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Human Anatomy Week 1

by: Julio Avalos Ibarra

Human Anatomy Week 1 Bio 220

Julio Avalos Ibarra
GPA 3.4
Human Anatomy

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Human Anatomy
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julio Avalos Ibarra on Sunday February 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 220 at San Francisco State University taught by in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 234 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy in Biology at San Francisco State University.


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Date Created: 02/08/15
Bio 220 Principles of Anatomy Study Guide for Week Week 1 Introduction overview and anatomical terminology Anatomy the process of studying structure and relating them to function By using imaging techniques such as radiography thorax mammogram breast and magnetic resonance imaging MRI of the brain Chemical I Cellular I Tissue I Organ I System I Organism Integumentary System Component Skin and structures associated with it such as hair fingernails and toenails sweat glands and oil glands and the subcutaneous layer Functions Protects the body helps regulate body temperature eliminates some wastes helps make Vitamin D and detects sensations such as touch pain warmth and cold stores fat and provides insultation Skeletal System Components Bones and joints of the body and their associated cartilages Functions supports and protects the body provides a surface area for muscle attachments aids body movements house cells that produce blood cells stores minerals and lipids fats Muscular System Components Specifically refers to skeletal muscle tissue which is muscle usually attached to the bones other muscle tissue smooth and cardiac Functions Participates in bringing about body movements such as walking maintains posture and produces heat Cardiovascular System Components Blood heart and blood vessels Functions Heart pumps blood through blood vessels blood carries oxygen and nutrients to cells and carbon dioxide and wastes away from cells and helps regulate acid base balance temperature and water content of body uids blood components help defend against disease and repair damaged blood vessels Lymphatic System Components Lymphatic uid lymphatic vessels spleen thymus lymph nodes and tonsils cells that carry out immune responses B cells T cells and others Functions Returns proteins and uid to blood carries lipids from gastrointestinal tract to blood contains sites of maturation and proliferation of B cells and T cells that protect against disease causing microbes Nervous System Components Brain spinal cord nerves and special sense organs such as the eyes and ears Functions Generates action potentials nerve impulses to regulate body activities detects changes in the body s internal and external environments interprets the changes and responds by causing muscular contractions or glandular secretions Endocrine System Components Hormone producing gland pineal gland hypothalamus pituitary gland thymus thyroid gland parathyroid glands adrenal glands pancreas ovaries and testes and hormone producing cells in several other organs Functions Regulates body cavities by releasing hormones which are chemical messengers transported in blood from an endocrine gland or tissue to a target organ Respiratory System Components Lungs and air passageways such as the pharynx throat larynx voice box trachea windpipe and bronchial tubes within the lungs Functions Transfer oxygen from inhaled air to blood and carbon dioxide from blood to exhaled air helps to regulate acid base balance of body uids air owing out of lungs through vocal cords produces sounds Digestive System Components Organs of GI tract a long tube that includes the mouth pharynx throat esophagus stomach small and large intestines and anus also includes accessory organs that assist in digestive processes such as the salivary glands liver gallbladder and pancreas Functions Achieves physical and chemical breakdown of food absorbs nutrients eliminates solid wastes Urinary System Components Kidneys ureters urinary bladder and urethra Functions Produces stores and eliminates urine eliminates wastes and regulates volume and chemical composition of blood helps maintain the acid base balance of body uids maintains body s mineral balance helps regulate production of red blood cells Reproductive System Components Gonads testes in males and ovaries in females and associated organs such as the uterine or fallopian tubes uterus and vagina in females and epididymides seminal vesicles prostate ductus deferenses and penis in males Functions Gonads produce gametes sperm or oocytes that unite to form a new organism gonads also release hormones that regulate reproduction and other body processes associated organs transport and store gametes mammary glands produce milk Anatomical Terminology Having a common language allows one to communicate clearly and unambiguously In the anatomical position the subject stands erect facing the observer with the head level and the eyes facing directly forward This is an Anterior View of the subject The lower limbs are parallel and the feet are at on the oor and directed forward The upper limbs are the sides with the palms facing forward It is easier to visualize and understand its organization into various regions and describes relationships of various structures 3 Make sure that When you are looking at any diagram figure or model you can identify which part is left and which is right Remember you are referring to the left or right of the diagram or specimen not to your own left or right 4 What part of the skeleton is the aXial component and What part is the appendicular component 5 Be able to use all the terms in Figure 12 in context For example use these terms to decribe a specific location on the body or to decribe Where a feature such as a tatoo or mole is located Frontal plane Transverse plane I I Midsagittal plane through the midline Parasagittal plane Oblique plane 7 Be able to use all the directional terms in Fig 15 to describe precisely how the location of parts of the body relate to one another Cranial Cavity formed by cranial bones and contains brain Vertebral Cavity Formed by vertebral column and contains spinal cord and the beginnings of spinal nerves Thoracic Cavity Chest cavity contains pleural and pericardial cavities and mediastinum l Pleural Cavity each surrounds a lung the serous membrane of the pleural cavities is the pleura 2 Pericardial cavity surrounds the heart the serous membrane of the pericardial cavity is the pericardium 3 Mediastinum central portion of thoracic cavity between the lungs extends from sternum to vertebral column and from neck to diaphragm contains heart thymus esophagus trachea and several large blood vessels Abdominal Cavity contains stomach spleen liver gallbladder small intestine and most of large intestine the serous membrane of the abdominal cavity is the peritoneum Pelvic Cavity contains urinary bladder portions of large intestine and internal organs of reproductions Vi H quot39suntinihllm shirm lhii ail lai39l il lifh Eij TWEWT39HFETH39U 1 1 5L Use the chapter review figure questions and critical thinking questions to review your knowledge pages 2325 Answers to figure questions appear at the end of the chapter Answers to critical thinking questions appear in Appendix B towards the back of the book


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