Study Guide for First Exam
Study Guide for First Exam Biol 204
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Benthem on Sunday April 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 204 at University of New Mexico taught by Dr. Marcy Litvak, Dr. Tom Kennedy in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Plant and Animal Form and Function in Biology at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 04/10/16
1. What is an animal? multicellular heterotrophs that feed by ingestion, have symmetry, true tissue layers, are motile at some point in life cycle, muscles coordinated by nervous system, and have collagen. 2. What are the two types of muscle? How do these relate to adaptation always having tradeoffs? Type I muscles – cardio, oxidative, endurance. Type II muscles – Fast-twitch, glycolytic, strength. Both of these muscles have their uses, either for endurance or heavy lifting. Neither is good at the other’s job. 3. Discuss how saturated vs. unsaturated membranes relate to their functions. What are the tradeoffs of each type? Saturated membranes stack, lead to fluidity in warmer temperatures and lack of fluidity at lower temperatures. Unsaturated don’t stack, leads to fluidity at cooler temperatures and too much permeability at higher ones. 4. What are the different types of connective tissue? Tendons, ligaments, bones, blood, adipose. 5. What are the different types of muscle? What are their purposes? Skeletal – Motion/locomotion. Attached to skeleton, contract in order to move Cardiac – heart, constantly contracting and releasing your entire life Smooth – around esophagus and intestines, helps move food through digestive tract 6. How does the length of an animal’s digestive tract relate to their diet? A carnivore will have a short tract due to the fact that animals are easier to digest than plants. Herbivores will be the opposite. 7. How does surface area to volume ratio effect animal size? Larger animals need less energy proportional to their mass (mass specific metabolism). This is due to having less surface area proportionally, so they lose less heat to the environment for their size. The relationship between size and mass specific metabolism is non-linear. However, at large sizes, dissipating heat created by metabolism becomes difficult due to lack of surface area, placing an upper limit on body size. 8. How do we measure metabolism and energy use? Measure O2 and CO2. 9. How does diet (carnivore vs. herbivore) effect body size? 10% of energy travels between trophic levels, limiting predator size. Predators have to eat more and more prey as their body size increases compared to herbivores. Too large predators can’t find enough prey. 10.What is homeostasis? Constant internal environment that differs from the outer environment. Islands of low entropy. 11.How is homeostasis maintained? Behavioral modifications, such as fanning yourself. Internal body reactions, such as ketoacidosis. When the body is starved of glucose (diabetes, some diets), muscles think they’re starving and send a signal for the body to break down fat. This releases ketones, which are acidic. In order to maintain proper blood pH, calcium bicarbonate is released, providing a buffer. The bones provide calcium, so ketoacidosis can lead to weak bones 12.Describe the difference between heterotherms and homotherms? Can ectotherms only be heterotherms? Heterotherms – endotherms that can vary body temperature wildly. For example, hibernation and torpor. Homeotherms – animals whose body temperature only mildly fluctuates. Endotherms or ectotherms who live in consistent environments 13.Define essential nutrients Nutrients that we need to survive that we cannot make. They must be obtained through our diet. 14.What are the two types of vitamins? Which are dangerous? Why? Fat soluble and water soluble. Fat soluble are dangerous because they are not easily flushed out in our urine so they can build up to toxic levels. 15.What is the difference between a complete and an incomplete protein? Why are proteins important? Complete protein – has all essential amino acids Incomplete protein – not all essential amino acids. Vegetarians have to pay attention to what plants they eat so they get them all. 16.What are the essential fatty acids and why? Omega 3 and omega 6. Our bodies can’t synthesize the double bonds at those locations (the third and sixth carbons respectively). Sources include cold water fish, sunflower seeds, and flaxseed oil. 17.What are the four different types of feeders? How do they work? Suspension feeders – sift food particles out of the water. Baleen whales, sponges, etc. Deposit feeders – swallow nutrient rich sediment. Some sea cucumbers Fluid feeders – use modified mouth to suck fluid from host. Can be herbivore (butterfly) or carnivore (mosquito) Bulk / mass feeders – relatively large pieces of food. Examples: Mammals – chew their food (masticate). Deep sea fish – gape limited 18.Describe the different dental adaptations in sharks, vipers, mammals, and eels. Sharks – teeth in skin. Allows constant regrowth. Teeth are serrated for ripping food apart Eel – pharyngeal jaw comes out of main jaw to pull food in Viper – fangs to inject victims with venom Mammals – different types of teeth. Only have two sets in order to maintain alignment which allows chewing 19.Describe the difference between a complete and an incomplete digestive tract Incomplete digestive tract – gastrovascular cavity that has enzymes to break down food and transfer to cells. Leftovers leave through the mouth Complete digestive tract – can be highly modified (birds, humans, etc) Serial digestion – different parts of the tract (digestive compartments) have different enzymes that break down the food differently (stomach, small intestine). 