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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Stephanie Arkin on Sunday February 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to KIN362 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Tyler Williams in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 228 views. For similar materials see Motor Development in Kinesiology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/08/15
Chapter 1 Motor development change in functional capacity capacity to exist live move and work Changes Sequential and irreversible Age related not age dependent Continuous throughout life Cumulative effect Motor behavior includes both motor development and motor learning l in uenced by the individual and the environment Motor development development of movement abilities Not all changes in movement constitute development Motor learning permanent gains in motor skill capability associated with practice or expedence Ex throwing a baseball vs throwing a changeup 1 develop to throw development 2 change grip learning Motor control refers to the neural aspect nervous system s control of muscles which permit skilled and coordinated movements Different types of controls 1 Fine motor skills used to make precise movements ex surgery 2Gross motor skills ex kicking a soccer ball Physical growth quantitative increase in size or body mass Physical maturation qualitative advance in biological makeup cell organ or system advancement in composition 0 Ability to recognize After we mature aging Aging process that occurs with the passage of time leading to loss of adaptability of full function and eventually death Process of growth and aging fall in a continuum Newell39s models of ecological perspective characteristics of individual mover environment and purpose or reason of moving interaction of individual task environmental constraints the movement overtime patterns of interaction lead to changes in motor development 1Individua constraints 2Task constraints 3Environment constraints Constaints change shape movement 0 Limit or discourage certain movements 0 Permit or encourage certain movements 1 Individual constraints Structural constraints related to body s structure 0 Change slowly with growth and age 0 Ex height muscle mass strength Functional constraint related to behavioral function 0 change over much shorter period of time 0 ex attention motivation fear experiences 2Environmental constraints outside of body 0 Physical gravity surfaces of oor temperaturehumidity light Sociocultural gender roles cultural norm 3 Task constraints external to the body 0 Skills at hand 0 Goal of task movement ability 0 Task performance Age related change is fundamental in the study of motor development Research observe individual movements differences between people of different ages Types of studies 1 Longitudinal Individual or group observed over time 0 Measuring change 0 Can require lengthy observation 2 Cross sectional Individuals or groups are observed at different ages 0 Change is inferred not actually observed 0 Pro shorter time period 0 Con never really observe change Sequential or mixed longitudinal Break into groups with overlapping ages Universality individuals in a species show great similarity in development 0 Look at group of children many perform same motor skills Variability individual differences exist 0 Some advanced skills more than others Chp 2 Theoretical perspectives 9 What causes changes 1 Maturational perspectives 2 Informational processing perspectives 3Ecoogical perspectives 1 Maturation of different systems especially central nervous system drives motor development Dependent on genetics and heredity Environment has little effect Basic motor skills will automatically emerge regardless of environment Theory by Arnold Gellel l studied twins experimental group and control group 0 The control had no training prepost measures to determine change 0 He believes each stage of development correlated with a stage of evolution Predictablepredetermined order Pattern mostly consistent 9 HeredityGeneticslnternal factorsCentral nervous system 9 Environment is temporary Myrtle McGraw looked at fraternal twins Advancement in the central nervous system triggered the appearance of new skill gt Normative descriptive period Standardized testing Children performance in terms of scores Ex jumpingthrowing distance of children at speci c ages Focused on the products scores rather than process gt Biomechanical descriptive period Glassow o Qualative research 0 Describing biomechanics of movement used in skills Halverson o Conducted longitudinal research using biomechanical descriptions This research has established whether a child is a following an quotappropriatequot development pattern 0 Motor development labeled as DESCRIPTIVE 2 Information processing perspectives Focuses on environmental and behavioral factors causes development Belief brain is like a complex computer taking in info processing and outputting movement Responds to stimuli in the environment Perceptual motor development 0 Framework of info processing Researchers studied attention memory children adults Tried to identify processes that control movement Proposed learning disabilities linked to delayed motor development 3 Ecological perspectives Focuses on all constraints the individual Environment task that all drive development Body type motivation terrain task Stresses importance of multiple systems not just CNS Karl Newells perspective 0 Motor development is a life span process gt 2 Branches o 1 Dynamic system 0 2 Perception action 1 Dynamic concerned with motor control and coordination Body systems spontaneously