Textiles Final Study Guide
Textiles Final Study Guide CSFRST 2371
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Taylor Hamilton on Monday February 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CSFRST 2371 at Ohio State University taught by Suzan Monastra in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 322 views. For similar materials see Textiles in Behavioral Sciences at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 02/09/15
Textiles Final Study Guide Finishes Aesthetic Finishes Calendaring Embossing creates texture by giving the fabric a raised 3D effect 0 Produced by passing the fabric between an engraved roller amp a soft surface roller Moir produced by passing 2 layers of a rib weave fabric between rollers to atten the ribs in certain areas 0 When ribs cross each other they are attened thus altering the way the light re ects off the fabric 0 Ex watermark waterstained wood grain Glazing produced by applying starch wax or resin prior to passing the fabric through very smooth rollers that move at a high speed Cire Used for thermoplastic bers 0 Fabric is passed through high speed heated rollers that soften amp polish the surface of the fabric to produce a wet look 0 Used for backpacks sleeping bags amp outerwear Shreinering Used to enhance the luster amp hand of fabrics o The roller in contact with the fabric surface is engraved with ne diagonal lines that press against the fabric surface as the fabric passes between 2 rollers under pressure 0 Soft luster amp smooth surface is the result 0 Applied to tricot fabrics that are used for lingerie Abrasive Finishes Napping mechanical nish in which wire hooks are used to pull bers from the surface of low twist yarns to produce a raised fabric surface 0 Ex annel amp eece Brushing mechanical process using a brush to gently raise the bers from the fabric surface SandingSueding mechanical nished that alter the surface of the fabric 0 Fabric passes between rubber pressure rollers amp then over an abrasive cylinder that abrades the surface of the fabric 0 Sanding gives ne fabrics a soft hand Used for silk amp rayon fabrics o Sueding Gives fabrics a suedelike effect Flocking method of cloth ornamentation in which adhesive is printed or coated on a fabric amp nely chopped bers are applied all over by means of dusting air blasting or electrostatic attraction Burn Out Similar to negative printing design is produced by dissolving one type of ber to create a burn out effect o Commonly used on fabrics with 2 bers in which one ber is easily dissolved by a solvent or an acid amp the other is resistant to that chemicals 0 Used on combination fabrics Denim Finishings used to distress to create vintage look dry amp wet techniques Stoneabradant mechanical process that produces a faded look by abrading the fabric Chemical Washing used to alter color amp hand 0 Bleaching agents are used to change the color of denim Enzyme Washing with a cellulose enzyme can be used to alter the color amp the hand of fabrics with cellulosic bers 0 Also used to remove short bers from the surface of fabrics produced with cellulosic bers thus giving fabrics a softer touch Functional Finishes performance nishes Functional Finishes Enhances performance Nanotechnology molecules of the nishes are attached or associated with besrs at the molecular level amp in a systematically ordered manner 0 Improves nish permanence without adversely affecting hand and air permeability Microencapsulation It enables the slow release of ingredients onto the skin in contact with the fabric 0 lmparts desirable properties that are often dif cult to apply using other nishing methods EX fragrance insect repellent or cooling materials Wrinkle Resistance Property of a fabric that enables it to resist the formation of wrinkles when subjected to a folder deformation 0 Durable Press Applies to a garment that has been treated so that it retains its smooth appearance shape amp creasespleats in laundenng Shrinkage Control Fabrics are preshrunk to avoid fabric puckering amp problems with t 0 Relaxation Shrinkage Release of stresses after removal from the loom of from other fabric processing 0 Progressive Shrinkage Shrinkage that continues through successive cleaning particularly if later cleanings are more sever that earlier ones Chemical treatments are used to prevent progressive shrinkage Water Repellent Applied to fabrics that can shed water but are permeable to air amp comfortable to wear o Durable water repellent DWR used for fabrics with a water repellent nish Multifunctional Has multiple functions l Cotton that is wicking comfortable amp is ame resistant amp anti odor properties 0 Moisture Management nishes that