PSY118 - Study Guide for midterm 1
PSY118 - Study Guide for midterm 1 118
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jason Peng on Monday February 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 118 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Cox in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 152 views. For similar materials see Comparative Psychobiology in Psychlogy at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 02/09/15
Comparative Psychology 3 reasons in classical comparative psychology for why animals are studied in order to shed light on human behavior 1 Belief that animals are simpler than humans so less confusing to study For example apylsia are commonly used to study neurophysiology 2 Animals can be selected for study which have shorter lifespans than humans so can determine effects of a manipulation sooner 3 Belief that it is okay to sacri ce animals Emerging approach to the study of animal behavior Study the animal in relation to its surroundings Discovering information can be conceptually useful and can provide pragmatic solutions to existing problems Anthropocentric Regarding humans as the central element of the universe Interpreting reality exclusively in terms of human values and experiences Needs to be avoided when engaged in the study of animal behavior or we will likely miss or misinterpret particular behaviors since many species have very different senses sensitivities Examples of animal Sensorv Abilities Chitons can home using geomagnetic cues as a sensory cue Pigeons use their lowfrequency hearing to generate acoustic maps to navigate home And although pigeons have relatively small olfactory bulbs they use olfactory cues to navigate home Duckbilled platypus detect prey through disturbances of the electrical eld that surrounds them Elephants use lowfrequency vocalizations insensitive to humans to signal one another For example elephants can warn other elephants of danger 1 km away m use highfrequency sounds insensitive to humans to communicate with one another Examples of animal Reproductive Strategies Sheephead When the male in a group of sheephead leaves the group the highest ranking female becomes a male Strategy gt inherited ability to alter behavior adaptively within enviornment Scorpion y males compete to present the most attractive gifts to females spit piles Strategy gt different tactics of strategy used depends on the condition that the male is in o In many species females appear to bias the sex of the offspring they bear reproductive success is higher for females and as a result there is competition amongst males for who gets to reside in groups Evolutionary strategy gt Zoo consequence gt large amount of males in zoos Knowledge of animal behavior leads to fruitful conservation initiatives Knowing sensory abilities and adaptations can provide insight as to how to control pests Pigeons falconing to deter birds loud pigeon noises Mosquitos using electronic devices that emit sound frequencies that mimic their predators such as the dragon y wing beat frequency Comparative Psychology vs Ethology Both focused on animal behavior but had different approaches 1 Originated on different continents North America vs Europe 2 Learning vs Natural history 3 Lab vs Field 4 Rats amp Pigeons vs Wide range of species 5 Proximate focus vs Ultimate focus An integrated approach to animal behavior includes natural selection learning and cultural transmission Natural selection changes the frequency of different behaviors of the course of many generations Individual learning can alter the frequency of different behaviors displayed within the lifetime of an organism Cultural transmission affects the type of behavior animals exhibit and the frequency with which behaviors occur can allow newly acquired traits to spread through populations at a very quick rate as well as permit rapid transmission of information across generations Refers to situations in which animals learn something by copying the behavior of others typically referred to as social learning As with individual learning natural selection can also act on animals ability to transmit acquire and act on culturally transmitted information Disciplines that contribute to the study of behavior psychology ethology zoology anthropology genetics molecular biology neurobiology endocrinology Tinbergin 1963 4 Question Types Mechanism What stimuli elicit behavior What sort of neurobiological and hormonal changes occur in response to or in anticipation of such stimuli Development How does behavior change with maturation How does behavior change with the ontogeny or development of an organism How does developmental variation affect behavior later in life Survival value How does behavior affect survival and reproduction Evolutionary history How does behavior vary with evolutionary history or phylogeny of an organism When did a behavior rst appear in the evolutionary history of the species under study Proximate Perspectives Approaches looks at mechanisms that underlie behavior the immediate causes Such as How development proceeds and Physiological underpinnings of behaviors Involves Mechanism and Development questions Ultimate Perspectives Approaches focuses on the function of behavior evolutionary forces that have