Final Exam Review
Final Exam Review DEP 3305
Popular in Psychology of Adolescense
Popular in Psychlogy
DEP 3403 Psychology Of Adulthood
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by sumreen Notetaker on Monday February 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to DEP 3305 at Florida International University taught by Andre Maharaj in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 345 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Adolescense in Psychlogy at Florida International University.
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Date Created: 02/09/15
Chapter 9 Autonomy I Autonomy is as important a part as becoming an adult as is establishing an identity I Its one of the fundamental developmental tasks of an adolescent I Autonomy 0 Emotional components feeling separate from ones parents 0 Cognitive components developing personal beliefs and values 0 Behavioral components the growth of independent decision making In other words autonomy is not just about acting independently it is also about feeling independent and thinking for oneself Todays adolescents spend way too much time away from the direct supervision of adults wither by themselves or with peers I But they also have become more economically reliant on their families than prior generations Autonomv as an adolescent issue 0 Establishing a healthy sense of autonomy is a life long process I Puberty and the development of autonomy O 3 changes I Cognitive I Biological I Social 0 Some theorists have suggested that the physical changes of early adolescence trigger changes in the young persons relationship at home 0 Physical appearance at puberty provokes at how much autonomy you will be given by parents and teachers 0 Cognitive changes I Involved to make independent decisions I Provide logical foundation for changes in the a young persons thinking about social moral and ethical problems I Important prerequisites to the development to understand an individuals own sense of right and wrong 0 Social changes I As adolescence moves into new positions that demand increasing degrees of responsibility and selfreliance I Starting to make hard decisions Three types of autonomv 0 Emotional autonomy the establishment of more adult like and less childish close relationship With family members and peers 0 Behavioral autonomy the capacity to make independent decisions and to follow through With them The developmental of emotional autonomV 0 Physical changes of puberty disrupts family systems Emotional autonomy and detachable 0 Detachment in psychoanalytic theory the process through Which adolescents sever emotional attachments to their parents or other authority figures Research on detachment 0 Transformation emotional autonomy during adolescence involves not breaking off a family relationship Emotional autonomy and individuation 0 Individuation the progressive sharpening of an individuals sense of being an autonomous independent person 0 Psychological control parenting that attempts to control the adolescence emotions and opinions Development of COgnitive autonomV 0 Prosocial behavior behaviors intended to help others 0 Preconventiaonal moral reasoning according to Kohlberg the first level of moral reasoning which is typical of children and is characterized by reasoning that is based on rewards and punishment associated With different courses of action C Conventional moral reasoning according to the Kohlberg the second level of moral development Which occurs during late childhood and early adolescence and is characterized by reasoning that is based on the rules and conventions of society O Postconventiional moral reasoning in Kohlberg s theory the stage of moral development during which society s rules and conventions are seen as relative and subjective rather than as authoritative also called principled moral reasoning O Moral disengagement rationalizing immoral behavior as legitimate as a way of justifying one s own bad acts 0 Civic engagement involvement in political and community affairs as re ected in knowledge about politics and current affairs participation in conventional and alternative political activities and engagement in community service 0 Service learning the process of learning through involvement in community service Religious Beliefs 0 Religiosity the degree to which one engages in religious practices like attending services 0 Spirituality the degree to which one places important on the quest for answers to questions about God and the meaning of life 0 Adolescent s beliefs become more oriented toward spiritual and ideological matters and less oriented toward rituals practices and the strict observance of religious customs 0 90 of American adolescents pray 0 95 believe in God 0 But a large number of youngsters feel that organized religion does not play an important role in their life Chapter 10 Intimacy as adolescence 0 In adolescence the development of intimacy refers to the development of relationships that are characterized by selfdisclosure trust and concerns 0 Intimacy the psychosocial domain concerning the formation maintenance and termination of close relationship Interpersonal development during adolescence O Sullivan theory emphasized the social aspects of growth suggesting that psychological development can be best understood when looked at in interpersonal terms 0 Infancy 02 months need for contact with people need for tenderness from mothering one 0 Early childhood 