e162 Test 1 Study Guide
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CSCI A110: Intro to Computers and Computing
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Eric Gerard on Monday February 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to e162 at Indiana University taught by Wadzinski in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 187 views.
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Date Created: 02/09/15
Species a place person or thing from which something comes or can be obtained Carbon can be used by humans vegetation etc quickly or sequestered for millions of years Fossil Fuels contain sequestered carbon they are coal oil and natural gas Good provides 85 of all energy consumed in the US that is ALL of our transportation and 23 electricity Bad they release sequestered carbon into the atmosphere that would otherwise not be released nonrenewable Coal oil and gas are really just fossils O Algae 0 Wood 0 Spores O Charcoal 0 Things that were once living carbon C02 emissions 0 Coal is the worst 0 Oil is second 0 Then Gas Cap and Trade a marketbased approach used to control pollution by providing economic incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants a central authority sets a limit or cap on the amount of a pollutant that may be emitted Cap limit on the quantity of greenhouse gases that a region can emit each year there is only one pie to be sliced up and it gets smaller as progress is made Trade companies may swap among themselves the permission permits to emit greenhouse gases Opposition O Permits will be sold at auction 0 Coal states will be hit harder 0 Companies that exceed the limits will need to buy more carbon allowances or invest in more efficient technology 0 Opponents say this will raise energy costs Does it work 0 Used in Europe for carbon emissions but had start up problems freebees O The US invented the idea in 1995 for acid rain problems sulfur dioxide 0 51 reduction from 1990 levels 0 Also been successful in reducing ground level ozone caused by nitrogen oxide 0 6O 0 5 reduction from 2000 levels Current Status 0 Bill bounced around Congress in 2009 and 2010 but never passed both houses 0 Unlikely to be addressed in the near future O O O O O 0 What else is happening 2007 Supreme Court ruled that the EPA needs to regulate greenhouse gases GHG under the Clean Air Act Lots of court challenges underway What s been done so far 2010 and 2012 EPA set standards for vehicles to reduce GHG and improve fuel economy 2010 EPA implements Tailoring Rule Stricter standards for big polluters only required when a facility needs a new permit September 2013 EPA proposes standards for new power plants standards for existing power plants due 2015 Will require new technology 0 Not all coal is the same 0 Some types heat very well 0 Some types pollute more 0 Carbon problem 0 Altered land 0 Worker safety 0 Water and soil contamination from acid mine drainage 0 Mountain Top Removal Mining moving a mountain Oil 0 Pro 0 O O O O O 0 Natural Gas 0 Pro 0 O O O O O O Reasonably accessible and transported worst of 3 fossil fuels for emissions Spills and thrills Drilling Impacts Wars Nonrenewable Price uctuations Refining produces solid waste some of it toxic Does not produce a lot of solid waste Emits the least amount of carbon of the 3 fossil fuels Need extensive pipelines Drilling impacts Nonrenewable Still emits some fracking Fracking a method of extracting oil or gas from a layer of rock by drilling and creating cracks 0 Alternatives 0 0 All energy sources have environmental impact Nuclear Hydropower Biofuels Municipal solid waste Wind Power 0 Solar Power 0000 Coal gasification heat pressure and steam turns coal into gas which is burned to make electricity 0 Supposed to be more efficient 0 Still produces C02 but it can be caught Environmental Philosophies How they evolved in the US How did it start Archaic End of ice age triggered need to adapt Moved twice a year to fish and gather 7000 years ago Woodland Invention of pottery eliminated need to migrate in spring and fall started farming This provided larger and more stable food supply which in turn supported more people 800 years ago Why is land so important 0 Land resources the good life You can t move the climate soil etc The source of wars throughout history Israel Palestine Is it any surprise we have wars in oil rich countries 0 Kuwait Irag Next came the Europeans Who ownscontrols the land resources Ecological imperialism Crosby 0 Disease 0 European species altered ecosystems O Destroyed the food sources of natives What about that land Federal Government at work 0 First they acquired land as fast as they could 0 Then they got rid of it as fast as they could Now why would they do that 0 Then they protected what was left as fast as they could 0 Now they buy it back sometimes 0000 Public domain lands gained from foreign countries Eminent domain government can take your land The land nobody wanted The Progressive Movement Social movementparadigm shift at the turn of the century Public decisions to be based on science 0 Established expert government