioning but rather to use the book to supplement your understanding of the concepts we discussed in lecture Lecture 1 De ning PR 0 Components of PR de nition 0 Be able to identify 3rd parties or publics surrounding an issueifasked Be able to de ne and think through differences between internal and external publics 0 Be able to identify and explain the different tasks required of a PR professional 0 Knowledge of the PR Process Research gt Planning gt Communication gt Evaluation 0 Differences between PR goals and corporate goals 0 Corporate Goals Make money impress investors retain strong employees produce innovative products produce high quality products for as cheap as possible keep clients happy be ef cient PR Goals Maintain a strong reputation anticipate future problems work closely with media amp other outlets compile large amounts of relevant information monitor all aspects of the company articulate business climate to management Stoval Ch 12 0 Work of the PR practioner Handle Communication with InternalExternal Publics Counsel Management on Good Public Relations Practices Work with the News Media 0 Help to Produce Public Functions amp Events 0 Characteristics of the PR practitioner Gathering information and structruing it for speci c formats as a writer Write with intent Can write in a variety of formats and understand their differences Writing gets scrutinizeda lot Grammar is impeccable Honest to both the client and their audiences if they want to maintain respect Needs to know their public and why they are their public Organized How to write news releases also helpful for Week 5 material 0 News Release Checklist The Do s and Don ts of letter writing 0 Different forms of company publications 0 Different forms of oral presentations 0 Identify uncontrolled and controlled PR categories 0 3 things to keep in mind for all PR writing Lecture 2 Ethics in PR 0 Brief history of why ethics is so important in PR 0 The legal environment in PR free speech vs defamation Legal Environment First Amendment Freedom of Speech Commercial Speech protection for truthful marketing of legal products and services Highvalue protected politics religion culture Lowvalue unprotected obscenity criminal threats Opportunity for litigation gt Defamation The publication of material that would hold one up to hatred ridicule contempt or spite Libel published defamation Slander defamation by spoken words gestures or other transitory means Malice defamation of a public gure Fault must be demonstrated writer was negligent or careless gt actual malice 0 Identifying malice Malice defamation of a public gure Fault must be demonstrated writer was negligent or careless gt actual malice Publication Defamation Damage ldenU cann Fault Occurs when plaintiff can prove that defendant knew the published material was false or showed reckless disregard for the truth Ex Tom Cruise39s 50M defamation suit over Suri abandonment claim What are the chances of winning Defenses against a malice charge Af rmative Defensg Truth if the story was true in any way can get off because libel is inherently a false statement Quali ed privilege you quoted someone acting in an official capacity Statute of limitations the suit must be brought within a speci ed period of time 12 years Constitutional privilege 4 guidelines for ethical behavior according to the PRSA According to the PRSA Be honest and accurate in all communications Includes lies of omission Act promptly to correct errors you may have made Preserve intellectual property rights in the marketplace Investigate truthfulness and accuracy of info 0 Be able to de ne and identify all ethical standards advisories Ethical Standards Advisories 1 Illegal Recordings you need proper consent from at least on party participating in the conversation Don39t worry about asking though it39s normal practice 2 Ethical Use of Interns if you39re not going to pay students you need to at least provide them with a valuable work experience 3 Plagiarism unauthorized use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another and representing them as your own work Failure to attribute work More Standards I cannot claim your product is environmentally friendly without proof ll professional con icts of interest III Phantom Expereince in ate resumes credentials capabilities People must pay you for what you do No deceptive online practices gt fake blog No deceptive practice gt using trademark names Disclosure by expert commentators and professional spokesperson of payment and nancial interest Telling the truth gt even if it makes client look bad Report unethical behavior or unprofessional performance Disclosure of employment status StovaI Chapter 13 0 Understand the relationship between the rst amendment and defamation of character 0 De ne defamation Defamation legal term for harming someone39s reputation especially important for people in the media 0 The 5 points of proof in a libel suit Publication den ca on Defamation Fault Damages Affirmative defenses Truth Quali ed Privilege Statute of Limitations Constitutional Privilege Privacy Publication of Private Facts Intrusion into Seclusion False Light Appropriation Copyright and Trademarks Nature of the Copyrighted Material Nature of the Use Extent of the Use Commercial Infringement Lectures 3 amp 4 Research Methods in PR 0 Purpose of preliminary research de nition Preliminary Research informal research gt method of gaining an indepth understanding of an audience nonscienti c gt it39s quotgood old fashioned stalkingquot done as background research record keeping of utmost importance 0 Preliminary research techniques list and de nition of each identify key contacts Media outlets Opinion leaders Experts Special committees organized Focus Groups A small number of people who share some demographic characteristic Meet in small groups Are asked questions by a moderator Responses are observed Casual monitoring check hashtags observe Research on company database internet 0 Being able to identify types of outcomes along with the strengths and weaknesses Thinking about outcomes outputs gt activities undertaken in campaigns takes gt the result of these tactics outcomes gt the resultant changes to behavior The further down the chain the better the outcome The further down the chain the more dif cult the evaluation 0 Be able to de ne identify and apply all industry terms from Napier 1 cuttings gt quotpress clippings bookquot to demonstrate volume and estimate quality 2 Reach gt percentage of the target audience that was reached by campaign 3 Frequency gt how frequently the target audience viewed the campaign 4 Opportunity to see OTS gt combines elements of frequency and reach how likely it is or average views of targeted audience 5 Share of voice gt compares campaign cuttingsreach against a competitor39s cuttingsreach 6 Assigning Financial Value AVE quotAdvertising Value Equivalentquot monetary value for results achieved 7 Editorial Impact Assessing the credibility relevance and other factors related to publications 8 Surveys 9 DIY 0 De ning and understanding survey research along with different response options Survey Research Most