Study guide for MGT 304 exam 1 spring 2015
Study guide for MGT 304 exam 1 spring 2015 MGT304
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jiaona Ma on Sunday February 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MGT304 at University of Miami taught by linda in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 287 views.
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Date Created: 02/08/15
Exam 1 review questions Make sure you review your notes thoroughly How might selfef cacy impact the Pygmalion Effect Explain Selfef cacy magnitude strength and generality is one39s belief that their effort will result in a desired outcomes the higher the selfef cacy the more con dence people have in their ability to success The Pygmalion effect is the phenomenon what the greater the expectation placed upon people the better people will perform which means the low expectations can lead to decrease in performance There are 4 ways to increase selfef cacy enactive mastery which is most important resource vicarious modeling verbal persuasion through Pygmalion effect and arousal De ne what is meant by personality Give two examples of personality tests and describe some of the issues associated with using such measures to understand organizational outcome variables such as performance Personality the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others Individual may be successful while displaying any personality trait depending on their environment Personality tests may be most useful when assembling work groups in which diversity is required 2 examples of personality tests the myersbriggs type indicator MBTI AND the big ve personality model Big vepersonality model Conscientiousness l l l emotional stability l l l l extraversionintroversion agreeableness and openness to experience Employee who scores higher in conscientiousness develop higher levels of job knowledge probably because highly conscientious people learn more higher level of job knowledge contribute to higher levels of job performance How does EQ relate to traditional conceptualization of IQ Emotional intelligence the EQ theory assume that once a person has landed a job IQ is less important for success than EQ because most person who get this job are having a similar IQ While people may know how to do the task at hand not understanding the reason may limit their ability to see and implement an alternative more effective course of action De ne and give an example of different perceptual biases There are four types of perceptual biases Similarity error evaluating employees based on the way that an evaluator perceives himself or herself We like people who like us Eg the person is like you so you give the person a higher evaluation Contrast error evaluate a person39s characteristic that is affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered the comparison may lead a higher or lower scores that the later person deserve Eg when you meet two people you are likely to compare them with each other on several aspects to make a decision like personal physical beauty preference similarity of interest and other personality factors Stereotype evaluate someone on the basis of one39s perception of the group to which that person belongs Eg it might be a stereotype that men are strong and do all the work All Asians are good at math All Asian like to eat rice and drive slow Halohorn bias the error one makes by forming an opinion about a person just by keeping the rst impression in mind Eg when we meet someone and the rst impression of him is very positive the new tend to ignore the negative characteristics in the person and concentrate only on the positive characteristics Like in the interview if the interviewee starts with a positive statement then the interviewer tends to form a positive impression of the interviewee What is the Pygmalion Effect The Pygmalion effect is a form of selfful lling prophecy in which believing something can make it true It describes how a manager39s preconceived notion about employees39 ability will in uence the performance of the latter In other words expecting that the learner can achieve and transmitting that expecting to the learner will make it more likely that the learner will actually achieve the desired outcomes What is validity and how does it relate to personality testing What is reliability Validity must be shown to be a valid indicator of performance for the position Reliability the degree of consistency stable dependable consistency between two measures of the same thing Personality testing is a criterion for hiring employees and it must demonstrate validity to be used in making selection decisions PT has to be related to the content of the job and performance in the job There has to be relevance as criteria to the personality testing The interview questions must be content validity behavior based which means have to be the situation the worker will face in the future job and statistical validity critical related validity which are performance and satisfaction What are the three ways to measure performance in organizations Which performance measurement technique is most susceptible to perception biases and why How might such biases be minimized Performance can be measured by direct indices productivity absenteeism turnover comparative outcomes of different individualgroups engage in similar tasks current VS past performance and absolute standards ability to achieve a set goal Absolute standards are the most susceptible to response bias since they generally entail rating individuals from different perspective With comparative can minimize this bias because managers are combining several measures of performance in an index and then sorting all employees based on relative standard 8 Discuss how the MyersBriggs assessment device might be used organizationally MyersBriggs formulates a visual tool form which organization can build teams where in characteristic complement one another This strategy can be implemented in an ongoing effort to maintain cohesiveness enthusiasm reliance and motivation The Myers Briggs is used to help people learn more about themselves and about others who they may work with 9 Discuss the fundamental attribution error and how it affects assessments of performance What is the selfserving bias Fundamental attribution error is the tendency of managers to assume external attribution for themselves and internal for employees An observed outcome Sam is late today can be attributed to internal Sam is a lazy people or external Sam got stuck in traf c jam this morning reasons Hence our belief about what kind of people Sam is will in uence ho we will rate his performance Selfserving bias is people39s tendency to attribute