Review 3 PSY 3620
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STUDY GUIDE FOR TEST 3 (Spring, 2016) Chapters 911 CHAPTER 9: ADOLESCENCE: Body and Mind 1) Define puberty, menarche, spermarche, gonads. Puberty: time between first onrush of hormones and full adult physical development. Lasts 35 years. More years required for psychosocial maturity. Menarche: Girl’s first menstrual period. Pregnancy is biologically possible, but irregular periods for years after. Usually 12 years, 8 months but this age is declining. Higher BMI, the younger it occurs. Need Leptin: a hormone that affects appetite and onset of puberty. Most must weigh 100 pounds before first period. Spermarche: Boy’s first ejaculation. Erections can occur as early as infancy, but ejaculation signals sperm production. First one fertile, usually from masturbation or wet dreams. Usually under 13 years old. Gonads: Testes & Ovaries. 2) What is the usual sequence of physiological changes for both boys and girls? Girls: Begins with nipple growth (10). Then pubic hair (pubarche 11), growth spurt (first weight 11, then height 11 ½, then muscles), extremities first grow (DistalProximal), widening hips (12), menarche (12 ½), full pubic hair growth, breast maturation, oil/sweat/odor producing glands (13) Boys: Begins with pubic hair (1112). Growth of testes, initial pubic hair growth, growth of penis (1212 ½), spermarche (12 ½), growth spurt (weight 12 ½ then height at 13), widening shoulders, deepening of voice/cracking voice (15), facial hair (16), final pubic hair growth, oil/sweat/odor, chest hair. Some boys experience gynecomastia: temporary enlargement of breasts due to estrogen. Both experience Asynchrony: one breast/leg/arm/etc. grows faster than the other and they feel out of proportion. 3) Describe the biological sequence of puberty, through the HPA and HPG axes. HPA (Adrenarche): Hormone production starts in hypothalamus, moves to pituitary, then to adrenal glands. The hormones regulate puberty. Earlier in girls (68), boys around 9. Hypothalamus: Releases GnRH (Gonadtropin Releasing Hormone), CRH (Corticotropin Releasing Hormone) Pituitary Gland: Releases ACTH (Adrenocorticotropin Hormone) to Adrenal Glands. Releases TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone) and GH (Growth Hormone) to Thyroid. Adrenal Glands: Releases DHEA (Dehydroepiandrosterone), testosterone, estrogen, progesterone, and cortisol. HPG (Gonadarche): Hypothalamus releases gonadotropinreleasing hormone (GnRH), pituitary gland releases gonadotropins, and gonads are activated. This is when the gonads enlarge and produce more sex hormones – estradiol in girls and testosterone in boys. Testes still produce testosterone and estrogen/estradiol Ovaries still produce estrogen/estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone. Approximate Ages: 1. Adrenarche 7 2. Gonadarche 8 3. Thelarche 11 (breasts) 4. Pubarche 12 5. Menarche 12.5 6. Spermarche 13 4) Describe sleep needs of adolescents, and think about how this might affect school performance and what schools could do to help sleepdeprived adolescents. Circadian Rhythm: daynight cycle of biological activity that happens approximately every 24 hours. Hormones from HPA axis cause a phase delay in sleepwake cycles. This makes kids wide awake and hungry at midnight, but half asleep and having no energy or appetite in the morning. Sleepy kids more likely to sleep in school, fall asleep while driving, develop eating/mood disorders, have poor relationships with parents, abuse substances. Most high schools start before 8, but the evidence shows that a later time improves adolescent learning. 5) Define precocious puberty. Sexual development before age 8 or very late puberty after age 16. Both are rare. 6) What affects the timing of these changes? (e.g., genetics? body fat? leptin?) Precise age affected by genes, gender, body fat, and stress. Genetic: 2/3 of variation in age of puberty is genetic. Ethnic groups: evidence of age based on ethnic groups is evident as well. African Americans reach puberty seven months earlier than European or Hispanic Americans. Chinese Americans average months later. Other continents: Europe – menarche happens at 13 years, 4 months. Genes: on sex chromosomes they have a marked effect. Maturational process set in motion by the genes (predetermined) and executed by the hormones. (what starts it and how its executed.) Girls 2 years ahead of boys in height. Girls height spurt before menarche, boys after spermarche. Body Fat: Mainly in girls – heavier girls reach menarche sooner. Urban kids overfed and underexercised = earlier puberty ages than rural kids. Secular Trend: Generational change, mature earlier, more food allows biological advances. 7) Describe the relationship between stress and puberty (as measured by menarche), and provide a reason from evolutionary theory. Stress hastens puberty. Effects sexualreproductive system – makes reproduction in adulthood more difficult. Paradox: Scientists wonder why it wouldn’t delay puberty because it would be more beneficial for child. If it were to delay puberty the kid would look and act more childlike, allowing for adult protection instead of lust or anger toward them. Stress could be parents sick, addicted, divorced. A neighborhood is violent or impoverished and has no stability. Family stress and father absence is linked to an increase in early menstruation. 