Management 301 Chapter 8 Book Notes
Management 301 Chapter 8 Book Notes Management 301
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Stephanie Marie on Sunday February 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Management 301 at a university taught by Professor Mangaliso in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 243 views.
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Date Created: 02/08/15
Chapter 8 7 Leadership What is Leadership 0 Many de nitions 0 Organizational leadership an interpersonal process that involves attempts to in uence other people in attaining organizational goals 0 Anyone can do acts of leadership not just the people in charge and at the top 0 However people at the top have more leadership opportunities 0 What is effective leadership 0 In uence that assists a group or organization to perform successfully and meet its goals and objectives Leading and Managing The same or Different Recently scholars have argued that they are different 0 Leadership involves creating a vision for organizations or units setting communicating promoting new directional goals and inspiring subordinates 0 Managing is more mundane such as planning organizing and implementing goals set by the organization s leaders 0 But if we consider managing from a broader perspective then they are more similar 0 Managing ought to include most of the jobs included in a leader s role 0 Some people can be both managers and leaders Leadership and the Use of Power 0 The capacity or ability to in uence Leaders have power but that does not mean they will use it well 0 Reason for resisting using power leaders believe it will cause negative reactions 0 In many circumstances however power can produce positive outcomes Types and Sources of Power 0 Two types of power 0 Position power power based on a person s position and rank in an organization 0 Personal power power based on a person s individual characteristics 0 Position Powers 0 Legitimate power Type of position power granted to a person by the organization Also called formal authority 0 Rewa rd Power A type of position power based on a person s authority to distribute rewards o Coercive Power A type of position power based on a person s authority to administer punishments either by withholding something that is desired or by giving out something that is not desired Example threatening employees with reduced hours or a pay cut if they don t take on more duties Not used as much because it sometimes has employees be less productive 0 Personal Powers attached to a person and stay with that individual regardless of the position or the organization Two Types Expert power 0 A type of personal power based on specialized knowledge not readily available to many people 0 Example physicianpatient relationship Referent Power 0 A type of personal power gained when people are attracted to or identify with that person 0 Great asset Lead by example 0 No formula on how to increase referent power 0 Using Power Effectively o How much power should be used in a given situation Use enough to achieve objects but avoid using excessive power Using too little can result in inaction Use of power is sometimes the only way to accomplish signi cant change To get things done you need power more power than your opposition you must overcome 0 Which types of power should be used Depend of characteristics of the situation and circumstances 0 How can power be put to use To put power to use involves in uence tactics a speci c behavior used to affect the behavior and attitudes of other people 0 Should power be shared Empowerment the sharing of power with others particularly those with more power sharing it with those who have less The Leadership Process Leaders Leaders traits A trait is a relatively enduring characteristic of a person Dominance self esteem Drive motivation to lead honesty integrity Self con dence emotional maturity These traits do not guarantee that a person will be a great leader 0 The special case of charisma o Charismatic leader one who has in uence over others based on the individual s inspirational qualities rather than formal position or power 0 Examples Nelson Mandela Ghandi Strong need for power High levels of self con dence A strong belief in their own ideas 0 bad example of charisma Hitler Leaders Skills and Competencies o Emotional intelligence an awareness of others feelings and a sensitivity to one s own emotions and the ability to control them Self awareness Self regulation Motivation Empathy Social skill 0 Social intelligence the ability to read other people and their intentions and adjust one s own behavior in response Leaders Behaviors 0 Task behaviors Initiating structure behaviors Center of specifying and identifying the roles and tasks of the leaders and their subordinates OOOOO 0 Planning scheduling work setting standards of performance etc People Behaviors Consideration or relationship oriented 0 Being friendly and supportive Showing trust and con dence in subordinates Approaches to Leadership that Emphasize Leaders Behavior 0 Blake and Mouton s Managerial Grid Orientation to tasks and orientation to people Low score high score plotted on a graph Best leaders are highest on both dimensions Heavy emphasis on the leader 0 Transformational Leadership Leader behaviors that inspire followers to make major changes or to achieve at very high levels Transformational leadership leadership that motivates followers to ignore self interests and work for the larger good of the organization to achieve signi cant accomplishment emphasizes articulating a vision that will convince subordinates to make major changes Transformational leaders inspire their followers Opposite transactional leadership Focuses on motivating self interests by exchanging rewards for their compliance emphasizing having subordinates implement procedures correctly and needed but relatively routine changes 0 Authentic Leadership Those who are authentic leaders have high levels of self awareness and self regulation They know themselves well and behave in ways consistent with their own basic characteristics The Leadership Process Followers 0 Those who receive the leadership and in uence 0 Also almost every leader in an organization is also a follower of someone else 0 How the Behaviors of Followers Affect the Leadership Process 0 Approaches to leadership that emphasize followers behaviors Hershey and Blanchard s situational leadership model A model that proposes that different types of appropriate leadership are contingent on some other variable in this case follower s readiness to learn new tasks 0 The Leader Follower Relationship 0 Approach that emphasizes the leader follower relationship Leader member exchange theory A belief proposing that leaders develop different levels of relationships with different subordinates and that the quality of these individual relationships affects the subordinates behavior Approach is time consuming The Leadership Process Situations 0 Types of Situations affecting the leadership pocess Tasks The nature of the work to be performed Is the task structured Do they involve high or low levels of worker discretion Organizational context The immediate work groups those in direct contact with the leader and the larger organization Organization s culture will affect leadership 0 Leadership Approaches emphasizing situational contingencies Fielder s Leadership Contingency Theory Centered on leader s attitudes towards their coworkers Task and person oriented Leadership effectiveness is contingent on the type of leader and the favorability of the situation for the leader Favorable situation relations with subordinates are good the task is highly structured the leader has considerable position power House s Path Goal Theory A contingency theory of leadership that focuses on the leader s role in increasing subordinate satisfaction and effort by increasing personal payoffs for goal attainment and making the path to these payoffs easier 0 Task oriented leadership works well when subordinates tasks are varied and unstructured and the subordinates are inexperienced Are there substitutes for Leadership 0 In some circumstances yes 0 Greater use of leadership behaviors not the solution to every managerial issue 0 More employee training for example can replace in uence and leadership Neutralizer of leadership 0 Any aspect of the organization or work situation that can hinder the exercise of leadership
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