positive events to their own character internal factors but attribute negative events to external factors 10What is the difference between internal and external attribution Give examples of each How do we ultimately determine such inferences Internal attribution is the inference that a person is behaving a certain way because of something about the personself External attribution is the inference that a person is behaving a certain way because of something about the situation they are In Internal attribution seems to discuss that a person39s behavior is linked to the personality of that person but external is the effects of the person39s life or the relationships they are in Eg Sam39s car breaks down on the highway If he believes that the car39s breakdown happened because of his ignorance about the car it is internal attribution If he believes it is because the car is very old or he has a bad luck today it is an external attribution 11Describe the key characteristics of perception noting how our initial judgments are strengthened Bruner39s model shows how our perceptions are strengthened 12What is the difference between an independent and dependent variable Give examples of each An independent variable is the presumed cause whereas the dependent variable is the presumed effect Independent variable is the variable that controlled by the researcher and the dependent variable is the response that is measured Example study how do changes in workspace affect employee39s reaction Change of workspace is independent variable employee39s reaction is dependent variables 13What are the three requirements of data collection devices Reliability consistency Validity relevancy are you measuring what you want to measured Practicality how much time does the test will take We cannot give a survey has 1000 questions 14Compare and contrast lab experiments with eld experiments When should each be used Lab experiments true or randomized experiments it is reliable and possible to have accurate result easy to control Have a high internal validity but low external validity It can high control environment to reduce the effects of confounding variables But the generalizability is limited some topics cannot be studied strength and amount of independent variables is low More ethical than eld experiment Field experiments generalizability is high can study both short and long term effects and manipulation of IV is stronger Have higher internal validity and easy to investigate the direct impact of an IV But the experimenter control is limited we cannot control every variable it is impossible to be randomization and more expensive than lab experiments More time consuming than lab Lab studies are used when you cannot test the independent variable easily in the eld like obedience and when it is important to have a high level of control 15What are the ethical requirements of conducting research in organizations Con dential keep the result only for study use people39s name neverappean Informed consent fair explanation of process description of study freedom to quit 16How does the scienti c method differ from our own intuitive observations and conclusions about people situations The scienti c method is the process by which scientists collectively and over time endeavor to construct an accurate representation of the world It is a cycle of prediction observation and measurement The scientific method is more rigorous and involves all of the steps I described open to public inspection precise operationalization etc 17What is selfmonitoring ability What goes into determining selfef cacy Selfmonitoring ability is the ability to changing the behavior to suit the situation People with high level of selfmonitoring may change their action with the changing of situation easily Low level of selfmonitoring people doesn39t know what to do what to say in different situation Selfef cacy is determined by magnitude different levellteasy moderate and hardgt an individual feels is required to perform a certain task like how dif cult is this job strength how con dent am I that I can nish the task successfully and generality public specking good speaker in front of 10 people can still be good in front of 100 people 18What are the characteristics and key issues associated with survey research eld study Strengths low level of intrusiveness can collect data on many variables can study complete phenomena Shortcomings casual inferences not possible we cannot decide what causes what measurement of variables is less precise there is unknown sampling biases Survey research doesn39t have control group it just do the collection of data R is between 1 and 1 Can only tell us there is a positivenegative strongweak relationship between variables Some of the Key Termsconcepts to know Randomization is the process of making something random most likely relates to statistical sampling which means selecting a random sample assign participants by chance of a population for observation independent vs dependent variable An independent variable is the presumed cause whereas the dependent variable is the presumed effect Independent variable is the variable that controlled by the researcher and the dependent variable is the response that is measured Moderator vs intervening variable moderator variable means the third variable that can in uence the relationship between the independent and dependent variables it can be culture gender age or years of educated For example the relationship between student s learning ef ciency and teacher s teaching approach is in uenced by the student s personality intervening variable can help to explain the relationship between two variables it shows the link between IV and DV Piloting provides rich data a lot of information many variables can be studied and it is useful to generating hypotheses BUT it can not tell the leading effect variable the hypotheses can not be tested data may be biased time consuming to conduct plenty of data lnternal vs external validity internal validity means are the results really due to the experimental treatment or are the results caused by other factors Focus on what really leading to the results Have to random sign people to the control group External validity means are the results can be general applied to other people or other time Reliability vs validity reliability means consistency and the correlation must at least be 07 validity means relevancy are your personality test relevant to the person s performance Type A vs Type B personality type A39s have a high level of competitiveness have more con icts with peers would like to work alone Like bus driver CEO Type A and B may change with time goes by people maybe type A at the beginning of their