Anthropolgy Exam 1
Anthropolgy Exam 1 Anth205
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maddie Logan on Sunday February 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Anth205 at Purdue University taught by Audrey Ricke in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 139 views. For similar materials see Human Cultural Diversity in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 02/08/15
Anthropology 205 Exam 1 Notes Study Guide Concepts amp People culture characteristics integrated then and now axgt iPhone multiple aspects interconnected learned nature vs nurture biological is cultural shared symbolic adaptive changes anthropology four elds anthropology the study of humans and their immediate ancestors l BiologicalPhysical study of human s biological variations from evolution to contemporary times HV human geneticsadaptations HE primatology paleoan 2 Archaeology reconstructs describes and interprets human behavior and cultural patterns through material remains archivalnot limited to the distant past cultural resource management 3 Linguistic the study of human communication and language in its social and cultural context across space over time sociolinguistics study of what people say and how they say it and the links to class gender and other forms of identity also interested in kinesics body language William Labov s study of the pronunciation of R s in New Yorklevels of wealth affected went to different department stores 62 Sax 51 Macys 21 Walmart 4 Cultural the study of living people and their cultures study and work in nonwestern and western societies culture shared and patterned beliefs and behaviors we have a culture but we belong to a society not tied to a particular place ethnocentrism belieffeeling that ones own culture is best sunglasses tint our perspective cultural relativism understanding a groups beliefs practices within their own culture context without making judgement It is a methodology which doesn t mean it protects a violation of human rights na39l39ve realism well meaning assumptions that everyone views the world like you created social tensions Nice girls don t talk to Rastas when young girl studying plans to also change the world in a foreign culture she not only affects the people she is staying withdisrupts society structure but also other students who plan on studying abroad culture shock you are not used to the culture wasn t used to heat even though lived there before impacts studies going native isn t the best way to go because you lose perspective Franz Boas Father of American anthropology German immigrant geographer who came to US interested in geography but then became interested in people reactions environmentused anthropology to disprove scientific racismused archaeology to see past of people Bronislaw Malinowski wrote ARGONAUTS OF THE WESTERN PACIFIC l922emotions and experiences felt during his ethnographic fieldwork reported feeling hopelessnesssuffering honest truth armchair anthropology fieldwork done before Malinowski this is when anthropologists invited people to them to talkinterview surveys methods in anthropology participant observationinterviewing authoritative knowledge eld and lab work combined Marine Biology global warmingcontroversy Artisan Cheese organic consumer requirements to be Artisan Refugees citizen rights system of bene ts Participant Observation join in on the daily activities of individuals in order to understand their cultural practices atmosphere setting communication guarantees validity allows for more informed questions to be asked and to be able to observe while events occur Interviewsfocus groupssurveyslife historiesarchival research collect specimens and measurements Scientific Method very similar to steps anthropologists use AFTER MALINOWSKI research teams engineers health practitioners Multisited research travel to both Brazil then Germany Re exive gender used to affect the data collected honesty is now extremely important even if roughno sugar coating in reports ethnography systematic description of a particular culture based on firsthand observation ethnology analysis comparison of ethnographic data across cultures Hawthorn EffectObserver s Paradox normal vs showwe are in uenced every day by others act differently when we know we are being studied or watchedarmchair methodology effects this validity of the data ethics in anthropology in 1949 first formal statement on ethics was developed and the first federal law in 1971 established rulesrisks of studyoriginally made for just biomedical Milgram s obedience study is what prompted the ethics law responsibility to those studies pseudonamespublish info sensitive to outlets responsibility to the public responsibility to the students responsibility to the sponsors can t do secret reportsdont want to be seen as CIA and cause problems in the societies studies female genital modification case study in Mali Referred to as modi cation because how we refer to something relates to how we think about it mutilation 20022011 study collected data that 89 of Mali women and 75 of their daughters said it was necessary for social acceptance expression of womanhood Potential program reduce economic dependency of women change public health campaigns change the preferences of young men give alternative ritesrite of passage emic why they do what they do people of the specific cultures view etic researchers perspective explanation l Kuru trembling or laughing sickness affects women s in 20s 30s in an isolated area symptoms include tremorsloss of motor control Emic caused by witches Etic prions protein that has the ability to cause the cells that it invades to repeatedly duplicate CULTURAL burial practice eating organs infected BIOLOGICAL prions 2 Arctic Hysteria affects more adult women than men symptoms include screaming shouting tearing clothing Emic caused by spirits Etic stress from the environment CULTURALPSYCHOLOGICAL BIOLOGICAL diet is high in vitamin Asymptoms related to extreme amount of vitamin A 3 Menopause affects older women around age 51 symptoms include