8) What are the consequences of early and late maturation, for both boys and girls? Boys Early: Used to be leaders in school, athletic type, popular, selfconfident. Now (1960 and up) more aggressive, law breaking, alcoholabusing, early sexual activity (resulting in teenage parenthood), depression, psychosocial problems. More trouble with parents, schools, and police. Is this due to a cohort effect? Late: More anxious, depressed, afraid of sex, attentionseeking, feelings of inferiority, poor motor coordination, low selfesteem, delay in social skills, school problems, and being bullied. If they excel at something nonathletic/physical it counters their late maturation. Girls Early: More difficult to be early. Not mature enough for the changes in their body, attractive to older people, increase in chances of abuse, at risk for early sexual activity (older boys attracted to womanly shape), at risk for drinking/ substance abuse/eating disorders, pregnancy, internalizing/externalizing behaviors, teasing due to breasts and weight gain, stress, risk of depression. Late: sociable, physically attractive, leaders, athletic. 9) Describe the sequence of the growth spurt. Weight height muscles Weight: eating more, gaining weight. Average 17yearold girl has twice as much weight as boy who has more muscle weight. Height after weight, then 12 years later muscle spurt. After the muscle spurt, clumsiness and pudginess from early puberty is gone by late puberty. Now distalproximal growth: extremities grow, then core. Makes them feel out of proportion. Lungs triple in weight: breathing deeper and slower. Heart doubles in size: heartbeat slows and decreases pulse rate. Red blood cells increase: more so in boys, which helps with oxygen transport in body. Endurance improves: run for miles or dance for hours. 10)Distinguish between primary and secondary sex characteristics. Primary: the characteristics that are directly involved in conception and pregnancy. (Reproductive organs) Secondary: The physical characteristics that make a person masculine or feminine – not directly affecting fertility. (Facial hair, pubic hair, breasts, menarche, spermarche, etc.) 11)What are common diet deficiencies after puberty? Deficiencies of iron, calcium, zinc, and other minerals are common. Anemia: menstruation depletes iron, so this is common in adolescent girls. Muscles need iron for growth and strength. Cutoff for boys is greater than for girls to be healthy. Soda, coffee, and tea reduce iron absorption. The most common beverage in US for teens is soda. Osteoporosis: Half of adult bone mass is acquired 1020 years old. Due to too little calcium and too much soda resulting in fragile bones. 12)How common is body dissatisfaction? VERY. With both sexes: body dissatisfaction correlates with low selfesteem. Begins in early adolescence and increased until 15 or so. Anorexia Nervosa: severe calorie restriction, cycle of bingeing followed by purging. Leads to death, organ failure, or suicide between 520 percent of sufferers. Undereat and overexercise. DSM5: it as low body weight for developmental stage (BMI 17 or lower), intense fear of weight gain, and disturbed body perception/denial of problem. Bulimia Nervosa: (bingepurge syndrome) 3 times as common as anorexia. Overeat compulsively (meaning thousands of calories in a matter of hours) then purge (throw up or use laxatives). Risk problems to intestines or cardiac arrest from electrolyte imbalance, compulsive disorders, depression, thoughts of suicide DSM5: binging and purging once a week for three months, uncontrollable urges to overeat, and a sense of self inordinately tied to body shape & weight. Bingeeating disorder is also a new diagnostic category – closely associated with anorexia. 13)Describe the changes in the brain during adolescence (limbic system, amygdala, prefrontal cortex) and explain how these changes affect adolescent thinking and behavior. Limbic system & Amygdala: where intense fear and excitement originate. Matures before prefrontal cortex. Prefrontal Cortex: Planning, emotional regulation, impulse control occurs. Meaning the instinctual and emotional areas develop before the reflective and analytic areas. Pubertal hormones target amygdala directly, prefrontal cortex responds to age and experience instead of hormones. Emotional rushes unchecked by caution. 