shaped a trait over time Such as Selection processes shaping behavior and Relationship between behavior amp historical pathways EX How does this behavior affect animals ability to reproduce Involves Survival Value and Evolutionary History questions A comprehensive understanding of behavior should involve both type of questions Q Why sugar preferred Why do females in good condition tend to produce a greater proportion of male offspring Evolutionary standpoint What are the effects of this behavior Are thereWhat are the selective forces for evolutionary preference for developing such receptors that prefer sugar Approaches to the study of behavior 1 Conceptual integrates previously unconnected ideas perhaps from different disciplines 2 Theoretical mathematical models that make predictions across a wide range of species 3 Empirical generate amp test hypotheses Law of Parsimony provides the simplest answer but not necessarily the best explanation Honey Bee Round Figure 8 Dance Study the relationship between the straight run and the source of food 39 Observation Under some circumstances bees interpret a bight light as the sun and orient their dances towards the light rather than gravity 39 Hypothesis Bees recruited to a food source actually userely on the information encoded in the gure 8 dance rather than odor 39 Predictions If the nontreated recruits use dance to determine the direction to y they ll y 90 degrees to the right of the sun If the recruits use odor to determine the direction to y they ll y straight towards the sun Von Frish did work that indicated foraging bees communicate location of the food through the dance language Wenger showed that bees use sent to locate food Gould showed that bees rely rst on the dance language but also use scent Scent functions as a back up source of information for determining where a forager has been 3 Lecture 1 T m Home Points 1 Beliefs change with new information 2 Testable hypotheses are very valuable 3 Once a test has been designed carrying it out can be relatively simple 4 The honey bee an invertebrate can communicate abstract information using symbolic representation Darwin s formulation of Natural Selection Observations 1 of gametes individuals produced is immense ie the of offspring that can be produced is very large 2 Not all offspring survive indeed population sizes generally remain constant INFERENCE resources needed to survive are limited there is a struggle for survival 3 There is variability among individuals with respect both to morphology and behavior INFERENCE some variations are more suitable for living in a particular enviornment than other aka adaptations Principle of Inheritance Characteristics at least some are heritable and seen in the next generation Natural Selection Those and only those that survive have the opportunity to mature in a particular habitat and reproduce leave a disproportionate share of genes in the subsequent generation and their characteristics are seen in a greater proportion of the subsequent generation Dugation s summary of What is Needed for Natural Selection to Occur 1 Variation in traitcharacterbehavior 2 Trait associated with utilization of limited resources 3 Trait variants have different fitness values 4 Mode of inheritance for trait Differential Reproduction if the variation results in differential reproduction natural selection will occur Q If a male who approaches novel objects more quickly results in the male obtaining more limited food sources and females pre such males which allows those males to have more offspring Genotype complete set of genesalleles Alternative Alleles at a given locus may result in construction of enzyme varians or even no enzyme production Phenotype actual physical physiological and behavioral traits that are expressed as a result of interactions of genotypesalleles with the materialphysical and experiential enviornment Approaches to show the in uence of genes on behavior 1 SelectiveArtificial Breeding 2 Single Gene Effects Q Zebra Finch ultravioletviolet perception is controlled by a single gene Q Foul Brood in Honey Bees hygienic behavior involves 2 Fixed Action PattemsFAPS under the control of 2 different genes Experiment Hygienic and nonhygienic strains were crossed First generation were nonhygienic suggestive that the alleles for hygienic behavior were recessive 3 MutationsGene Insertion Q Sickle Cell Anemia homozygous recessive alleles code for hemoglobin result in sickle cell anemia single gene mutation of a single nucleotide A gt T in position 17 of the betaglobin gene codes for hemoglobin Q Drosophila 4 Keep enviornment constant amp vary genes 5 Keep genes constant amp vary enviornment Phenotypic Predictions For heterozygous alleles phenotype will re ect the interaction of alleles 1 One may be dominant and the other recessive ex sweet pea color or 2 The two may be intermediate expression ex sweet pea height or 3 The type may both be expressed resulting in hybrid vigor ex sweet pea growth rate Behavior according to text is the coordinated responses of whole living organisms to internal and or external stimuli Scienti c Method scienti c observation measurement and experiment and the formulation testing and modification of hypotheses
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