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Exam I Review Sheet

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by: Julia Scheinman

Exam I Review Sheet Sociology 3487: Research Methods

Julia Scheinman
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julia Scheinman on Monday February 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Sociology 3487: Research Methods at Universidad de Granada taught by in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 212 views.

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Date Created: 02/09/15
Sociology 3487 Introduction to Social Inquiry Exam 1 Study Guide Spring 2015 The exam will be a combination of multiple choice de nitions and application true and false and short answer essay questions This study guide is not exhaustive but should help clarify some of the major points discussed in class You should be able to answer the following questions understand how to recognize examples and be able to apply these concepts and issues Important Terms You should be able to define discuss give examples o and recognize examples of 1 Applied Research uses social scientific research to address concerns or offer solutions to identified problem a Applied sociologists are practitioners such as teachers counsellors social workers b Intentional c Explicit discussion of goals or how the research going to be utilized 2 Basic pure research social scientific research to advance fundamental knowledge of the social world a This type of sociologist is most often found in academic research institutions 3 Quantitative Research numerical statistical analyses surveys census data general deduction 4 Qualitative Research nonnumerical interviews content analyses participant observations 5 Positivism there is an objective reality that exists apart from our own perception of it a Realitv is ordered observable and measurable b Goal better understand this reality 6 Interpretivism reality is socially constructed a There is no reality for social scientists to observe b Goal understand what meanings people give to reality c Best achieved through qualitative methods d Also called subjectivism and hermeneutics e Triangulation using measures and observations for studying the same social problem 7 Micro Sociology studies behaviors within groups and between individuals a Aimed at understanding social life and the intimate level of individuals and their interactions b Studies individuals and small groups 10 11 c Dating behavior studentteacher interactions Macro Sociology interactions between large groups and how group membership in uences behavior a Aimed at understanding the big picture of institutions whole societies and the interactions among societies Study society at large c Economic class structure interrelationships among institutions college attendance rates by group etc Deception Intentionally misleading participants about their status giving false information about the investigators or the research purpose omitting information about the real purpose of the research a Involves controlling your own identity as a researcher Debriefing interviewing respondents after the interview to assess their thoughts and opinions of the research providing details at the conclusion of the experiment a ensure that your participants don39t have any negative effects from their participation or being deceived such as embarrassment or damaged self esteemconfidence Institutional Review Board IRB Administrate body established to protect the rights and welfare of human research subjects a Created in response to Tuskegee study b Oversees any research involving human subjects What is Social Science Explain how Berger thinks about what Sociology is and the major distinction that he draws in his description Berger says sociology is not always a prosocial endeavor O Tuskegee research We can look at things objectively but our own biases will in uence how we see things In an era of big data a sociological understanding of data is even more crucial Distinction between practices and understanding 0 Practice how we utilize the information we learn 0 Understanding what we learn from studying What are the main nonscientific approaches to knowing what we know How can they be useful in some contexts but not in others a Authority expertise credentials a When a professor speaks outside of his realm of knowledge b Tradition accepted knowledge c Media and the Internet d Personal Inquirv practicing and understanding 5 Squotl SJI Be able to describe 5 common errors in causal inquiry and common safeguards for addressing them Inaccurate observations imprecise memory Overgeneralization drawing conclusions based on limited observations Selective observation the tendency to ignore cases that break the mold Illogical fallacy exception proves the rule Resistance to change reluctance to adapt our ideas in light of new information Common Safeguards 4 Systematic sampling procedure Explicit criteria for determining causality Replication of inquiry Peer review do others agree with your approaches and conclusions Be able to draw the wheel of science and explain the relationship between each part 4 Sociolozv as Science How do we know what we know How does social science differ from alternative ways of knowing What are the advantages and disadvantages of these approaches 0 Epistemology science of knowing philosophy 0 Methods science of finding out 8 Be able to discuss some of the reasons why studying people is different from studying studying atoms bees or bears for example 9 What are the elements of theory and how do they fit together You should be able to provide specific examples of each of the components Concepts abstract elements representing classes of phenomena within a field of study 10 Ex gender health race education level class inequality Variables a characteristic or property that can vary They are measurable concepts Operationalization how variables are measured Proposition conclusions about relationships among concepts that are derived from axiomspostulates fundamental assumptions on which theory is grounded 11 Ex poor youths are more likely to break the law to gain