agencies to manage and prevent waste 0 Resulted in many reforms 0 Labor 0 Women s rights 0 Natural resources Prior to 1900 0 Basic premise natural resources are inexhaustible use it and forget about it 0 Nature 0 Is to be used and dominated by humans 0 Role of government no controls needed no science considered no legislation 0 What happened 0 Decimation of buffalo herds introduction of plants changed ecosystems ecological warfare against Native Americans 1900 s 0 Basic premise leave nature alone and minimize human in uence 0 Role of government federal government is the only entity powerful enough to limit access to nature 0 What happened 0 Concept of national parks protection of areas such as Yosemite Environment 0 Natural resources 0 Ecosystem o Biosphere 0 Environment all external factors surrounding and affecting an organism put another way it is the totality of conditions surrounding an organism Natural Resources materials that occur in nature and are essential or useful to humans such as water air land forests sh and wildlife topsoil and minerals 0 Renewable and nonrenewable 0 Individual organism a particular critter Population collections of organisms of the same species in a particular area habitat resource needs group behavior population growth 0 Community population of different organisms living and interacting in a particular area Ecosystem a specialized community together with its environment functioning as a unit Biome large life zones made up of many smaller ecosystems similar climate temp amp precipitation 00000 O Biosphere entire realm where life is found 0 Water Cycle 0 Carbon cycle 0 Limiting factors and habitats 0 Food chain 0 Carrying capacity 0 Values 0 Strategic manage for a condition 0 Commodity manage for money 0 Aesthetic manage for looks o Moral manage for mother earth 0 Air 0 Biospheric issue more than an ecosystem few life forms are exempt 0 It s not all the same These six are regulated by the Clean Air Act Ozone ground level Particulate Matter Carbon Monoxide Nitrogen Oxides Sulfur Dioxide Lead 0 Ozone layer 0 00000 O 0 Layer in the stratosphere Destructive at ground level Helpful up there because it absorbs harmful UV B Ozone layer problems First studied in 1974 People needed cold beer and deodorant and foam burger containers CFCs were thought be safe UN Environmental Program to the rescue Climate Change Global Warming 0 O O O O Glaciers Precipitation patterns Snow and ice cover Seawater levels Wind patterns 0 Our forests may change 0 O O 0 Carbon is a major player Fourth most abundant element in the universe Basic chemical element in all living things Also found in nonliving things it is a major source of energy 0 Found in rocks ocean atmosphere plants soil creatures and fossil fuels 0 Long term in rocks and fossil fuels 0 Short term in wood and other organic matter 0 In the ocean o In the atmosphere 0 Why is carbon a problem 0 When we burn fossil fuels we release carbon that otherwise would remain out of circulation O This puts more carbon into the atmosphere than what would occur naturally 0 This thing is carbon is very good at retaining heat thus more carbon a warmer earth I Carbon sequestration 0 Carbon can be sequestered stored for relatively short or long periods of time 0 Various processes sequester carbon I The earth s chemical processes bury carbon 0 Carbon is also stored in wood and other organic matter I Sources of CO 0 Burning of modern biomal Wood Burning of ancient biomass I Coal I Oil I Natural Gas 0 Sinks for COA sink is where carbon accumulates and is stored I The ocean I Living biomass like trees I Soil I Greenhouse gases 0 Certain chemical compounds in the earth s atmosphere that absorb infrared radiation heat I Water vapor I Carbon dioxide I Methane I Nitrous oxide I Numerous other trace substances 0 The effect of greenhouse gases is not based on quantity but more so on heat absorbing capabilities 0 Water vapor is the most abundant greenhouse gas but does not retain nearly as much heat as carbon dioxide 0 A trace chemical called Sulfur Hexa uoride makes up only 00000000067 of the earth s atmosphere yet is consider by the IPCC to be the most potent greenhouse gas I Developed nations agreed to limit emissions UN Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen Dec 2009 0 Didn t work out so well Durban Nov 2011 O Agreed to adopt a universal legal agreement on climate change as soon as possible and no later than 2015 IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Mission is to provide an assessment of the state of the knowledge on climate change 90 probability that climate change is a result of human activity The Clean Air Act Basis of national air pollution control effort 1970 revised 1990 Generally Feds develop the regulations and states implement Sets standards timelines and procedures to reduce pollutants Primary standards protect human health Attainmentnon attainment areas Secondary standards protect the environment and property States have implementation plans Things get adjusted frequently Can be controversial OOOOOOOOOO
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