1415 year olds show heightened arousal in brain’s reward centers – seeking excitement and pleasure. When adolescents do something wrong and parents ask them, “What were you thinking?!” They weren’t. They don’t have the capacity yet. 14)Describe some of the consequences of adolescent cognitive changes (like David Elkind’s egocentrism, personal fable, invincibility fable, and imaginary audience). Adolescent Egocentrism: thinking intensely about themselves, but also what others think of them. See themselves as unique, special, and much more socially significant than they are. Personal fable: One is unique, destined to have a heroic, fabled, or legendary life. (Become billionaire, cure cancer, be a rockstar) Invincibility fable: can’t get hurt/die. They see it happen to others, but think it can’t happen to them. Can get away with anything. They are too special. When taking risks and they survive – feel invincible, not relieved. Imaginary audience: They are center stage, all eyes on them, imagine how others might react to appearance and behavior. They care what people think about them. 15)Describe formal operational thinkers; how are they different from concrete thinkers? Concrete vs. Formal operational thinkers: compare math in elementary school (dealing with real numbers – 3x3) vs. high school (unreal numbers – 3x2). Formal operational thinking: more systematic logical thinking, more abstract thought, think about possibilities. Without experiencing or seeing they can answer, “In a perfect world you would…” Understand principles like justice, equality, etc. This creates lots of questions at home for parents, curious minds, more arguments (“If you were a perfect mom…!”), or many comparisons. 16)Describe how thinking changes, moving from inductive to deductive reasoning, and intuitive to analytical thinking. Inductive reasoning: (bottomup reasoning) primary school children. Need specific examples leading to general conclusions. Ask what and why a lot, have many personal experiences – make a knowledge base. Deductive reasoning: (topdown reasoning) begins with abstract idea and uses logic to find specific conclusion Science fairs are common Intuitive: Begins with a belief, assumption, or general rule rather than logic. Arises from an emotion or a hunch, beyond rational explanation, and is influenced by past experiences and cultural assumptions. Quick and powerful. Feels “right.” Analytical: formal, logical, hypotheticaldeductive thinking. Results from analysis of many factors whose interactions must be calculated. Most adolescents make analytic errors. 17)What might explain the decline in academic performance during middle school? As achievement slows down, behavioral problems rise. Puberty: for nonhuman animals, learning slows down during puberty (especially when under stress as well). Organizational structure: Moving from elementary school where teacher focused on small group to switching classrooms every 40 minutes. Teachers don’t focus on students as much. Values change, bullying increases, need acceptance from peers, appearance becomes more important, popularity becomes important. 18)Describe the benefits of adolescent brain development, and why is it important to nurture their cognitive skills and academic performance? Increased myelination and still underdeveloped inhibition = lightning fast reactions. This is valuable in cognition. Teens become happier: Due to mood enhancing neurotransmitters being produced more and reward areas of brain activating. Moral development: due to synaptic growth enhancing. Question elders and try to make their own standards. Question tradition and learn new things. Prefrontal cortex is still developing: benefits as well as risks. Helps explain creativity before brain is set in its ways. CHAPTER 10: PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT 1) According to Erikson, what is the chief crisis during adolescence? Identity vs. Role Confusion: negotiating the complexities of finding identity is primary task. Identity achievement: attainment of identity, or point at which a person understands who he or she is as a unique individual. 2) Describe Marcia’s approach to identity development, and know the four identity statuses. 1. Role Confusion: opposite of identity achievement. When adolescent does not seem to know or care what his or her identity is. Lack of commitment to any goals or values. Diffuse, unfocused, unconcerned about their future. 2. Foreclosure: When young people accept traditional values without questioning or analyzing. (A negative identity is when they foreclose on the direct opposite of what their parents want.) 3. Moratorium: a more mature shelter, a time that includes exploration, either in breadth (trying many things) or in depth (examining a single path after making a tentative commitment that may change). i. Ex: Going to college 4. Identity Achievement: (lengthened adolescence and made this stage harder to achieve) i. Religious identity: provides meaning as well as coping skills. Past parental practices influence religious identity. ii. Political identity: Parents influential. 21 century – most young adults say they don’t care about politics, that itself is political identity. (Identity politics: tendency to vote for the person who relates to one’s own race, religion, ethnicity, or sex.) iii. Vocational identity: Decades ago, adolescents needed to establish this by 16 to decide if they wanted a career or aim for college. Now, no one is expected to do that. No teen can make a decision wise and permanent enough for a lifetime. Increasingly unisex. A specific vocational identity takes years to establish, but wanting to become a selfsufficient adult with a steady job motivates many young people. iv. Sexual identity: Lifelong task. Norms and attitudes shift over time. Adolescence was once a time for gender intensification (figuring out more male or female), not anymore. Now identifies for to cultural and social attributes of male and female characteristics. 