23 to 67 years need for adult participation in child s play 0 Middle childhood 67 to 810 years need for playmates need for acceptance into peer society groups 0 Early adolescence 1214 to 1718 years need for sexual contact need for intimacy with other sex partner 0 Late adolescent 1718 years to adult need for integration into adult society 0 Platonic relationship nonsexual relationships with individuals who might otherwise be romantic partners Attachment in infancy 0 Attachment the strong affection bond that develops between an infant and a caregiver 0 Secure attachment a healthy attachment between infant and caregiver characterized by trust 0 Anxiousavoidant attachment an insecure attachment between infant and caregiver characterized by indifference on the part of the infant toward the caregiver 0 Anxiousresistant attachment an insecure attachment between infant and caregiver characterized by distress at separation and anger at reunion 0 Internal working model the implicit model of interpersonal relationships that an individual employs throughout life believed to be shaped by early attachment experience 0 Rejection sensitivity heightened vulnerability to being rejected by others Changes in the nature of friendship The development of intimacy in adolescence 0 Corumination excessive talking with another about problems Girls friendship are more intimate than boys across many different indicators 0 Intimacy much more conscious concern for girls than boys The different roles of parents O Social support the extent to which an individual receives emotional or instrumental assistance from his or her social network 0 Adolescent girls have more friends than boys 39 The development of dating relationships 0 LGBT youth lesbian gay bisexual and transgender youth sometimes referred to as sexualminority youth 0 Sexual minority youth lesbian gay bisexual and transgender LGBT youth Chapter 11 Sexuality Sexual activitv during adolescence O Autoerotic behavior sexual behavior that is experienced alone such as masturbation or sexual fantasizing Hormonal in uences O Testosterone one of the sex hormones secreted by the gonads found in both sexes but in higher levels among males and females In uences other than parents 0 Risk factors factors that increase the likelihood of some behavior or condition C Sexual socialization the process through Which adolescents are exposed to and educated about sexuality 0 Sex role behavior behavior that is consistent With prevailing expectations for how individuals of a given sex are to behave 0 Gender identity the gender an individual identifies With 0 Transgender describing individuals Whose gender identity does not match the sex they were assigned at birth Ethnic differences in age and sex Sexual harassment rape and sexual abuse during adolescence 0 Date rape being forced by a ate to have sex against ones Will Signs of sexual abuse AIDS and other sexuallv transmitted diseases 0 Sexually transmitted disease STD any of a group infections including HPV gonorrhea Trichomoniasis herpes chlamydia and AIDS passed though sexual contact 0 Gonorrhea a sexually transmitted infection caused by a bacterium O Herpes a sexually transmitted infection caused by a virus 0 Human papillomavirus HPV one of the several viruses that causes a sexually transmitted disease 0 Trichomoniasis a sexually transmitted infection caused by a parasite 0 AIDS acquired immune de ciency syndrome a disease caused by a virus transmitted by means of bodily uids that devastates the immune system 0 HIV human immunodeficiency virus the virus associated with AIDS Sex Education 0 Comprehensive sex education programs that not only provide information about contraception STDs and pregnancy but also teach adolescents how to refuse unwanted sex and avoid unintended sex increase their motivation to engage in safe sex and change perceptions about peer norms and attitudes O Abstinence only sex education programs that encourage adolescents to avoid sexual activity but that do of provide information about safe sex Cha ter 12 Achievement as an adolescent issue 0 Achievement the psychosocial domain concerning behaviors and feelings in evaluative situations Achievement motives and beliefs 0 Underachievers individuals whose actual school performance is lower than what would be expected on the basis of objective measures of their aptitude or intelligence 0 Mastery motivation motivation to succeed based on the pleasure one will experience from mastering a task 0 Performance motivation motivation to succeed based in the rewards one will receive for successful performance 0 Stereotype threat The harmful effect that exposure to stereotypes about ethnics or sex differences in ability has on student performance 0 Self efficacy the sense that an individual has some control over his or her life 0 Achievement attributions the beliefs an individual holds about the cause of her or his successes and failures Environmental in uences on achievement Educational Achievement 0 Academic achievement achievement that is measured by standardized tests of scholastic ability or knowledge 0 Educational attainment the number of years of schooling completed by an individual Changes in educational achievement over time 0 National assessment of educational progress NAEP a periodic testing of American 4th8th and 12th graders by the federal government used to track achievement Occupational achievement 0 Social promotion the practice of promoting