material comforts than are rich youths based on axioms 1 people desire material comfort and 2 being poor blocks one from obtaining material comforts legally Hypothesis a specific testable expectation about empirical reality Follows from a more general proposition and includes a relationship among variables 12 Ex youths whose parental incomes are less than 20K have higher delinquency rates than do youths whose parental incomes are more than 20K Null hypothesis there is no relationship between variables Our goal is to test whether we can reject the null hypothesis 13 8 Be able to discuss what propositions and hypotheses are and what the relationship is between the two 0 Proposition conclusions about relationships among concepts that are derived from axiomspostulates fundamental assumptions on which theory is grounded 0 Hypothesis a specific testable expectation about empirical reality Follows from a more general proposition and includes a relationship among variables 9 What are the different purposes of research Are they mutually exclusive a Exploratory mapping out a new topic i ratesorigins of sex trafficking online activism and the effects of the Fukashima disaster on Japanese perceptions of nuclear power b Descriptive careful empirical description that takes the place of speculation and impressions i change in US obesity rates change in interracial marriage rates 0 Explanatory providing reasons for phenomena in the form of causal relationships i increased domestic stability has negative effect on violent con ict in a country ii The 3 main purposes of research are not mutually exclusive 10 What are independent and dependent variables What is the relationship between them Be able to give examples and identify each in a research question 0 Independent variable causesleads to variation your predictors 0 Dependent variable varies depending on in uence of another variable your outcomes 0 The independent variable in uences the dependent variable 14 Connecting Paradigms and Methods 11 What are theories and paradigms and what is the relationship between the two 0 Paradigm There is no clear paradigm in sociology 0 We can better understand the different m and actions of others who are operating from a different paradigm 0 At times we can profit from stepping outside of out paradigm 0 Theory logic a systematic account of the world that goes beyond what we can see and measure 0 Theory and research tend to follow particular paradigms 0 As the shortcoming become obvious the new replaces the old 0 In sociology paradigms lose and gain popularity but they are seldom discarded completely 0 Paradigms in the social sciences are neither true nor false they are only more or less useful 12 What role does theory play for research 15 16 17 18 13 What are the theoretical approaches that focus on macro research that we discussed What approaches focus on micro research How does this in uence the questions that these approaches ask 19 Functionalism Society is a whole unit made up of interrelated parts that work together each part has a function and this contributes to society39s solidarity and efficiency 0 Maintained through cooperation consensus and constraint 0 Structures are independent of individuals 0 Predominantly interested in what role the institution plays in society 0 Structures are independent of and interact with one another 0 Macrotheoretical approach 0 Comte Spencer Durkheim Parsons and Merton 0 What function does it serve for the cohesion and organization or society 0 If any opportunities are unequal then that is because it has to be that way to maintain order So inequalities are necessary for society 20 Con ict TheorV o Macrotheoretical approach 0 Marx Weber C Wright Mills Domhoff 0 Con ict theory society is viewed as composed of groups competing for scarce resources money and status This 39social tug of war39 is for material and nonmaterial resources 0 Individuals are equal but opportunities are not equal 0 Social order is created by people in power to maintain the status quo 0 Con ict is viewed as the engine of social change 0 This theory is focused on con ict between unequal groups and change in society 21 22 Symbolic Interactionism o Microtheoretical O Mead Cooley Simmel Goffman 0 Symbolic Interactionism views symbols things to which we attach meaning as the basis of social life 0 Through the use of symbols people are able to define relationships develop worldviews communicate coordinate actions and develop a sense of identity 0 Structure is the product and the driving force between everyday interactions among individuals 23 24 Rational Choice TheorV o Microtheoretical approach 0 Blau Coleman Olson 0 Rational Choice humans are reasoning actors who weigh means and ends costs and benefits and make rational choices 0 People freely choose behavior both conforming and criminal based on rational calculations 0 Choice is driven by maximizing individual gains and minimizing losses 0 Ex deterrence theory people break law if the benefits outweigh the costs 25 26 27 Ethics in Research 14 What are the ethical responsibilities that researchers face when collecting data and conducting analysis 1 Ethics in data collection and analysis a Being persistently honest in observations and analyses b Being willing to admit error or negative hypotheses c Elevate pursuit of knowledge above personal gain or promotion of personal philosophy 2 Ethics of responsibility to societV 0 Consideration how findings will be used Beneficial or Exploitative 0 Example managementsponsored research intended to quiet labor unions Is this ethical as a social scientist 0 Project Camelot 0 Militarysponsored social science study of revolutions and insurgency in developing countries 0 Scholars who contributed were labeled quotselloutsquot jeopardized social scientists professional autonomy findings could be used to unethical ends 0 Quaddafi hired academics to improve perceptions of his country 1 Ethics regarding the treatment of human subjects a Ensuring respondents are treated with respect and protected from harm i Should never injure emotionally physically of psychologically ii Voluntary participation no