3) Know how adolescents come to define vocational and sexual (gender) identities. What's the effect of part time work during high school? Wanting a fulltime job or extra income during high school reduces achievement. 4) Describe parentadolescent relationships during adolescence, including bickering. Disputes are common due to adolescents drive for independence. Parentadolescence conflict: especially between mothers & daughters, peaks in adolescence. Both generations misjudge the other. Bickering: repeated, petty arguments about routine, daytoday concerns such as cleanliness, clothes, chores, and schedules. Some bickering may show healthy family (close relationships create conflict). 5) Is adolescent rebellion found across cultures? Is it necessary in order to become a healthy adult? (Who claimed that?) What adolescents and parents expect from one another varies by culture. Ex: Japanese adolescents expect that their parents help with their love lives. Chile they don’t argue with their parents, and when they do something wrong they keep it secret. Adolescents MUST rebel to become a healthy adult? One side: kids try drugs because they think “I’m only young once.” Parents accept it because they believe child has to “sow the wild oats.” Second side: Parents expect harmony instead of rebellion, undermining teens, punishing first signs of independence, teens leave home for independence without punishment, teens suffer harm on the streets. Or they are so docile they never grow up, continue to live at home until later in life, expecting parents to take care of them. 6) Define parental monitoring. Is there such a thing as too much monitoring? Parental monitoring: parental knowledge about each child’s whereabouts, activities, and companions. Their ongoing awareness of what their child is doing, where, and with whom. When it is result of warm, supportive relationship = children more confident, welleducated adults, avoiding drugs and risky sex. Needs mutual trust. Harmful when derived from suspicion. Too much criticism and control may stop dialogue. Overly controlling and restrictive parenting correlates to many adolescent problems (depression). 7) What role do peers play in adolescent development? Are they more harmful than helpful? What's the purpose of cliques and crowds? Adolescents rely on peers for many things. Peers are more useful at overcoming challenges during puberty than parents. Helpful to facilitate romance, and helpful when romances end. Peer pressure: encouragement to conform to friend’s behavior, dress, attitude; usually considered negative. Clique: a cluster of close friends who are loyal to one another and who exclude outsiders Provide control, guidance, and support from comments, exclusion, and admiration 8) Describe the process of deviancy training. Destructive peer support in which one person shows another to rebel against authority or social norms. Innocent teens are not easily corrupted (you choose your friends – not always wisely, but not randomly.) 9) What role do peers play in risk taking? Depends on the clique they join. If they join a clique that enjoys smoking cigarettes and drinking beer, they might soon take it to the next level of sharing a joint together. Although if they join a clique that enjoys math and puzzles, then they might take it to the next level of joining AP calculus together. 10)Describe the typical sequence of romantic attachments (both heterosexual and samesex attachments). Note that the previous diagnostic term "gender identity disorder" is now called "gender dysphoria" in DSM5. 1. Groups of friends (exclusive one sex or the other) 2. A loose association of girls and boys, with public interactions within a crowd. 3. Small mixedsex groups of the advanced members of the crowd. 4. Formation of couples, with private intimacies. Boys more influenced by hormones (want to hear “I want you now”), girls by culture (want to hear “I’ll love you forever.”). Samesex romances: combo of culture, biology, and cognitive. Many hide their orientation with binge drinking, drug addiction, and suicidal thoughts are more common. 11)How do youth who are bisexual (attracted to people of same and opposite sex) fare? Wellbeing is diminished and drug use increases. Suicidal thoughts are more common. Bingedrinking. 12)Describe the risk for sexual abuse during early adolescence, and the consequences of sexual abuse. Child sexual abuse: any erotic activity that arouses and adult and excites, shames, or confuses a child, whether or not the victim protests and whether or not genital contact is involved. Due to puberty occurring at younger ages, increases risk of abuse. Likely if parentchild relationship is strained: adolescent feels as if they can’t talk to their parents and thinks they can’t help. Parents also doubt that a family member could be an abuser even though most abusers are relatives of some sort. Consequences: Psychological disorders as adults. Pregnancy, drug abuse, eating disorders, suicide. 