irritability anxiety and hot ashes CULTURAL diethigh consumption of soy feeling of getting oldBIOLOGICAL Japan Mayan women don t report experiencing health relative state of well being of an individual group or community subjective based on cultural context bicultural approach to nd solutions to health risks in some places certain diseases are seen as common and misunderstood so nothing is ever done when symptoms occur however here in the US we would see a doctor immediately disease a biological health problem that is objective universal such as bacterial or viral infection or a broken bone illness culturally speci c perceptions and experiences of a health problem more than just biological factors HEALING PREVENTION Community Healing healing that emphasizes the social control as a key component which is carried out within the public domain Kalahari deserts in Southern Africa dancing all night as a community Humoral Healing healing that emphasizes balance among natural elements within the body Southeast Asia USA Peru coco leaves 4 sets of uids humorcan be changed by the food you eat The uids and their natural states 1 Blood heartcoldwet 2 Phlegm braincoldwet 3 Black Bile spleencolddry 4 Yellow Bile liverhotdry causes of health imbalances Naturalistic impersonal causes exists in nature too much sugargt Diabetes lack of protein in diet causes illness Personalistic due to actswishes of other people supernatural beings and forces that exist in the universe touch Emotionalistic emotional experiences causes illness Hmong Refugees in California seizures triggered by door slamming anthropological approaches to studying health 1 Ecologial Environmental look at hygiene food distribution in families analyze soil foodswater and daily diet peru more leaves increase in iodine 2 Interpretative healing symbols performances psychological components in rituals Panama women before giving birth 3 Critical Medical economic political structure Brazil has a bad economy many people are poor causes anxiety and insomnia medicine won t changethe economic structure needs to be xed for these health problems to go away DETTWYLERS APPROACH Ecological nutrients diseases Critical Medical asks about income effect on malnutrition Case Studies Dettwyler s study in Mali Includes all chapters DANCING SKELETONS skin and bonesmoderate malnutrition SELECTING AN ISSUE growthdevelopment of kids concerning malnutrition RESEARCH QUESTION What is the growth pattern among malnutrition children SECONDARY QUESTIONS role of parasites is there a catch up growth period how can we develop a nutrition program to help solve this BACKGROUND RESEARCH advantages of learning the language gain trust and respect PROBLEMS WORKING WITH TRANSLATOR could change answers because they are scared of being judged incorrect translation questions asked could be inapropriate Analysis decoding group notes to make relationships transcription reporting the results 1 Hypothesis poverty of parents contributes to malnutritioninterview with Malian women believe they are buying enough adequate food money is a factor but there are multiple factors 2 Hypothesis parasite infections are leading to the malnutrition in Malitook samples and it is not the issue SCHISTOSOMIASIS parasite widespread disease fresh water go into snail then find human host in lungs liver or intestine The health impact is minor until the eggs cause lesions which form in the urinary tractcorrelation isn t causation however you see these in areas of malnutrition The Mali people believed these symptoms including blood in urine were involved with getting older and growing up they would even have ceremonies when symptoms became present relationship between poverty and family size PIZZA ANALOGY the more children a couple has the more economic possibilities they have available to pool their resources Body Ritual among the Nacirema authors purpose is to show that practices in different places of the world seem foreignexotic to others but if you take a step back and decode it makes sense and you see what others thing of our habits and behaviors women baking heads in ovenshair dryers drilling holes in teeth getting a filling donehealth practice charm box medicine cabinet Fieldwork in the Era of Aids long term ethnographic study of prostitutes in New York City and Atlanta discover places of work conduct open ended interviews keep her own personal opinions to herself create trust avoid an expert role so the women felt comfortable gaining a better understanding of their lives raised many ethical questions MAIN THEMES prostitution is a way of life we make money for pimps who promise us love but if we don t produce they abandon life is rough beaten and left hurt body and soul messes with mental state many use drugs to get by felt like there was no way to escape Nice Girls do not Talk to Rastas Using Anthropology refers to naive realism that becomes more apparent when we attempt to communicate with outsiders who have a different cultural view of reality case of crosscultural misunderstanding involving an American student studying abroad and living in a Barbadian village She interacts with the Rastafarians and is immediately shunned by all in the community due to her lack of knowledge that equality and acceptance of all isn t present Needed to be sensitive and respectful to class and status distinctionsyou can t change the way a foreign society operates Reading on culture and ethnography in Spradley amp McCurdy A dispute in Donggo Khmer refugees House of the Spirit Perspectives on Combodian Health Care need to treat not just the disease but the whole person believe that blood sample takes away apart of the patients life they believe in cupping remedy when illness occurs from bad spirits can leave bruises and originated in French medicine Strategies important to use cultural brokers not translators so we can collaborate between Western and Khmer medicine practitioners it is important to respect cultural practicesmany positive but also many that are harmful cultural relativism
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