coercion can stop at any time iii Informed consent iv Standards for protecting privacy 1 Anonymity neither researchers nor the readers of the findings can identify a given response with a given respondent 2 Confidentiality the researcher can connect responses to respondents but promises not to do so publically ii Deception this involves handling your own identity as a researcher 28 15 Be able to identify and discuss the major examples of ethically questionable research discussed in class and in the book for example the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment What were the speci c ethical concerns did they offend or potentially offend i Tuskegee Syphilis Study 1 Between 1932 and 1972 the US Public Health Service conducted an experiment on 399 black men in the late stages of syphilis 2 Purposefully prevented and denied treatment of disease in order to study the full progression 3 Some never told what disease they were suffering from or of its seriousness ii 29 30 31 32 6 7 The data for the experiment was to be collected from autopsies quotAs I see it we have no further interest in these patients until they diequot Result 28 of the men had died directly of syphilis 100 were dead of related complications 40 of their wives had been infected and 19 of their children had been born with congenital syphilis Eventually reparations were made to the families of the subjects Longstanding Effect development of the IRB Tearoom Trade Laud Humphreys 1 2 4 Homosexual acts between strangers Who are these men What motivates this eeting sex Answer this question by means of participant observation and structured interview a Served as a watchqueen Secretly followed men to cars amp recorded license plate s found addresses from the police Went to the homes to interview claiming to be a healthservice interviewer and interviewed them about their marital status race job and so on Findings destroy stereotypes Gang Leader for a Day Venkatesh 1 Benkatesh infiltrated a Chicago gang telling the gang leader he was going to write his biography really wanted to understand the underground economy exploitation of subjects Participates in a gang beating and becomes aware of plans for a drive by shooting but does not report it to authorities ignores his moral and ethical responsibilities to society Divulges information about financial enterprises and hustles told to him by interviewees to individuals J T for example who were involved in extorting money from those interviewees The person who gives Venkatesh information on the gang39s books is later killed in prison puts subjects in danger by violating confidentiality 16 What are the three ethical issues when interacting with human subjects 2 Ethics regarding the treatment of human subjects b Ensuring respondents are treated with respect and protected from harm Should never injure emotionally physically of psychologically v vi vii viii Voluntary participation no coercion can stop at any time Informed consent Standards for protecting privacy Anonymity neither researchers nor the readers of the findings can identify a given response with a given respondent 2 Confidentiality the researcher can connect responses to respondents but promises not to do so publically iii Deception this involves handling your own identity as a researcher 33 17 Be able to compare and contrast anonymity and confidentiality and identify steps that a researcher can take to maintain them while conducting research 18 Be able to discuss Zimbardo s Stanford Prison Experiment What are the ethically problematic decisions that he made as the person in charge of the experiment 34 Stanford Prison Experiment 0 Lasted 6 days in 1971 0 Professor Phillip Zombardo Private Investigator Prison Ward role he lost perspective 0 Test peoples responses to oppressive regimes causes and con icts between prisoners and prison guards 0 The guards adopted authoritarian measures and ultimately subjected the prisoners to psychological torture 0 Power corrupts showed some unpleasant things about human behavior 35 36 37 38 39 Short Answer Essay 40 You will see th of these questions on the exam and you will be expected to thoroughly answer M 41 1 Identify and describe the specific ways that scientific inquiry uses to prevent errors of inquiry 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 5 1 52 53 54 2 For this essay please identify and describe each of the elements of theory AND how they fit together In addition to your broader description of the elements please provide an example that exemplifies each of the elements and how they fit together 55 3 Identify and describe inductive and deductive logic as they relate to the process of scientific inquiry Be sure to point out the specific steps in the process and provide a brief example for how each approach may be used to study m of the following topics religion education or family 56 57 Deductive Research 0 Speci c expectation deduced from a general theoretical premise and then tested with data 0 Primary motive explain or evaluate speci c phenomena or hypotheses 58 Ex Does socioeconomic position affect health Or vice versa 0 Develop incorporate theory 0 Collect data to test theory 0 Accept reject or modify theory 59 60 Inductive Reasoning Begins with speci c data which are used to develop induce a general explanation a theory to account for the data 0 Let the question emerge from the datasituation itself 0 Primary motive to explore 61 Ex Why did some people volunteer for Freedom Summer while others did not Collected archival data and collective interviews Analyze results observe patterns tentative hypotheses and create theories 62 4 Provide a detailed explain of TWO of the following paradigms symbolic interactionism structural functionalism and con ict Please provide an example of a research question that one may ask for each of the approaches you selected 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 5 Identify and describe in detail the three main ethical concerns With social science research and the ethical issues that need to be considered While studying human subjects 83


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