career and after career goes well they may change to type B Problem with this test is that there are no one in middle type person lnternal vs External Locus of Control internal means direct links between effort and performance Internal people are more successful in career Problem of this test is that culture and religion is a huge factor of locus of control which eastern people are more internal and western people are more external Emotional Intelligence is the ability to detect and manage one s own and others emotions which means perceive emotions in self and others understand the meaning of these emotions and regulate one s emotions according in a cascading model lnternal vs External Attribution Internal attribution is the inference that a person is behaving a certain way because of something about the personself External attribution is the inference that a person is behaving a certain way because of something about the situation they are in Internal attribution seems to discuss that a person39s behavior is linked to the personality of that person but external is the effects of the person39s life or the relationships they are in Characteristics of the MyersBriggs MBTI there are 16 types Extroverted vs introverted sensing vs intuition thinking vs feeling and perceiving vs judging It is selfreport research backing international based on preferences and developed using well people Bruner39s model information process model based on perception which categorize people by past experience search own experiences an background to categorized others There is a new boss Sam observed him and thinks he was friendly and approachable from his past experience and then decided he was a great boss Self lling prophecy and Pygmalion effect are living up or down to anything39s exception Both have positive expectation is high people would be better and negative if boss thinks Sam is a looser he might gave up and this can show to boss he is a looser worse to be worse effect Kelly39s attribution theory consistency consensus distinctiveness we decide to go to internal or external based on these 3 factors Actions caused by internal or external factors depending on consensus see how other people behave in the same situation like there is only Sam was late or most of people were late consistency how often does people engage in the behavior like Sam us late only once or many times and distinctiveness distinctive between other situations like Sam was only late on the raining day or also late on the sunny day After evaluation need to give feedback How to give a good feedback be speci c give some examples to show the problem people have be descriptive and make it well timed give the feedback immediately and the feedback should be designed to behavior constructive which means that the feedback should be designed to help the person improve Direct Index vs Absolute Standards vs Comparative Performance Assessment Devices these are the ways to evaluate people s performance Direct indices productivity absenteeism turnover have a objective goal or number of sales but lack of focusing on quality Does not have perception problem Comparative outcomes of different individualgroups engage in similar tasks current VS past performance everyone is compared with each other in the organization and then use forced distribution curve to ranking them Problem of comparative approach is that if we use a normal distribution curve to give the evaluation it would be unfair Absolute standards ability to achieve a set goal de ne people and then linked them to rating scale Both comparative and absolute standards have perception bias Perceptual biases similarity contrast etc are the systematic errors in perceiving others Can be quite damaging between individuals in the society There are 6 types of perceptual Similarity error Contrast error stereotype and Halohorn bias Leniency error most common biases just give everyone a higher evaluation they deserve it would be very tough to re someone if you do they will sue you because their think they are good based on the evolution you gave them Central tendency bias give everyone a same evaluation Primacy recency effect primacy means the tendency for the rst items presented in a series to be remembered better or more easily recency effect is the tendency for the last item presented to be remembered better or more easily Primacy is Tendency of an employee performance an interviewer to rely on early cues for the rst impressions When they making decision they based more on the information presented earlier than later in the process Fundamental Attribution Bias think of everything is others39 fault Selfserving bias people39s tendency to attribute positive events to their own character internal factors but attribute negative events to external factors Think of everything is self fault According to the authors of quotBuilding the Emotional Intelligence of Groupsquot teams are more innovative when they achieve participation collarboration and cooperation How does emotional intelligence help to create such norms Norms Mutual trust among members a sense of group identity and a sense of group efficacygroups stand to bene t by building their emotional intelligence Understanding the motivation and personal variances of an individual in a group dynamic can help to build the trust necessary to succeed What is the SetUpToFail syndrome CP reading What are the individual and organizational costs of the syndrome How is it related to the Pygmalion Effect Mirror image of the Pygmallion Effect It describes a dynamic in which employees perceived to be mediocre or weak performers live down to the low expectations their managers have for them It will be important to relate course material to any cases we have discussed in class or to any short casessituations you may be given Also make sure that you can critique or design a research study if asked to do so Class assigned readings to be familiar with reading 2 3 How to critique and design a research study The designs we covered were piloting lab experiments field experiments and field surveys survey research If you were asked to design a lab or field experiment you would need to indicate what your independent and dependent variables were The example of a field experiment given to you in class was with flexible working hours we discussed Milgram39s experiment and Zimbardo39s experiments as examples of lab studies and when we went over Eastchester College we discussed how a pilot study exploratory research might be done The example I gave in class concerning survey research was a study that measured employee performance and correlated it with employee job satisfaction
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