provide comfort by transporting moisture away from the skin 0 Temperature Regulation Technology designed to provide comfort by regulating the temperature next to the skin based on environmental conditions 0 Achieved by Phase change technology Use of silver based nishes Use of other techniques such as cooling gels 0 Phase Change Technology based on a cycle which latent heat is absorbed stored amp released by the encapsulated particles as they change from solid to liquid or vice versa to maintain stable body temperature During hot weather material absorbs heat amp changes from solid to liquid providing a cooling effect During cold weather material releases heat amp changes from liquid to solid proving a warming effect 0 Flame Retardant Used in cotton amp other fabrics to improve ame resistance Antimicrobial Finishes Chemical compounds that kill or inhibit microbe growth amp prevent cross contamination odor amp degradation 0 Silver is used as a microbial nish amp has gained popularity due to its low toxicity XStatic Silver Product Antimicrobial inhibits the growth of odor causing bacteria amp fungi AntiStatic silver is electrically conductive Regulates temperature 0 Nanoparticles are permanently embedded in fabric enhancing the durability of the nish 0 UV Resistant Rit dye contains tinosorb which makes the garment SPF 15 Innovations StainSoil Repellent Fluorochemical nishes that prevent water dirt amp oil based stains from being absorbed 0 Liquid stains bead on the fabric surface beaded liquid rolls offca n be blotted o All stainsoil repellent nishes are water repellent since several stains are water based but not all water repellent nishes are soil repellent StainSoil Release A nish for textiles that makes it easier to remove stain amp soil in laundering o Absorb stains amp enhance removal of the stain o Allows fabrics to remain absorbent Ex Napkins Dual Action Fabrics Treated with a combination of stain repellent amp soil release nishes E Textiles Enable computer or other electronics to be embedded in them 0 Wearable computers 0 Monitor healthwellness Dyeing 0 Fiber Dyeing o Dyed at various stages of manufacturing prior to the bers being spun into yarns 0 Pros Excellent dye penetration o Cons Not suitable for quick responsequot products 0 Color decisions must be made early in the manufacturing process More expensive than yarn fabric amp dyeing 0 Used to produce yarns with 2 or more colors l tweeds amp fabrics with a heather look 0 Yarn Dyeing 0 Color is added at the yarn stage using one of these methods Skein Dyeing yarns are loosely wound into hanks or skeins then dyed Pro Good dye penetration 1 Con Slow amp expensive process 0 Used for bulk yarns amp knitting I Package Dyeing yarns wound on perforated spools are dyed in a pressurized tank 0 Pro Fast process 0 Con Dye uniformity may not be as good as in skein Beam Dyeing Perforated warp beam is used instead of spools in package dyeing Continuous Dyeing A method in which the dyeing xation of dyes washing etc is done as a continuous process 0 Used for dyeing large quantities of yarns for denim with indigo andor sulfur dyes Space Dyeing Skeins are dyed in multiple colors 0 Dyed yarns produce woven amp knitted fabrics requiring colored yarns to create a design 0 Yarns for hand weaving knitting crocheting amp weaving are yarn dyed 0 FabricPiece Dyeing 0 Fabric or piece dyeing fabric after it has been constructed Beck ampJet Fabric is dyed in a rope form 2 ends of the fabrics are stitched to form a continuous loop of fabric 0 Fabric is dyed as the continuous loop of fabric circulates in the dyeing machine Jig Dyeing Openwidth fabrics are dyed either in an enclosed pressurized environment or open atmospheric conditions 0 Typically used for woven fabrics Beam Dyeing Fabric is dyed in the open width form fabric is wound on a perforated beam amp the dye liquid forced through the holds to dye the fabrics 0 Suitable for fabrics that require special care I Very economical Most common method of dyeing solid colored fabrics I Suitable for quick responsequot orders 0 Color can be decided after a fabric has been manufactured o Cons I Dye penetration may not be good in thicker fabrics 0 Union Dyeing A method of dyeing a fabric containing 2 or more types of bersyarns to the same shade so it appears a solid color Used to dye solid colored blends amp combination fabrics for apparel amp home furnishings 0 Cross Dyeing A method of dyeing blend or combination fabrics 2 or more shades I Cost effective Suitable for quick responsequot products I Fabric is not a solid color 0 Product Dyeing o For hosiery wool berets Tshirts amp sweaters 0 Suitable when all components dye the same shade 0 Not suitable