Hist 348 Final guide
Popular in History Of The People Of Kansas
Popular in History
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History of the People s of Kansas Final Exam Study Guide Abolitionism amp The Free State Dispute and its causes supporters opponents Abolition l a moral crusade to end slavery shaped antislavery struggle challenged entire US political system supported by evangelical middle class in the North and Quakers attacked not only slave owners but slavery supporters and apathetic bystanders David Rice Atchison from MO slave owner leader of the border ruffians believes quotwhole future of the South depends on the KS strugglequot encourages MO slave holders to cross into Kansas and vote founds Atchison KS as proslavery town tells MO people to be brutal and use force 105 of thousands of MO citizens jump border and vote KS into union as slave state number of voters gt Kansas citizens and another election is planned 0 20 of MO s slaves live on the KSMO border and MO feels threatened to lose slaves if KS is free state Dred Scott Case 1857 l Dred Scott is a slave purchased in MO and taken to IL and Wl free states while in WI his services are sold by his master which is illegal on free state soil Scott sues his owner his owner claims that blacks amp slaves are not US citizens and cannot sue in Federal Court declared the MO Compromise unconstitutional because Congress doesn t have the authority to prohibit slavery in any territories including KS 0 Pushes settlers on both sides of free state issue into KS more Sacking of Lawrence D Same day as the Caning of Sumner May 21 1956 SheriffJones proslavery is shot while arresting free state settlers and run out of town Free State Hotel is built and seen as a quotfortquot on Mt Oread SheriffJones leads people into Lawrence to unarm citizens get rid of newspapers spreading word of free state settlement ideals and information about proslavery planned attacks stop free state settlers and destroy the Free State Hotelwatch fort 0 Only 2 printing presses destroyed at rst 0 Lawrencians sit atop Mt Oread with a cannon and shoot at proslavery forces all day 0 Proslavery forces must make blows at the Free State Hotel for an entire 24 hours before they hotel is damaged Wakarusa War 1855 Franklin Coleman proslavery murders Charles Dow free state over land dispute south of Lawrence body recovered on Jacob Branson s free state land and he is charged with disturbing the peace by the Douglas County Sheriff proslavery Coleman goes free and free staters are angry so they create a posse to free Branson Kansas Militia is mobilized with over 2000 proslavery MO soldiers and they ransack Lawrence calls for help from federal government raid MO arsenal in December federal government arrives in Lawrence at the same time free state party arrive with another murdered member peace treaty is signed on December 8 1855 o This event along with many others KSNE Act Dred Scott outcome Sacking of Lawrence Caning of Sumner founding of Atchison helps spark the interest ofJohn Brown John Brown arrives in KS in Oct 1855 follows 5 of his sons here hates slavery and has his entire life nicknamed quotOld Brownquot because he is 55 when he arrives in KS thinks he s God s soldier for blacks wants to lead an armed slave uprising naTve in thinking there would be no bloodshed necessary has a quotwar like spiritquot and today would be considered a quotdomestic terroristquot 0 Bloody Battle of Potawatomie of cially started quotBleeding Kansasquot led byJohn Brown 0 Battle of Osawatomie next battle led byJB after he says quotthere will be no more peace in this land until slavery is done forquot Civil War in Kansas KSNE Act info provided in quotterritorial daysquot led to Civil War Quantrill39s Raid on Lawrence August 1863 largest unarmed civil attack in US until 911 not soldier vs solider vigilantes vs Lawrence citizens Lawrence was 2ncl largest town in KS during Civil War and seen as headquarters ofJayhawkers with strong past of antislavery community believed everything taken from MO in raids was stored about 400 MO raiders met no resistance from Union Army on their way and Lawrence wasn t prepared all arms locked up most raids only looted and set buildings on re but this raid became a massacre with 200 deaths men were shot on sight so many women confronted the raiders 85 homes burned as well as quotdowntown districtquot River to 8th St New Hampshire St Mass St and Vermont St 0 Ewing39s General Order 11 effects citizens that couldn t prove their dedication to the Union required citizens of Bates Vernon Cass amp Jackson counties to vacate their homes so the guerilla fighters couldn t nd refuge there everything in all counties is burned to the ground and becomes known as the quotBurnt Districtquot Archeology and Geography Tall Grass Prairie Reserve cleans ozone just like trees lters air underwater roots system provides clean water for residents Ogallala Aquifer underneath KS Wind is huge energy resource for KS Dust l dust bowl in 30 s wiped out many farms now plant trees between elds to break up dust storms and prevent dusk coverings Territorial Days KansasNebraska Act One of most important acts in US history 0 Starts quotBleeding Kansasquot days 0 1820 Missouri Compromise l regulated slavery in LA Purchase land kept even balance of freeslave states in US with 11 