13)How do teenagers get sex education? What advice would you give parents and schools, especially if you are asked about abstinenceonly sexeducation programs? Parents: Where sexed begins, parental communication is influential, able to ask personal questions after having personal talk Don’t wait too long to have sex talk. More likely to remain virgins if they had warm relationship with parents. Don’t lecture or adolescents will just ignore it. Peers: Strong influence, especially when parents are silent. Boys brag, girls worry. More about pleasure and experience than thinking about consequences and protection. Schools: In Europe – learn in elementary school. In middle school learn about sexual responsibility, samesex romance, masturbation, oral and anal sex. Makes teen pregnancy is less than half in US. In US – sex ed not as forthcoming. Content, extent, and time to teach varies by state. In Russia – very few schools have sex ed, but HIV rate is lower than US. Abstinenceonly: US federal policy until 2009. Did not succeed – experimental and control groups had sex before 16, number of partner and contraceptives was the same with and without this curriculum. Knowledge did not slow or stop sexual initiation. 14)Describe the rates of suicide for adolescents (boys v girls). Define suicidal ideation, parasuicide and cluster suicides. Boys vs. Girls:. th th Thinking about suicide: Girls rates for were much higher in both 9 and 12 grade Attempted suicide (with medical attention): Girls rates were higher in 9 grade, but in 12 grade boys and girls were equal. Suicidal ideation: thinking about suicide, usually with serious emotions and intellectual cognitive overtones. Some think of a specific plan. Parasuicide: (Attempted suicide or failed suicide) Any potentially lethal action against the self that does not result in death. In adolescence the difference between attempted and completed suicide is often luck, timing, and medical response. Cluster suicides: several suicides committed by members of a group within a brief period. Sometimes they can hear about a suicide from media reports, family, or peers, making them susceptible to this. 15)Describe adolescent crime (boys v girls). What's the difference between "lifecoursepersistent" and "adolescencelimited" offenders? Boys vs. Girls: male/female ratio in US prisons is 13:1. First cluster of delinquency: Short attention span, hyperactivity, inadequate emotional regulation, slow language development, low intelligence, early and sever malnutrition, autistic tendencies, maternal cigarette smoking, victim of child abuse. More common in boys. Lifecoursepersistent: person whose criminal activity typically begins in early adolescence and continues throughout their life; a career criminal. Adolescencelimited: a person whose criminal activity stops at 21. 16)Describe variations in drug use by generation and gender (figure 10.6) Many historical effects, showing something in society (not adolescents) makes drug use increase and decrease. Most recent data shows a decrease in drug use. CHAPTER 11: EMERGING ADULTHOOD 1) What is Emerging Adulthood? Is it found in all cultures? Emerging adulthood: a stage or a process worldwide. The period of life between the ages of 18 and 25. Culture, context, and cohort are influential, but few people have settle down by 18. 2) Provide evidence that the years from 18 to 25 are a prime time for physical work and successful reproduction. Physical Work: Young adults rarely die from diseases, have outgrown childhood ailments, body systems function optimally. Reproduction: sexualreproductive system strongest during this time. Orgasms are frequent and sex drive is powerful. Fertility is optimal, miscarriage is less common, birth complication is unusual, 3) Describe the problem of STIs among emerging adults, including HIV. What explains why young adults remain the prime STI vectors? Half of all new cases in people younger than 26. With young adults travelling more, experiencing foreign partners, they can get an STI thousands of miles away. Sexual freedom creates oblivious carriers of STI’s. HIV/AIDS: once limited to select group of people who participated in certain acts. Due to more people travelling, more females, more heterosexuals, more emerging adults experiencing the world through certain sexual activities. 4) Describe both benefits and liabilities of risk taking during emerging adulthood. Benefits: enrolling in college, starting a business, joining the army, joining an athletic competition, recuing a stranger. Without emerging adults, these things won’t happen as often. Liabilities: Although bodies are strong and reactions are quick, more accidents can occur. But due to good health, they heal fast. 5) When does drug taking peak and what are the most commonly abused substances? Peaks at about age 20 and declines sharply after that (the thrill is gone). Most common: alcohol, cigarette smoking, illegal drugs (cocaine). 