with apparel for many components Different components dye different ways 0 Ideal for quick respose Prints Digital Newest print technique that uses design software to create designs amp regular amp wideformat printers to print the designs on fabrics 0 Can be used for wide variety of patterns Heat Transfer Done by passing fabric amp preprinted paper between heated rollers so that the dyes from the paper are transferred to the fabric 0 Comparativer simple method that can print a wide variety of designs 0 Suitable for large amp short yardage runs 0 Initial set up cost is low amp changeover time is short thus fabrics can be printed as needed based on demand 0 Environmentally friendly low energy less waste Applied Blotch Prints that have a background amp pattern printed at the same time 0 White areas are visible at the back where the dye has not been penetrated o Majority of printed fabrics with a colored background are blotch Overprints Print where the pattern has been printed on a previously dyed material 0 Fabric back has the dyed background color similar to the fabric face 0 Background color in designs is always lighter Discharge Prints where color is removed to create the design 0 Used to create prints that have a background darker than the deggn Block roller amp screen printing methods are used A dye needs to be used that can be stripped away to create the design Fabrics 7i 1 x 133 1amp5 irate Plain m Eaeltet l l g i irlll Weave Even Uneven Efriatien Warpface Fillingfaced 39539 I quotil w m the 3f Datingr Jaeiuard t quotC aiiii f5 1 lg A39 Infab1 Spat Swivel La packet LEE quot ilFi le 7 Uncut Pile Cut Fl39ile m 239 i gall 3 E i39r E Len e Craze WEJEIEE39EE SI clttenei en Weave Pique Tri ani a l 4 Finitteizl Fatlriee f l n J ra Jereelr Ftiti 7 w l r r 1 lag 31 re If at Airlaid L I ang i 555 Pile lereelglr a r r Jaequar Jereefilr iii iii n I u Deule llei39essellr Interleelt wule lnit Jacquard lulre Cnit nit Bern rnenl yr ueecl 0 Plain Weave Most basic interlacing of warp amp lling yarns 0 Face amp back are the same 0 Also known as the tabby weave 0 End Uses Apparel Lamp shadescurtains o Twill Weave A basic weave characterized by prominent diagonal ridges 0 Left hand twill diagonal is from lower right to upper left 0 Right hang twill diagonal is from lower left to upper right 0 Evensided warp yarn goes over 2 amp under 2 lling yarns o Unevensided warp yarn goes over amp under a different number of yarns 0 End Uses Uniforms Casual Pants jeans Upholstery Drapes BagsLuggage Satin Weave Characterized by long oats in the warp or lling direction 0 O O Floats occur when a yarn is not interlaced but oats over other yarns between points of interlacing Warpfaced oats on the technical face are in the warp direction Fillingfaced oats on the technical face are in the lling direction Satin Fabrics warpfaced satin weave woven with smooth lustrous lament yarns for maximum luster Ex Rayon polyester acetate silk Sateen Filling faced satin weave woven with cotton yarns for a softer luster End Uses Lingerie Nightwear Scarves Bed Linen Figure novelty Weaves Variationcombination of basic weaves that don t require an extra set of yarns to create the design 0 Dobby Fabrics with small simple geometric designs that have straight lines in at least one direction Less yarn manipulation Created wit a dobby attachment that selectively raises amp lowers the yarns to create a design 0 Jacquard Fabrics with complicated designs with curves Controls individual warp amp lling yarns to create intricate designs Computer controlled jacquard systems are used to raise the warp yarns Surface Figure Weaves VariationCombination of basic weaves that requires an extra set of warp of lling yarns to create the design Spot Weaves The extra yarn is inserted for the entire lengthwidth of the fabric oating from one motif to another most common surface gure weave o Unclipped The oating yarns between the motifs are not cut 0 Clipped Floating yarns are cut between motifs forming a fringe Weft Knit Fabric that is knit with one continuous are forming the loops widthwise to form courses 0 Can unravel 0 Stretch 0 Ex Jersey knit rib knit purl knit double weft Jersey Stitch The most common used to produce jersey knit fabrics Purl Stitch Revrsei of the knit stitch l combined with knit stitch to produce rib amp purl knits o Warp Knit Fabric that is knit with the yarns running lengthwise 0 Do not unravel 0 Don t stretch 0 Ex Tricot raschel Nonwovens 0 Manufacturing nonwovens requires formation of web amp bonding of a ber wed Often used for medical disposable geotextiles 3 Bonding Methods 0 Mechanical Bonding Fibers are entangled or stitched to hold them in place amp add strength 0 EX