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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by corey janis on Monday February 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to es112 at a university taught by Dr. Kropf in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 176 views.
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Date Created: 02/09/15
Notes for exam 1 Introduction Energy The ability to do work JoulesJ Unit of energy Objects gain energy when work is being done to them Five forms of energy Heat The moving of molecules create heat Produced by friction Causes changes in temp and phase of matter Chemical Required to bond atoms together When bonds are broken energy is released 1 calorie 4184J 1 calorie 000398TU Electromagnetic its electricity Both generators and consumption Light is one form Most concentrated form of energy Nuclear Nucleus of the atom is the source of nuclear energy Fission Splits nuclei Fusion Smashes 2 nuclei together Mechanical When work is done to an object it acquires it History of Energy Industrial revolution change the types of energy resources Most energy we use today is nonrenewable How energy is used Commercial 19 buildings light and heat Industrial 31 making stuff Residential 22 Transportation 28 PWNT Total fuel consumption in 2008 Coal 2300 Natural Gas 24 Renewable 7 Petroleum 37 Nuclear 9 Types of Energy Nuclear Power Low environmental impact Very low risks of accidents Limited by Low net energy yield High Costs Fear of accidents Radioactive waste Most common product used is Uranium 235 Fuel Cycle Mine Refine Use Store Trade offs Advantages Low environmental impact Emits 16 as much C02 as coal Lower risk of accidents Disadvantages Low net energy High cost Long lived radiation Conventional Oil Advantages Ample supply for decades High net energy yield but is decreasing Low land disruption Efficient distribution system Disadvantages Water pollution from spills and leaks Environmental costs not included in market price Releases C02 and other pollutants into air Vulnerable to international supply disruptions Natural Gas 5090 methane Advantages Ample supply High net energy yield Emits less C02 the fossil fuels Disadvantages Low energy yield for liquefied natural gas LGN Releases C02 and other pollutants when burned Difficult and costly to transport Coal Three major countries using it China US Canada Advantages Ample supply in many countries High net energy yield Low cost when environmental costs are not included Disadvantages Severe land disruption and pollutants Fine particle and toxic mercury dust harm our health Emits large amounts of CO2 Solar Advantages Moderate net energy yield Emits little to no C02 Easy to install and move around Competitive costs for newer cells Disadvantages Needs access to sun Needs electricity storage or backup system Higher costs for older systems but decreasing rapidly Solarcells could disrupt desert ecosystems Hydroelectricity Uses kinetic energy from moving water Worlds leading source of renewable energy Advantages Moderate to high net energy yields Large untapped potential Low cost energy Low emissions of C02 and other air pollutants Disadvantages Large land disturbance and displacement of people High CH4 emissions from shallow biomass decay Disrupts downstream aquatic ecosystems Wind power Advantages Moderate to high net energy yield Widely available Low energy cost Little to no emission of C02 or other air pollutants Easy to build and expand Disadvantages Needs electricity storage or backup system when wind dies Visual pollution for some people Lowlevel noise bothers some people Can kill birds if not placed right Biomass Advantages Widely available in some areas Low cost No net C02 release if harvested burned and planted sustainably Plants can help restore degraded lands Disadvantages Moderate to high environmental impact Increases C02 if harvested and burned unsustainably Clear cutting can cause soil erosion pollution and loss of wildlife Often burned insufficiently in open fires and stoves Biodiesel Advantages reduced CO and C02 emissions High net energy yield for palm oil crops Reduced hydrocarbon emission Better fuel economy up to 40 Disadvantages Increased N0X emissions and smog Low net energy yield for soybean crops Competes with land for crops Clearing natural areas for plantations Ethanol Fuel Advantages Some reduced CO2 emissions High net energy yield Bagasse and Switch grass Potentially renewable Disadvantages Low net energy yield corn and higher costs Higher CO2 emissions corn Corn ethanol competes with food crop and can cause higher prices Geothermal Advantages Moderate net energy and high efficiency at accessible sites Lower C02 emissions than fossil fuels Low cost at favorable sites Disadvantages High cost and low efficiency at concentrated and acceptable sites Scarcity of suitable sites Noise and some C02 emissions
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