of each no slavery east of 3630quot parallel line 0 KSNE Act moves people west for quotmanifest destinyquot and repeals the MO Compromise o Allows for popular sovereignty in new territory creates Republican pa y o Reinvigorates political career of Abraham Lincoln who opposed bill gives speech in Oct 1854 in Peoria IL speech attacks the morality of slavery argues for freedom of slaves quotthey are not animalsquot very careful NOT to blame the south for slavery says slavery is illegalimmoral but that he s quotnot ready to have blacks as equalsquot in society 0 Those opposed to slavery opposed this act 0 Single most signi cant act leading up to the Civil War 0 Proslavery and abolitionists settlers rush to KS after act is passed The Caning of Charles Sumner 1856 Mass Senator denounces the KSNE Act attacks it and argues for immediate admission of KS as a free state 2 day speech very purposefully uses negative sexual imagery and attacks the allusion of slavemaster sexual relations compares slavery to a whore 0 May 22 l Sumner gets caned by SC Senator Butlers nephew Brooks Butler beats Sumner until cane breaks and within inches of Sumner s life Bogus Legislature l 3 constitutions written up for state of KS 0 Topeka Constitution antislavery constitution passed by legislature but vetoed free slaves couldn t own territory didn t pass proposed by free staters limited suffrage of white males and natives staunch almost radical abolitionists drafted this voters adopt TC but border ruf ans bring this to the US president who condemns the actions of KS free staters House of Representatives votes to keep KS free but doesn t pass military is sent to stop the TC from being enacted leads to the Lecompton constitution Lecompton Constitution admits KS as slave state radically in favor of slavery approved by proslavery voters but freestaters won still sent to President Buchanan as official KS constitution 2 elections for this constitution rst passes it the second does not pass the LC into law Leavenworth Constitution grants voting rights to African Americans rati ed by KS voters but not by US congress John Richie helped write this extremely radical free state constitution does not pass Wyandotte Constitution 4th and nal KS constitution expressed progressive ideas prohibited slavery protected homeowners from bankruptcy gave slight suffrage to women vote in school board elections and property rights rst state in US history to do so granted vote to white males 21 years old young people write this constitution equal custody of children given to women and men 21 foot long hand written constitution changed the borders of KS moving them further South to current day borders most democratic slave holders lived in Nebraska territory and Democrats wouldn t sign it admitted KS to union as free Western Expansion The Santa Fe Trail commercial trail for goods and services The Oregon Trail Personalfamily trail often used for moving 0000 0 00000 300000 people used this trail to movetravel 56 months to travel entire trail Mostly went to Oregon and California after gold rush 110 people died on trail cholera poor sanitation exposure to the elements accidents stampede by livestock when startled Oxen pull because the live off prairie grass and bode well on trail Feeding and caring for cattle became a daily routine on route Many walked because their wagons were so full Started as 58 person caravan l 800 person caravan within 1 year Mostly farmers few artisans Moved about 20 miles per day Starts in Independence MO The Pony Express starts in St Joseph MO and ends in San Francisco Bay Area mail route that takes 10 days 165 lb max per horse fresh horses every 1015 miles amp new riders every 6080 miles about 500 horses 200 stations and 200 station employees along the trail 5 per letter Settlement Overall Kansas population goes from 107206 in 1860 to 1428108 in 1890 l rapid population growth Indian Removal to Kansas US views land as a means of ownership and able to be traded Indians view themselves as occupants of the land that has no ownership 0 Indians moved in Indian Removal Act to lands west of the Mississippi including Kansas 0 Natives lost more land to treaties than in war with US 0 The idea of a treaty to end a dispute was new to natives and got used against themtaken advantage of by US Treaty with Kansa 1825 US wanted treaty with them to make sure Santa Fe Trail Commercetraffic could happen with minimum interference from natives Chief White Plune signed treaty with US amp also helped Louis and Clarke navigate lands lost almost all their hunting lands in Kansas to this treaty river ownership is important in this treaty as well because they provide transport to KC amp STL and they need the trees by the banks for lumberbuilding in new settlements People emigrated to KS because l economic reasons land farming gold government officials lndian agents military leaders morality antislavery proequal suffrage women s rights religion adventure see the west nature hunting science Immigrant Aid Society 1 month before KSNE Act is made law lAS is created by man from Massachusetts believe the can move to KS and settle it as a free state this law is why Massachusetts St in main street downtown company was profit run lAS settlers weren t required to vote quotfreequot but it was assumed they would 1856 kept land status very public