spun lacing hydroentangling needlepunch stitchbonding Used in upholstery o Utilizes water to entangle bers Often produces soft fabrics with good drapability 0 Thermal Bonding Thermoplastic bers are fused with heat Spun bound 0 Chemical Bonding Resins or binders are used to bond the bers Multicomponent Fabrics o Consist of 2 or more fabrics or materials combined to form a new fabric 0 The performance of the new fabric is different from that of individual fabrics andor materials used to produce the multicomponent fabric Quilted stitched with thread ultrasonic Filling inside l quotmushy middlequot LaminatedBonded produced by joining a layer of fabric with a layer of lm or membrane using a resin or adhesive 0 2 Layer 3 Layer Coated produced by coating fabric surfaces with a resin rubber or vinyl How we use imitation leather Difference between bonded material amp laminated materials Laminated l layer doesn t add bulk Bonded l layer adds bulk Stages of Manufacturing Stages of Manufacturing Fiber Yarn Fabric Dyeing Printing Finishing Fiber The basic unit from which textile products are made Yarn Continuous strand of bers used to weave or knit fabrics Fabric Cloth produced by interlacing or interloping yarns by binding together ber webs Dyeing Adding color to the textile material or product Printing Application of dye pigment or other chemicals to produce designs on the textile material or product Finishing Last step in the process to prepare the fabric for use GUIBWNH De nitions Warp The set of yarn in all woven fabrics that runs lengthwise amp parallel to the selvage amp is interwoven with the lling 0 Vertical yarns Weft The yarn running from selvage to selvage at right angles to the warp 0 Horizontal yarns Weaving The method or process of interlacing 2 yarns of similar materials so that they cross each other at right angles to produce woven fabric 0 Can be done on a power methods or by hand methods Knitting Method of constructing fabric by interlocking series of loops of one or more yarns o 2 Major Classes warp amp weft Gauge The number of needles per given distance in a knitting machine 0 Higher the gauge the ner the knit Staple Natural bers or cut from laments l short Filament Fiber of inde nite or extreme length such as found in silk Bias The thread line that is at 45 degree angle to the weft amp warp Levelness A level dyeing produced the same shade on the entire batch of material being dyed Fastness The ability of a dyed textile to retain its shade amp depth of shade when exposed to various external environmental agencies Thread Count Warp yarns plus lling yarns Yarn Classi cations Simple yarns Characterized by uniform size amp regular surface l single plied cord amp rope 0 Single simplest of yarn produced by twisting together staple or lament bers 0 Plied Produced by twisting 2 or more single yarns Each strand of single yarn is a ply o Cord Produced by twisting 2 or more plied yarns o Rope twisting 2 or more cord yarns Novelty fancy yarns Typically made of 2 or more strands produced to provide decorative surface effects 0 SlubThick amp Thin Have thick areas created by changing the yarn twist during the spinning process Slub produced with staple yarns Thick amp Thin produced with lament yarns Slut farna 0 Flock Flake amp Seed Generally produced with 2 strands of yarn as 1 strand serves as the base yarn amp the other as the effect yarn l nubspot is produced by the effect yarn twisting several times tuft cal FilJE r5 Fl DEF fa rn around the base Produced at regular or irregular intervals 0 Boucle Loop amp Ratin Effect strand forms loops at intervals around the base strand amp the 3rd strand binder is used to bind the effect strand to the base Can be produced at regular or irregular intervals Typically made of 3 strands Eloucl farn o SpiralCorkscrew Plied yarns where one ply is soft amp thick amp the ED i re liquott fa rrquot 5 other is ne o Chenille Have a pile that is held between 2 highly twisted base yarns amp the base yarn is not visible as its surrounded by the pile Ef lEl lllli l m Other FTC Federal Trade Commission Responsible for the wool fur amp textile labeling acts amp the care labeling rule 0 Wool Products Labeling Act WPL 0 Fur Products Labeling Act 0 Textile Fiber Products Identi cation Act TFPlA 0 Care Labeling Rule CPSC Consumer Product Safety Commission Responsible for ammability standards coved by the ammable fabric acts 0 Flammable Fabrics Act FFA o Laundering Symbols Waghing leaahing Drying lmning 1 Cleaning U E ma mETHD IE39II i Hamil 393 mam EUle 11 EAHE 3min LE quot U r E rm I l J L Ellian 1 Hi 3 r H l l r I MI 1 r1 Fm asii nal Extlila Earn banLim
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