self organize ex system softwire Adaptability to change walking pattern for different situations 0 Physical and chemical system constrains behavior 0 Some parts may develop more slowly and control rate or change called rate limitations or controls 0 Constraint that holds back or slow the emergence of a motor skill 0 Ex of rate limiters arthritic shoulder 2 Perception action Interrelationships between perceptual system and motor development 0 Movement is initiated or inhibited based on your perception An affordance is the function an environment object provides t an individual 0 Ex a chair to sit down a sidewalk to walk 0 Body scaling affordance change as individuals change resulting in new movement patterns 0 both of these REJECT notion that the CNS acts 0 control is distributed throughout the body at both global and local levels maturational emphasis biological development speci cally maturation of the CNS info processing perspectives sees environment as main force ecological is interaction between all body systems Chapter 3 Life Span Motor Development Principles of Motion and Stability Jason Ng ino crimsonuaedu Motor development similarities Predictable changes in movement patterns Humans share similar individual constraints 2 arms 2 legs and upright position Environmental principles Gravity Calibration of movement Certain physical laws of motion bound or limit your movements Gravity all objects are attracted to each other and the amount of attraction depends on the objects masses What goes up must come down People must calibrate their movements based on their individual strengths overall body mass and strength If I jump up I will fall to the ground Understanding principles of motion and stability Interaction of constraints encourages certain motor patterns while eliminating others Gravity An individual must activate certain posture An individual must work against gravity to become airborne Individual constraints of the performer in uence the movement pattern undertake Ex squatting movement pattern and depth Individual Constraints 0 The shape and structure of the bones in different joints Knee joints encourages some movements while preventing others 0 To develop their skills children and adults must learn to use movement patterns that optimize performance 0 The changes take place in children39s bodies due to growth and maturation complete the process Changes 0 Can be seen across variety of motor skills 0 As we grow and mature we produce more force velocity Key point as movers become more pro cient at skills they often use the principles of motion and stability to their advantage Understanding the principles of motion and stability is critical in observing motor performance 0 Determining which movement patterns are likely to produce optimal results 0 Distinguish skilled movements patterns from unskilled patterns Newton39s First Law An object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion untiI acted upon a force Inertia is resistance to motion related to mass Momentum the product of mass and velocity 0 Individuals must exert force to 0 Move ourselves 0 Move objects 0 More inertia means that o It is harder to move l greater inertia greater inertia more force Newtons Second law objects force is related to mass and acceleration o Fma o Pressing harder will increase more force Objects acceleration is related to force applied and inversely related to mass 0 AFm In order to kick kick a soccerball and move an object D more forcefully the child must 0 increase step length 0 increase range of motion Newtons Third Law To every reaction there is an equal and opposite reaction 0 When you push on something it pushes back on you 0 Walking D individual downward and backward push Surface D upward and forward push Directional force move in one plane ex newly walking infant 0 Much of their force is directed downward 0 Balance not so much movement Oppositional movement 0 Locomotor movements Ex movement pattern while running 0 Body twists one way and upper twists another 0 Increasing Velocity o Rotating limbs and projected objects Increase rotational velocity swing it faster Increase relative length fully extend it at release or contact not before Longer limbs more resistance to motion Bending limbs decrease the energy necessary to move limb think of swinging baseball bat Open Kinetic chain perfectly timed sequence of movements used to perform a motor skill ex poll vaulting TO make an object move increase force application for a given time 0 TO stop an object stop increase time or area over which a give force is applied bend your knees when you land in gymnastics Both essential for motion but do not mean the same 0 Stability ability to resist movement Increasing stability ensures balance OOOO Balance ability to maintain equilibrium Maintaining balance does not guarantee stability Stabilitymobility trade off 0 Stability may inhibit mobility 0 Kinetic chain mobility and stability ofjoints Methods to increase stability 0 Increase base of support 0 Lower the center of gravity think of football players defending Increasing balance 0 Increase stability 0 Improve strength coordination The principles of motion and stability apply to all actions and objects Be aware of changing individual constraints Manipulate task and environment to aid in optimal skill performance Not everyone will be pro cient at certain skills Video Notes Prenatal development 7 weeks 4 days pregnancy lasts 38 weeks 8 weeks is called an embryo quotgrowing withinquot and formation of body system fetuslj unborn offspring begins to function begins at fertilization reproductive system of women is called oocyte maIe spermatozoa ovulation