company never made stock from any of their 2000 settlers but were very important in US history and KS settlement Orphan Trains 150200000 orphans relocated to new homes on these trains some quottrue orphansquot both parents dead some quothalf orphanquot one parent can t care for them some quotturned loosequot because family can t afford them sent on trains because of neglect abandonment prostitution parent death over population in citieshouses started by Children s Aid Society amp New York Foundling Hospital wanted to provide food clothes homes and education new parents are to quottreat orphans as their ownquot but this didn t always happen tried to get 2 chaperones for each child one male amp one female kids often told the day before they left put on stage inspected and given to families farmers needed workers for their farms and looked for muscle siblings often separated and never saw each other again Children s Aid Society sent random kids out for auction NY Hospital required future parents to request children around 200 million people today are descendents of orphan train riders one of the greatest relocation movementsexperiments in the US history gave railroad companies land grants for railroad tracks Immigrants offered credit to settlers to come to Kansas making it more affordable to them targeted people from England Germany and Scandinavia wanted settlers for more business and employment opportunities in KS Russians brought quotwinter wheatquot to KS for rst time over 60 newspapers were printed in German to accommodate settlers Vulga GermansNulga Russians are German settlers from Russia under the control of Katherine the Great who are sent to settle in Kansas by the Vulga River added 1 million to KS economy in 1874 alone helped turn KS into bread basket Mexicans Following the Mexican Revolution of 1910 Mexicans start coming to Kansas people who were very poor farmers people from small villages most come through El Paso at the border where there was border patrol but a very weak BP 1917 US enacts quothead taxquot for people wanting to coming into US from Mexico during WWI the railroads needed workers and there was a RR connecting El Paso to KC making it easier to hire Mexicans for RR labor labor recruiters waited at border for men these men were the rst of their kind to come to KSUS to work lives in Wichita Topeka and Kansas City no familiar comfort foods or native language speakers in new towns some workers stayed in RR cars all day repairing the RR tracks along the way others worked in quotroundhousequot workshops with catholic churches across the street in KC the Westbottoms Argentine amp Rosedale are historically Mexican neighborhoods l segregated in pools theaters schools and restaurants 1933 Mexican Fiesta is held when church cannot pay bills festival in mid July with food music dancing and games made over 500 in one night continued festival for multiple nights Our Lady of Guadalupe Catholic Church still hold this festival in same neighborhood today 80 years later started private school for Mexican children and today the money raised at the festival goes to the school and scholarships for students Displacement Exodusters African Americans that come to KS for freedom pay 5 for a ticket to KS in KS blacks can own land amp sustain all black townscities Nickademus KS is an example of this only all black town west of the Miss River today 12 residents named after a poem about a slave average age is 80 years old Native Indians Kanza Indians creation story man amp woman procreate push people into the sea woman prayed to God s to help her kids beavers cams and added land for people to live Migration adaptation to land and technology change helped make Kansas a livable place for natives Before it was named the Santa Fe Trail was the trading route used by tnbes Technology pottery for food storage bow amp arrow buffalo should bones used as hoes for gardening gardening for food gathering Most evidence of Indians l re cracked rocks heat rocks before putting them in water to cook foods They were hunters gatherers stationary gardeners Be able to write about one tribe for the nal 0 Wichita Indians Hunting tool of choice triangular arrowhead spear any other spheres found in their land are thought to be from trading Pratt amp Rice County known to be most colorful in their clothing and decoration choices 0 Kickapoo Indians Originate from Great Lakes Regions 17th Century Iroquois War broke out amp they moved west to Wisconsin Illinois Indiana Prospered in the plains Had 10 different treaties with US government between 17951854 these treaties relocated them to Illinois Missouri Kansas Oklahoma Texas and Mexico Compacted with state for gaming operations and now have Golden Eagle Casino the largest employer in Brown County Agreed with state for economic gains needed to afford drinking water in Brown County The Trail of Tears the 5 Civilized Tribes Cherokee Creek Chickasaw Choctaw amp Seminole forced to move in Indian Removal Act left South and formed alliances with Union army Creek and Seminole are divided in this those expelled were sent to Kansas on the quottrail of tearsquot Indian Home Guard recruited their own men for their battalion using them in Union Army was highly debated as many thought they only wanted the clothes and food and would rebel as soon as they were armed