students form one grade to the next automatically regardless of their school performance Work values the particular sorts of rewards an individual looks for in a job extrinsic intrinsic social altruistic security in uence leisure Occupational attainment a measure of achievement based in the status or prestige of the job an individual holds Gardner s theories of intelligence 0 Musical 0 Visual spatial Verbal 0 Logical 0 Kinesthetic 0 Interpersonal 0 Intrapersonal 0 Naturalistic 0 Existential 0 Chapter 13 Psychosocial problems Their nature and Covariation 0 Substance abuse the misuse of alcohol or other drugs to a degree that causes problems in the individuals life 0 Externalizing disorders psychosocial problems that are manifested in a turning of the symptoms outward as in aggression or delinquency 0 Internalizing disorders psychosocial problems that are manifested in a turning of the symptoms inward as in depression or anxiety 0 Comorbid cooccurring as when an individual has more than one problem at the same t1me Problem behavior syndrome the Covariation among various types of externalizing disorders to result from an underlying trait of unconventionality Social control theory a theory of delinquency that links deviance with the absence of bonds to society s main institution Negative emotionality the presumed underlying cause of internalizing disorders characterized by high levels of subjective distress Substance use and abuse Anchedonic having difficulty experiencing positive emotions a risk factor for depression Monitoring the future an annual survey of a nationwide sample of American 8th10th and 12th graders mainly known for its data on adolescent substance use Binge drinking consuming five or more drinks in a row on one occasion an indicator of alcohol abuse Dopamine a neurotransmitter especially important in the brain circuits that regulate the experience of reward Gateway drugs drugs that when used over time lead to the use of other more dangerous substances Developmental trajectories patterns of change over time Protective factors factors that limit individual vulnerability to harm Different tVDes of drug users Externalizing Problems Oppositionaldefiant disorder a disorder of childhood and adolescence characterized by excessive anger spite and stubbornness Conduct disorder a repetitive and persistent pattern of antisocial behavior that results in problems at school or work or in relationships With others Antisocial personality disorder a disorder of adulthood characterized by antisocial behavior and persistent disregard for the rules of society and the rights of others Psychopaths individuals Who are not only antisocial but also manipulative superficially charming impulsive and indifferent to the feelings of others Callous unemotional traits CU a cluster of traits characteristic of psychopathic individuals Which includes a lack of empathy and indifference toward the feelings of others Illlllll Juvenile offending O Aggression acts done to be intentionally harmful 0 Juvenile offending an externalizing problem that includes delinquency and criminal behavior 0 Delinquency juvenile offending that is processed Within the juvenile system 0 Criminal behavior crimes that are dealt With in the criminal justice system regardless of the age of the offender 0 Status offenses violations of the law that pertain to minors but not adults 0 Age crime curve the relationship between chronological age and offending showing that the prevalence of offending peaks in late adolescence Developmental progression of antisocial behavior 0 Authority con icts a type of antisocial behavior characterized by stubbornness and rebelliousness 0 Covert antisocial behavior a type of antisocial behavior characterized by misdeeds that are not always defected by others such as lying or stealing 0 Overt antisocial behavior a type of antisocial behavior characterized by aggression toward others Two tvpes of offenders 0 Life course persistent offenders individuals who begin demonstrating antisocial or aggressive behavior during childhood and continue their antisocial behavior throughout adolescence and into adulthood O Adolescence limited offenders antisocial adolescents whose delinquent or violent behavior begins and ends during adolescence 0 Hostile attributional bias the tendency to interpret ambiguous interactions with others as deliberately hostile 0 Evidence based practices programs and practices that have a proven scientific basis Internalizing Problems Stress rumination and sensitivity to others 0 Oxytocin a hormone known to in uence emotional bonding to others Suicide 0 Suicidal ideation thinking about ending ones life 0 Non suicidal self injury NSSI deliberative attempts to hurt oneself in nonlethal ways including cutting or burning ones skin Diathesis Stress O Neuroendocrine hormonal activity in the brain and nervous system Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRIS a class of antidepressant medications that has proven to be effective With adolescents suffering from internalizing problems such as depression Resilience the ability of an individual to continue to function competently in the face of adversity or stress Primary control strategies coping strategies in which an individual attempts to change the stressor Secondary control strategies coping strategies in which that involve attempts by the individual to adapt to the stressor
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