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verified elite notetaker
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verified elite notetaker
This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Noor Baweja on Monday February 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 1321 at University of Houston taught by Cameron Buckner in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Logic in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 02/09/15
Logic 1321 Chapter 1 amp 2 ARGUMENTS CONDITIONALS Statements A sentence that can be true or false Simp1est form of a statement Proposition A statement with more propositions andor a statement connective such as ifthen Compound statement Arguments A set of statements with at least one of them being a conclusion and one or more being premises Contentmeaning true or false in the real world I Statements F armstructure Valid or invalid lArgumentS g 4 F armStructure If the premises are true then the conclusion must be true it is impossible for the conclusion to be false if the premises are true Valid argument Contentmeaning False false false true true true NOT true false bc Preservation of truth Invalid argument F armStructure Is there a way to make the conclusion false even if the premises are true Contentmeaning False false false true true true true false all possible combinations Belife Bias Tendency to confuse truth in the real world with trut of validity Tendency to evaluate arguments according to whether the conclusion seems true based on the real world vs whether the reasoning is correct Logic 1321 Sound Arguments A valid argument that also as true premises that correspond to the real world Types of reasoning Deductive Logic valid all or nothing arguments Inductive Logic can be valid or invalid based on degrees of likelihood CONDITIONALS A Compound Statement with two statements and a statement connective of If Then PDQ P Antecedent Q Consequent 0 Modus ponens standard structure of a conditional if P then Q 0 Other structures of conditionals include statements consisting logical synonyms of If then Given that Provided that When Should Leads to Results in Brings about etc 0 To derive a logical conclusion of a conditional argument therefore determine its validity you need a conditional and its antecedent Valid Invalid With a conditional and its consequent you CANNOT apply the arrow out rule For example Logic 1321 1 JDK A 2 K A INVALID ARGUMENT Method of formal proof If one can proceed from the premises of a sequent to its conclusion by a series of valid references then the sequent is valid IJK KlI II J l IJK A 2 KDI A 3 ID A 4 K mm 5 I 24Do 6 J 35 no VALID ARGUMENT O Arrangement matters Provided that I am able to AFFORD it I ll BUY that desk if it FITS this comer of my room AllBDF If I can afford it I will buy that desk If the forces have made me buy it I can be sure that it fits that corner of my room ADBDF If I can afford it I will buy that desk but only if I know it will fit that corner of my room FDADB If that desk fits this comer of my room it s a sign that I can afford it therefore I ll buy it FDADB Truth table of Conditionals P Q PDQ Logic 1321
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