Exam 3 Review
Popular in Cognitive Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Brandenburg on Sunday February 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY2310 at a university taught by Professor Barcus in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 263 views.
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Date Created: 02/08/15
Cognitive Psychology Barcus Exam 3 Review x Draw a Serial Position Curve 0 Primacy is for stimuli presented at the beginning of a list LTM o Recency is for stimuli presented at the end of a list STM x Implicit Memory nondeclarativeunconscious o Repetition priming test stimulus is the same or resembles the priming stimulus 0 Conceptual priming occurs when enhancement caused by the priming stimulus is based on the meaning of the stimulus o Propaganda effect more likely to rate statements read or heard before as being true 0 Skill memory memory for actions but no memory of where or when we learned it I Perform procedures without being consciously aware of how we do the 0 People who cannot form new LTM s can still learn new skills x Explicit Memory declarativeconscious o Episodic personal eventsepisodes studying for an exam involves time travel maybe accurate 0 Semantic facts knowledge certain questions or examples on exam no time travel just general knowledge 0 Connections I Episodic can be lost leaving only semantic 0 Acquiring knowledge may start as episodic but then quotfadequot to semantic I Semantic can be enhance if associated with episodic 0 Personal semantic memory semantic memories that have personal significance I Semantic can influence our experience by influencing attention x Classical conditioning pairing neutral response with a reflexive response pairing exists even if you forget original stimulus x Encoding and retrieval o Encoding acquiring information and transferring it into LTM o Retrieval transferring information from LTM to STM x Rehearsal 0 Maintenance maintains information but does not transfer it to LTM o Elaborative transfers it to LTM x Levels of Processing Theory 0 Shallow little attention to meaning poor memory 0 Deep close attention to meaning good memory x Factors that aid Encoding o Imagery creating an association between quotimages in the head 0 Creating Connections teach it to a friend 0 Selfreference linking words to yourself 0 Generation effect generate material yourself rather than passively receiving it o Organizing better retrieval for information organized at encoding x Bransford amp Johnson 1972 o Showed that having a mental framework of comprehension aided memory encoding and retrieval x Roediger amp Karpicke 2006 o Showed being tested leads to better memory x Retrieval cues 0 Presented to aid recall 0 Increased performance over freerecall 0 Most effective when used by the person who created them x Encoding specificity 0 We learn information together with its context 0 Retrieval can be increased by matching the conditions at retrieval to the conditions that existed at coding x Baddeley s Diving amp Grant s studying experiment 0 Showed best recall occurred when encoding and retrieval were in the same location or same environment x Statedependent learning 0 Learning is associated with a particular internal state 0 Eich amp Metcalfe I Showed better memory if your mood at encoding matches your mood at retrieval x How to study more effectively 0 Elaborate give the information meaning 0 Generate amp test teach a friend 0 Organize helps reduce load on memory 0 Match learning amp testing conditions encoding specificity and state dependent learning quotillusion of learning familiarity does not mean comprehension 0 Take breaks spacing effectmemory is better for short multiple session x Consolidation o Transforms new memories from a fragile state to a more permanent state x Concepts 0 Concept a mental representation 0 Category groups of objects that belong together because they belong to the same class of objects 0 Categorization process by which things are placed in a group x Hierarchial Organization 0 Help creating and using analogies 0 Help see connections between different subject matter 0 Rosch provided evidence for the idea that basic level is quotpsychologically privileged x Collins and Quilliam 0 Concepts are represented and organized in the mind this way 0 The time it takes a person to retrieve information about a concept is determined by the distance that must be travelled through the network x Familiarization and Novelty Preference 0 Infants look longer at novel objects when presented with familiarized objects x Representation o Theories of concept learning aim to I Account for classification performance 0 I Suggest how categorical information might be organized in the mind 0 Definitional approach I There are defining features that act like criteria or rules for determining category membership 0 Sineg necessary even instance of concept must have some chosen defining property I Problems 0 A rule may not be necessary in the way that not all instances contain the rule 0 A rule may not be sufficient in the way that it does not fully describe the category w Prototype approach 0 quotwinnertakesall determine which feature values are most frequently encountered o Typicality effect I Highly prototypical objects are judged more rapidly sentence verification technique x Exemplar approach 0 Concepts are represented by multiple examples I Examples are actual members of the category 0 To categorize compare the new item to the stored item 0 Similar to prototype I Representing a category is not defining it I Similarity based 0 Different to prototype I Representation is not abstract x Representation of objects act as if they exist in a quotphonological space The notion of quotdistancequot in this space becomes a relevant construct quotDistancequot is determined by the similarity of objects x Prototype vs Exemplar o In both prototype and exemplar views a new instance is classified based on its similarity to a stored category representation 0 Memory capacity I quotinformation compression in prototype but lose a lot of information I Retain all information in exemplar but it is not cognitively possible 0 We use both I Exemplars may work best for small categories I Prototypes may work best for large categories x Limits of Similarity based organization 0 1 Similarity is too invariable and influenced by context I Medin Gladstone and Gentner o Decided number of quotfingersquot based on what two shapes were paired together 0 2 Similarity assessment and classification have been shown to be independent I Rips o Asked whether the object was more likely to belong to the category of quarters or category of pizzas o Asked whether the object was more similar to the category of quarters or category of pizzas 0 Results categorization group jedged the object as more likely to belong to the category of pizza whereas the similarity group judged the objects to be more similar to the category of quarters o CATEGORIZATION CANNOT BE REDUCED TO SIMILARITY
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