common method used in PR Careful detailed sample examinations of the knowledge perception attitudes and opinions of members of various publics You never measure all of these at the same time gure out what you39re trying to get out of your audience before you create a survey Asses both reactions and preferences Publics are created based on demographics or opinions or both 0 Be able to de ne beliefs attitudes and behaviors Belief Judgments about the truthaccuracy of a topic Attitudes goodbad judgments about a topic Behaviors actions When writing questions be conscious of what you39re asking Understand strengths and weaknesses present in all types of research techniques and methods discussed Response Format on Surveys OpenEnded Responses Participants are free to answer a question in any way they39d like Ex What do you like about Ohio State Helpful because you get more variety understanding of perspectives you weren39t expecting etc Unhelpful because long winded answers are hard to give amp hard to sift through CloseEnded Responses Likert Scale Responses range from strongly agree strongly disagree always an odd number amount 5 or 7 scale All positions are assigned a score in order to create an average from respondents Semantic Differential Scale Anchors are labeled with bipolar adjectives always an odd number amount 5 or 7 scale Ex Urban Meyer descriptors Scale 15 with Fun on one end Serious on the other Frequency always vs never is the same as a semantic differential A Few Rules For every variable conceptdomain you want to measure you need AT LEAST 4 items to measure it well Ex I am happy at OSU OSU students are happy I enjoy my major l39m satis ed at OSU If I chose again Different wording can allow for a better grasp on opinions and individual feelings There is such a thing as quotbadquot questions Using ambiguous words eg often some very Causes audience to focus on those words rather than the question overall Doublebarrelled questions eg drugs AND alcohol Leading questions researcher39s opinion is made clear Loaded questions says something about audience based on their answer Double negatives Greco Article 0 Know different types of questions 0 Understand issues with vocabulary in question wording Understand articles discussion of quotbadquot question types discussed under quotFormulating question or discussed in lecture under quotrulesquot 0 Understand issues in formatting Lectures 5 amp 6 Campaign Planning 0 Steps of an Issue Statement Four sentences that exemplify what you39re trying to do within your campaign De nes the issue or problem being addressed by the communication Actually identifying why PR is being hired to deal with a pressing matter serious issues First sentence What is the problem or opportunity being addressed Ussue Second sentence Who are the affected parties affected publics Third sentence What is the timing immediate impending potential timing Fourth sentence What are you strengths and weaknesses strengths and weaknesses For client but more importantly for PR rm 0 Components of a direction sheet Subject of the piece Internal Communications Format PSA brochure magazine TV ad ducks in a row How are you going to be communicating What kind of resources will you need Where are these resources coming from Objective What do you hope to accomplish with this piece Should get everyone on the same page lntended audience Succint direct Angle What39s the hook What do you think you39re going to createuse to draw people in Keyideas Length timing Is it six months is it a year DeadHne You can have more than one direction sheet over a campaign When you go into a project you may know some of these you may not know others These are questions you can ask your client during a meeting so that you can learn what you need 0 How to write an objectives statement 0 Steps of a content analysis de ne explain and apply 0 Understanding components of an experiment and be able to de ne explain and apply these concepts 0 Understanding differences between descriptive versus inferential data 0 Understand different types of sampling techniques 5 discussed in class also be able to reason through the argument about why sampling is so important Bivins Ch 3 0 Difference between primary and secondary research Primary Research data collected for the rst time and speci cally for the project at hand More expensive than secondary research Secondary Research includes data previously collected often by third parties for other purposes and adapted to current needs Can include demographic info already gathered by another department in your organization or research done by parties outside your company Less expensive than primary Conducting a combination of the two is usually the best approach 0 Sampling methods discussed well in this chapter Simple random sampling selecting number you need at random from a master list usually suf cient when your group is homogenous Systematic sampling a computer will randomly select a number and then adds an interval number to it each time to get another number Cluster sampling shorter population because larger initial units are used over individuals Strati ed random sampling randomly selected samples based on further de ning characteristics Quota sampling uses a set number from each mutually exclusive grouping within your population so that every voice is given attention 0 Good examples of survey questions in this chapter as well Open ended question Closedended question with unordered answer categories Closedended question with ordered answer categories Partially closedended question Ladder scale question Likert scale question Semantic differential question Lattimore et al Chapter 6 0 Be able to de ne strategic plans tactical plans public opinion surveys brainstorming scenario construction standing plans singleuse plans goals mission statement Strategic Plans long range plans usually made at the upper levels of management involve decisions concerning major goals of an organization and policies for their implementation Tactical Plans develop speci c decisions about what will be done at every level of the organization to accomplish the strategic plans more concerned with daytoday operation of an organization amp its immediate future Public Opinion Surveys predict reaction to initiatives or actions contemplated by politicians government officials and managers Brainstorming group discussion format for people to share large numbers of ideas creative alternatives etc no negative feedback within the discussion Scenario construction logical hypothetical description of future events is constructed to explore the dynamics of various alternatives Singleuse Plans Campaign Plans nonroutine procedures designed to accomplish unique objectives may include programs projects campaigns amp budgets Standing Plans routine procedures in which the standard policies and methods are used along with rules in place Goals basic direction in which an organization is heading purpose mission objectives and strategies of an organization Mission Statement a set of goals and objectives for the entire organization
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