Union allowed them to ght on native lands only natives were officers in their infantries unlike black battalions not successful at rst rst war encounter in 1862 during the summer rounded up confederate troops and caught Cherokee allies as POWs then retreated by fall 1862 officers were replaced by whites and trained the battalions to become more successful US Indian Industrial School 1884 founded to quotcivilizequot Indians now Haskell started with 22 students in grades 15 and focused on agriculture 400 students by second semester and focused on trade speci c classes in tailoring shoe making blacksmithing most food for students grown on Haskell Farm boarding school so students don t see families for years militaristic protocol ran the school often kept siblings separated locked in school jail for misbehavior many students died in earlydarker years malnutrition germs poor sanitation and a student cemetery was built on campus after 10 years it became a quotnormal schoolquot to be a training school for teachers later opened business classes became certi ed high school with great football team in 1965 it graduated its last high school class and became a junior college in 19905 became a 4 year university Cowtown Frontier amp the Chisholm Trail 1867 natives waved red ag so whites could quotpay tollquot cattle before crossing reservation lands whites would give skinny sickly cows and move on man named Young moved 3500 cattle from Texas to Kansas once he reached KS line natives forced them to keep cattle in single le line to cut down on cattle eating the grass Kansas in Popular Culture Kansas in our imaginationquot Wizard of Oz tornadoes atlands the band all live on farms Poor education quotWhat s the matter with KS schoolsquot article explains that Kansas schools are increasing spending cuts quotbelow adequate levelsquot so this phrase is being removed from Kansas constitution to prevent the issue instead of properly funding state schools Moon Over Manifest Picnic l depicts KS as family oriented strong sense of community drifters welcome hard working people automatic community attendanceparticipation trusting communities jobs available here farming state the picnic scenequot community feeling outsiders easily identi able prohibition prevalence and secrecy of alcohol double standard for women and marriage family feel they re playing games pie eating contest 3legged race ring toss queen gets crowned at end Queen of Neewallah barbershop quartets adults are so bored they start to drink Dodge City Wade the good guy Jeff Surrett bad guy Rusty amp Tex Wade s sidekicks Yancy Surrett s sidekick Abby Wade s love interest set in Dodge City KS shows the stereotypical quotWild Wild Westquot Hollywood version of KS themes of lawlessness outlaws newly settled lands and a clear quotNorthSouth divisionquot are shown The Great Depression amp Dust Bowl 19305 Great Depression GD affected urban and rural Americans big turning point in US history 1929 s quoteasily attainable creditquot backed with stocks led to the stock market crash on Oct 29 1929 and ends the quotget rich quickquot era of US history Native American Vice President only one under Hoover is from Kansas Charles Curtis President and VP underestimate crash crisis and tell US it will be over in 60 days and Hoover refused to give relief to the poor quotHoover agsquot empty pockets turned inside out and quotHoovervillesquot shanty towns became popular terms as many blamed Hoover for the depression nearly 100000 workers laid off every week for 3 years psychological impact of unemployment hits people hard despair ashamed embarrassed useless replaceable weakvulnerable economy only intensi ed by Dust Bowl farmers paid not to plant crops because over production and under consumption led to a drop in crop prices too much food they can t sell because starting people can t afford it over 12 state of KS affected by dust bowl gov t paid farmers to burn lands brought hit and killed all crops extreme wind and dust storms hit and caused the Dust Bowl to occur no soil conservation practices were used at the time so farms just dried up and blew away in seconds after this the idea of soil conservation came about AfricanAmericans in KS The Underground Railroad UGRR slavery is the government sponsored exploitation of African Americans the UGRR helped fugitive slaves make it north of the Ohio River to free state soils runs through Kansas speci cally though Lawrence amp Topeka o Slaves passengers houses stations people that helped conductors 0 Station houses often had speci c quilts hanging in front yard or candles left in the front window 0 Fugitive Slave Act 1850 requires citizens to assist in the recovery of fugitive slaves part of 1850 compromise makes more federal of cials responsible for enforcing the law criminalized aiding slaves punishable by 1000 ne or 6 months in prison made abolitionists want to end slavery even more after this UGRR hits its peak between 18501861 0 Quindaro now part of KCK but originally its own lndian town part of Wyandotte Indian Territory Wyandotte are abolitionist sympathizers and sell their river port to free state settlers to help them get supplies because river had been blockaded by M0 settlers quota thorn in the side of the free statersquot later becomes huge part of the UGRR where slaves would escape down the river at night