joint in the uterine tubes uterine tubes link ovaries zygote joint together sperm and egg DNA double ladder with double helix GC A T Contains 3 billion of these base pairs Mitosis occurs through division 34 days of fertilization turns into morula 45 to bIastocyst inner cell mass embro cell mass implantation 612 days after fertilization th substance found in pregnancy placenta maternal and embryonic prevents maternal blood from mixing with the fetus placenta to umbiIiciaI cord one week hybobIast yok sack and epibIast aminon ecto endo and mesoderm o ecto brain spinal cord nerves skin 0 endo digestive tract respiratory system 0 meso heart kidney bones muscles 3 weeks brain is dividing into 3 sections 0 hindbrain forebrain midbrain 3 weeks and 1 day heart begins to beat 34 weeks body begins to emerge 4 23ks amnion sac lls with amniotic uid l protects from injury heart beats 113x per minutes heart changes beat with each beat of blood 54 mil beats before birth 45 weeks divides into 5 sections cerebral hemisphere appear largest part of the brain kidneys appear by 5 weeks yolk sac contains germ cells 5 weeks D hind plates and cartilage 6 weeks movement and lymphoctyes now present diaphragm also formed brain waves recorded 6 weeks ossi cation begins at coar boneupper and owerjaw 7 weeks hiccups 4 chambered heart wave pattern similar to adults ngers separate knee joints present 8 weeks right hand dominance jaw movement grasping motions eyebrows grow D 8 weeks and marks end of embryonic embryo 9 weeks thumb sucking begins external genetaia D male or female 10 weeks increase body weights 75 yawns ossi cation in bones ngernails and toe nails also 10 weeks unique nger prints 11 weeks nose and lips formed intestine starts to ingest glucose now can distinguish male or female 12 weeks end of rst trimester bowel movements 12 weeks meconium tooth development beings 1418 weeks fetal movement in moms bellylj quickening vernix caseosa protects skin from amniotic uids 19 weeks heart rate circadian rhythm 20 weeks chochea D can begin to hear hair grows on scalp 2122 weeks lungs begin to breath air survival outside the womb is possible 24 weeks bink startle response 26 weeks about 6 months eyes produce tears pupils respond to light 27 weeks fat plays vital role in storing energy and maintaining body temp after birth 30 weeks breathing movement 8 months aveoli air pockets in lungs 35 weeks hand grasp 9 months transition to fetus to new born abor contractions of the uterus Physical growth maturation Prenatal development 0 Neonatal period after prenatal 0 Birth 4 weeks 0 Avg newborn is 19392139 long 0 Large variation in weight l can depend on mothers nutritional status 0 Socioeconomic status ant afford healthy foods 0 Males tend to weight 4 more than females 0 Early Infancy o 4 weeks 1 year rapid increase in height and weight 0 length increase to 30 in by 1 year 0 weight amost tripes by one year 0 increases in subcutaneous tissues quotfilling outquot 0 Late Infancy 12 years rapid growth but slower rate than 1 males 35 in 28 lbs females 34 in 26 lbs body growth is disproportional everything does not grow at same rate proximodistal growth from the center out o D cephaocauda growth from head down 0 continuous growth is predictable but not inear timing of spurts and steady periods can vary among individuals 0 0 overall growth follows the sigmoid Sshaped pattern think about percentile chart 0 Peak height velocity shows the increase in stretch statue height expressed in units of cm her year hitting puberty is when highest 0 Weight changes 0 Follows similar pattern to height 0 Unlike height can be in uenced by extrinsic outside factors 0 Diet 0 Exercise Feeding patterns tend to in uence body weight 0 Breast feeding vs formula fed 0 Relative growth 0 the body as a whole follows the sigmoid pattern but speci c parts tissues and organs have different growth rate 0 body proportions change from head heavy short legged at birth to adult proportions o in adolescence boys increase in shoulder breadth Physiological maturation o Bodily tissues can advance without increasing in size 0 Chronological age growth in body size and maturation are all related Not dependent of each other Some kids mature earlier Intro to puberty maturation status structural constraint 0 more mature kids are stronger and more coordinated than kids of the same age or size Adulthood and aging o the avg adult stops gaining height and starts gaining weight in the 205 o lifestyle diet 0 Sarcopenia Height is stable in adulthood but might decrease in older adulthood o Osteoporosis 0 Compression of the cartilage pads Chap 5 development of aging body systems lndividualconstraints Body systems are in uences by extrinsic factors o It is important to know 0 The avg pattern of change in each system 0 Range of individual variations for a system Skeletal system 0 Embryo contains cartilage o Ossi cation occurs bone formation 0 Bone cells begin forming around 2 months 0 Ossi cation occurs from the center outward 1 2 0 Growth in bone length occurs at secondary centers at the ends of bones Centers called epiphyseal plates growth plates or pressure epiphyses Increase in bone girth called appositional growth Traction epiphyses are where the muscle tendons attach to the bones Osgoodschlatter disease Process of bone growth 0 requires adequate blood supply 0 growth at the epiphyseal plates stops at various times at various bones age 1819 0 closure occurs earlier in females than males There are 2 types of bone The outer hard shell of quotcorticalquot bone composed of densely packed mineralized laid down in layers 2 the inner quottrabecularquot bone is spongy or lacy and provides