6) Examine the proposed existence of a fifth stage of cognitive development. Describe characteristics of postformal thought, including Perry's scheme (Dualism; Relativism; Commitment). Postformal thought: problem finding. Goes beyond adolescent thinking by being more practical, more flexible, and more dialectical (combining contradictory elements into a comprehensive whole). More practical as well as more creative and imaginative. Perry’s Scheme: Put it into a college setting. Start as a Freshman, Dualism is modified, Relativism is discovered, Commitments in relativism are developed, and now you are a senior. Dualism: knowledge is received, not questioned, students feel there is a correct answer to be learned Relativism: knowledge is seen as contextual, students evaluate viewpoints based on source and evidence, even experts are subject to scrutiny. Commitment: integration of knowledge from other sources with personal experience and reflection, students make commitment values that matter to them and learn to take responsibility for beliefs. 7) How has college affected your thinking so far? Describe cognitive shifts and/or deepening of understanding you may have experienced as a result of your college attendance. What contributed to the changes? Who (as in individuals and/or groups) has had the greatest influence on your college experience? College students believe that classes with further their intellectual depth, which usually happens. The more years of higher education a person pursues, the deeper and more postformal that person’s reasoning becomes. College experience itself causes progression: peers, teachers, books, courses, class discussions. 8) How can college help students identify their ethnic identity? College applications makes a person think about ethnic identity. After college, finding a job may show positive or negative experiences based on their ethnic identity. They may decide to alienate or assimilate with their ethnic identity. Students who resisted alienation and assimilation fared best: maintaining own ethnic identity, deflecting stereotypes, and becoming better students. 9) Explain why it's so difficult for adolescents and emerging adults to achieve a vocational identity. The process of identifying with society’s work ethic continues to evolve throughout adulthood. Commitment to a particular career may limit rather than increase vocational success. Flexibility is needed in our current generation. When the job market crashed, it made getting a job for college graduated very difficult. 10)What are Holland's six personal preferences? Conventional: prefer structured business situations. Data analysis, finance, planning, and organizational tasks. Value efficiency and order. Enterprising: Prefer business situations involving persuasion, selling, or influence. Enthusiastic, energetic, assertive, and selfconfident. Management, leadership, or marketing roles. Social: Direct service or helping opportunities with advising, counseling, coaching, mentoring, teaching, groups. Humanistic or social causes. Realistic: Practical, handson, physical activities, tangible results. Building, fixing, repairing, working outside. Artistic: Unstructured, selfexpression of ideas and concepts, art, music, theatre, film, multimedia, or writing. Investigative: solve abstract problems, science, engineering, curious about world, intellectual challenges, original or unconventional attitudes. 11)What does research find regarding selfesteem and happiness during emerging adulthood? How can going to college affect these attitudes? Rising selfesteem, improving attitudes, sees life in positive terms. College: Creates more possibilities in life, more positivity. 12)Describe Erikson’s 6th stage (Intimacy vs. Isolation). How can intimacy needs be met through friendships? Intimacy vs. Isolation: Adults seek someone with whom to share their lives in an enduring and selfsacrificing commitment. Without such commitment they risk profound loneliness and isolation. With friends: They need that social connection. It does not have to be sexual to feel they are connected to another person. 13)According to the Meier et al (2009) study of emerging adults in North America (pp. 417418), what factors are most important for a successful marriage or a serious longterm relationship? What did emerging adults in Kenya report as most important? Western emerging adults: love is prerequisite to for marriage. Sexual exclusiveness (rated most important) and love was almost as high. In Kenya: Love is the most important drive for sex and marriage, not money. 14)Describe and explain the effects of cohabitation. Cohabitation: an arrangement in which a couple live together in a committed romantic relationship but are not formally married. Some think a test of compatibility, a prelude to marriage, or a way to save money with continuing the intimacy. Shows higher rates of divorce, children develop less well than those of married couples (may be low SES), saves money, postpones marriage. 15)How does early attachment between infant and caregiver affect romantic relationships? Shows closer relationship between parent and child, which also helps with trusting the partner more, having a more emotionally intimate relationship, judging to see if partner is attentive enough, if you feel the same sense of security and love. 16)What are cultural differences in the acceptability of emerging adults living with their parents? Emerging adults are seen worldwide. Seen more in industrialized than nonindustrialized countries.
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