marks the quotbeginning of the end of the border ruf an movementquot town fell to depression during Civil war Clarina Nichols helped many slaves l notably helped a slave named Caroline that was being hunted hid her until 7 at night then helped her pass into Leavenworth 0 Lane Trail straight north of Topeka a NS trail for slaves to comes to KS from the North since they couldn t enter KS from MO in the East lane chimneys marked the trail for slaves later used to take slaves out of KS and North to freedom John Brown stays here in a one bedroom cabin and is treated with the upmost respect Ann the Slave is caught on this trail by slave sympathizers and escapes to the ravine nds a dr who agrees to help her hides in his house and does housework for him at night to show appreciation caught by proslavery man who keeps her secret for her and does not expose her 0 Cost of getting to freedom very risky for slaves if caught often beaten nearly killed and returned to slavery all could be for nothing is caught locations of houses are only shared by word of mouth and can be difficult to nd nolittle source of food water or protection provided along the way 1st Colored Kansas Infantry rst state to recruit African American troops in the Civil War August 1862 rst to see battle and rst to die in action James Lane recruited them opposition from people who didn39t want to give black men gun or ght along side them as equals given inadequate medical care less pay inferior suits and armamentgunsammo AA Settlements Nickademous Brown v BOE Background information after Civil War the quotReconstruction Amendmentsquot are put in affect 13th Amendment abolishes slavery 14th Amendment creates the equal protection clause 15th Amendment gives former slaves male over 21 the right to vote 1866 1870 amp 1875 Civil Rights Acts give voter intimidation protection to blacks from KKK and allow former slaves to sit in Congress Brown vs BOE is made up of multiple different court cases fought and led under one name 0 Railroad Company vs Brown Supreme Court defends African American rights says segregation in trains in unconstitutional o Freedmen39s Bureau to help African American men live in democratic society with equal rights for all 0 Compromise of 1877 l Hayes declared President Tilman wins popular vote but not electoral vote Pulls federal troops out of South and ends reconstruction 0 US vs Murray Stanley l Blacks denied service at hotel owned by Stanley blacks sued and hotel got ned 500 Stanley challenged it in Topeka Court in 1883 the court declared quotit s state s rightsquot and Federal Courts can t regulate taxation within a state because quotinterstate commerce clause leaves this up to the statequot 0 Plessey vs Ferguson June 7 1892 Plessey picked to challenge segregation laws in New Orleans LA appears white and enters white car on train arrested and takes case to Supreme Court to see if states have the right to segregate railroad cars if the train only travels within the same state Supreme Court ruled quotseparate but equalquot facilities was constitutional Opens up the legal segregation is US before this business owners often lost money if they served blacks now they were legally required to serve all but provide separate facilities 0 NAACP organization to ghts for AfricanAmerican rights Kansas laws at time of BvBOE only allowed segregation in schools and quotfirst class communitiesquot Topeka couldn t afford to have 2 separate schools but still segregated sports student council and other school sponsored activities Briggs vs Elliot MAJOR disparities in segregated schools in South Carolina to show negative psychological effects of segregations the Clark Doll Test is created shows segregation gave whites a feeling of superiority and blacks a feeling of inferiority Bolling vs Sharpe 19505 Washington DC new allwhite middle school is built with whole empty wing while black school is over crowded Belton Bulan vs Gebhart only case that won at the lowers courts District Courts in Delaware ruled that only their community not entire state was affected by the segregation laws Davis vs County School Board Student led movement by NAACP led by Barbara Jones in Virginia to end segregation in schools Brown vs BOE 13 plaintiffs living outside school zones in equal schools tried to enroll kids in neighborhood schools amp are denied quotPlesseyquot precedent held but judges say it DOES have detrimental impact on students 0 Why Brown Facilities really ARE equal and teachers make equal pay so court can t tell them to equalize the schools which is the normal verdict NAACP Argument Denies negro children equal protection of the law under the 14th Amendment even though physicaltangible facilities are equal May 17 1954 ChiefJustice Earl Warren declared quotseparate but equal is inherently unequalquot 1955 Brown IIquot Courts declare that quotdesegregation of schools must be done with all deliberate speedquot made a unanimous decision in the case possible because it allowed the South to desegregate slowly Little Rock 9 Arkansas school s failure to desegregate AR governor keeps school segregated under AR National Guard President Eisenhower sends in the 101st Airborne Division of the US Army to Little Rock High School for protection of the 9 black students entering the school
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