20.How are woodpeckers, prairie rattlesnakes, and chameleons tongues adapted to their prey? Chameleon – shoot tongue out to acquire food Woodpecker – long, barbed tongue that inserts into tree to pull out bugs Prairie rattlesnake – tongue used to taste the air, fork allows directional sensing 21.Discuss insect mouth parts Coleopteran – mandibles for chewing Butterfly – proboscis for sucking Hemiptera – labrum/rostrum for piercing and sucking Flies – maxilla for chewing and lapping 22.What types of animals have lost mouth parts and why? Some parasites have lost their mouthparts due to their food already being digested when the absorb it. 23.Describe the anatomy of the esophagus. How does it work? Surrounded by smooth muscle to move bolus down. Process is called peristalsis. Also has a sphincter on the end which prevents heart burn by keeping stomach juice in stomach. 24.What is the pH of the stomach? Why? Low, H+ kills bacteria and break down proteins. 25.What is pepsin? Where is it activated? Protease, activated in the stomach so that it doesn’t break down proteins in the cells that produce it. 26. What is a gizzard? What does it do? Muscular part of digestive tract that grinds up food. Found in some fish (mullet). Some birds will eat rocks to aid in grinding. 27.What are the three main adaptations for plant digestion in herbivores? Crop – the hoatzin has a modified crop with cellulose producing bacteria. When they store the food there, the bacteria begin digesting the plant material. The hoatzin is one of the only birds in the world who can subsist purely off of plants. Ruminant stomach – a section of the stomach with bacteria that break down cellulose. Ferments it into fatty acids and reduces glucose to short chain fatty acids (Ruminants have no upper incisors. Tongue comes out and grabs food, then they rip it up.) Cecum – enlarged in herbivores. Houses bacteria that break down plant matter 28.What are the accessory organs to the small intestine? What are their functions? Pancreas – produce protease Gall bladder – holds bile to digest fat. Bile aids in emulsification of fat to allow absorption Liver – produces bile 29.Name the three parts of the small intestine. What are their functions? Duodenum – first part of small intestine. Receives chyme from stomach and mixes it with juices from the pancreas, liver, gall bladder, and small intestine. Jejunum and Ileum – absorption of nutrients and water. Has lots of surface area with villi and microvilli. 30.Name the two parts of the large intestine and its main accessory organ described in lecture. What are their functions? Cecum – aids in fermentation of plants. Connects small intestine to large Appendix – holds gut microbes. Allows them to repopulate stomach when stomach microbes are flushed due to illness Colon – reabsorbs water and forms feces 31.Describe the two different types of diabetes Diabetes type I: Childhood onset. Immune system attacks cells in pancreas and they no longer produce insulin. Since insulin is what controls blood sugar levels, the blood has too much sugar and the person goes into a diabetic coma. Insulin injections reverse coma. Diabetes type 2: due to too much consumption of sugars, the pancreas wears out and stops producing insulin. In addition, muscle cells develop insulin resistance, which prevents them from uptaking insulin. 32.What is the difference between ram ventilation and buccal ventilation? Ram ventilation – constant swimming with mouth open to allow water to flow through. Sharks and Rays Buccal ventilation – opening and closing of mouth to allow water to flow through 33.Describe counter current exchange in gills Water and blood flow in opposite direction through gills. When the blood first enters the gills, it has a low O2 concentration. As it flows through the gills towards the front, O2 diffuses into it, raising the concentration. At the front of the gills, it has its highest concentration. In the reverse, when water enters the gills, it has its highest O2 concentration. As it travels towards the back of the gills, O2 diffuses into the blood, lowering the concentration. In this way, a concentration gradient is maintained across all of the gills. 34.How do insects “breathe”? Spiracle (small openings) in exoskeleton allow O2 to diffuse into trachea and then into trachiole. Open circulatory system picks it up and carries it through the body. Some insects have abdominal muscles that they use to move air in and out. 35.Describe Bird’s breathing process Lungs worked via a two breath system. First breath goes into an air sac. When the animal exhales, it moves across the lung. When the animal inhales again, it moves into a second air sac (meanwhile, second breath goes into first air sac). When it exhales again, the first breath leaves the body. This means that there is no mixing of entering and exiting air, allowing greater efficiency.
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