structural matrix Bone changes 0 Bone undergoes remodeling throughout the life span 0 Old bone is resorbed and new bone is formed 0 ln adulthood bone growth slows and cant keep pace with resorption 0 Calcium resortion gt calcium absorption 0 Bone composition becomes more brittle Osteroporosis 0 Structure itself changes little when one has 0 Leads to rib cage collapse stopped posture and reduced height 0 Hormone level diet and exercise in uence extent of bone loss OOOO Muscular system Prenatal growth is by 0 Hyperplasia increase in number of cells 0 Hypertrophy increase in cell size Postnatal growth is predominantly by hypertrophy 0 Muscle growth follows sigmond pattern Muscles increase in diameter and in length by the addition of sarcomeres Gender differences become marked in adolescence largely as a result of upper body musculature Muscle mass increase rapidly in boys up to age 17 Girls primarily add muscle until age 13 Hormonal differences Men and women both produce estrogen and testosterone one more than the other Muscle Fiber types Adult muscle is composed of type 1 type lla and type llb bers 0 At birth bers are undifferentiated By age 1 type 1 proportion is xed Individual differences Type 2 can be altered is unclear Muscle ber graph KNOW TOP chart OOOO 0 Type 1 l like a marathon runner can jog all day long low force 0 Type 2 sprinter but cannot maintain very long and will fatigue Like lifting heavy weight high force but cannot lift all day 0 Motor units bers innervated by a single neuron 0 Can be slow or fast twitch o Muscles have both types 0 At birth mainly fast twitch In the rst 2 years some become slow twitch Muscular system in adults Loss of muscle mass is minimal until age 50 By age 80 an average of 30 of muscle mass is lost Age related muscle loss sarcopena Numbers will differ in resistance trained individuals The loss is in number of muscle bers and their size Cardiac muscle 0 Heart changes with age 0 Ability to adapt to increased workload declines possibility to Degeneration of muscle Decrease in elasticity Changes in the bers of heart valves 0 Most frequenctly the heart loses elasticity and valves become more brotic due to lifestyle Adipose system 0 Growth is by hyperplasia and hypertrophy but hypertrophy is more dramatic in adolescence Some fat is needed for 0 Energy storage 0 Insulation 0 Protection 0 Fat increases rapidly until age 6 months then gradually until age 8 years chubby stages 0 Girls increase fat more dramatically 0 Individual differences l genetics nutrition play 0 Distribution of body fat changes with growth 0 Childhood is more internal Subcutaneous fat continues to increase in girls Adipose tissue in older adults 0 Both men and women tend to gain fat during adulthood but fat gains is not inevitable o lifestyle factors play huge role endocrine system hormones play important role in regulating growth and maturation 0 either excess of de icenty can alter growth 0 major hormones involved in growth are o pituitary growth 0 thyroid hormones 0 two gonadal hormones tightly regulated growth hormone secreted by anterior pituitary gland necessary for normal growth de ciencies lead to stunted growth enhances mobilization of stored fat while conserving carbohyrates Thyroid hormones secreted by thyroid gland hormones in uence whole body growth and increase oxygen consumption in some tissue 0 one of the thyroid hormones has a role in skeletal growth Gonadal hormones in uences growth and sexual maturation stimulating development of secondary sex characteristics and the sex organs Androgens o Secreted by the test in boys and the adrenal glands in boys and girls 0 Hasten epiphyseal growth plate closure Promote muscle mass Estrogen o Secreted by ovaries in girls and adrenal cortex in boys and girls 0 Hastens epiphyseal growth plate 0 Promotes accumulation of fat particularly in breast and hip area Insulin Indirect role in growth Produced by the pancreas Important for carbohydrate metabolism Impaired insulin could lead to decreased protein synthesis and stunted growth Endocrine system in older adults 0 Three areas related to physical activity 0 Regulation of cardiovascular performance 0 Mobilization of fuel 0 Synthesis of new protein Thyroid disorders more prevalent with aging Gonadal hormones levels increase during exercise to conserve glycogen Gonadal hormone levels decrease with age and are associated with loss of bone and muscle tissue Nervous system 0 Genes direct the development of the nervous system Extrinsic favors have an in uence on neural development 0 Two branches 0 Central nervous system 0 Peripheral nervous system Neurons nerve cells Prenatal neural development Development occurs early in the prenatal period Neurons begin to specialize Formation of axons and synapes Late prenatal neurons begin ring electrical impulses Migration of neurons can be effected by environmental factors Postnatal neural development Brain growth increases rapidly after birth Growth involves 0 Increase in size of neurons 0 Further branching to form synapses o Increases in glial cells 0 Increases in myeIin Brain structures The spinal cord and lower brain centers are relatively advanced at birth 0 Cerebral cortex gradually becomes more functional after birth Myelination of axons allows faster conduction of neural impulses 0 Provides increased speed and frequency With aging there is a loss of o Neurons o Dentrites o Synapes o Neurotransmitters o Myelin o D all lead to decreases in neurological function exercise can minimize and even reverse this exercise can 0 increase brain blood flow 0 stimulate neurogenesis 0 promote new synaptic connections
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