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PSYC 100 Section 100, Module #10

by: Eva Zhang

PSYC 100 Section 100, Module #10 100

Marketplace > Psychlogy > 100 > PSYC 100 Section 100 Module 10
Eva Zhang
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Module #18 from the textbook Psychology in Modules (11th edition) by DAVID G. MYERS C. NATHAN DEWALL. If you have any question, feel free to leave me comments.
introduction to psychology
Dr. Thomas K. Srull
Study Guide
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Eva Zhang on Sunday April 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 100 at a university taught by Dr. Thomas K. Srull in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views.


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Date Created: 04/10/16
Module  #18-­‐ Basic  concepts  of  sensation  and  perception Sunday,  February  28,  2016 5:55  PM -­ Heather  Sellersc 'urious  mix  of  "perfect  vision"  and  face  blindness:  the  distinction  between   sensation  and  perception ○ Sensation:  the  process  by  which  our  sensory  receptors  and  nervous  system  receive  and   represent  stimulus  energies  from  our  environment  (sensory  receptors  detect   information→nervous  system  transmits  the  information  to  her  brain)  [normal] ○ Perception:  the  process  of  organizing  and  interpreting  sensory  information,  enabling  us  to   recognize  meaningful  objects  and  events  [almost  normal] ○ Bottom -­‐up  processing:  analysis  that  begins  with  the  sensory  receptors  and  works  up  to  the   brain's  integration  of  sensory  information  [build  up  from  smallest  pieces  of  sensory   info/detect  lines,  angels,  colors…] ○ Top-­‐down  processing:  constructs  perceptions  from  the  sensory  input  by  drawing  on  our   experience  and  expectations  [perception  that's  driven  by  perception/  the  brain  applies   what  you  know/expected -­‐-­‐ perception  by  content/your  brain  add  meanings] -­ Transduction:  the  process  of  converting  one  form  of  energy  into  another  that  our  brain  can  use § Eg.  In  sensation,  the  transforming  of  stimulus  energies  (sights,  sounds,  smells…)   into  neural  impulses  our  brain  can  interpret ○ Three  basic  steps  to  all  our  sensory  systems § Receive sensory  stimulation  (specialized  receptor  cells) § Transform  that  stimulation  into  neural  impulses § Deliver  the  neural  information  to  our  brain ○ Psychophysics:  studies  the  relationships  between  the  physical  energy  we  can  detect  and   its  effects  on  our  psychological  experiences -­ Thresholds ○ Absolute  thresholds:  the  minimum  stimulus  energy  needed  to  detect  a  particular  stimulus   (eg.  Light,  sound,  pressure,  taste…)  50%  of  the  time  [the  point  where  sth.  Becomes   noticeable  to  our  sense-­‐s-­‐-­‐anything  less  than  this  goes  unnoticed] ○ For  weak  stimulus  (or  signal,  such  as  hearing-­‐test  tone):  signal  detection  theory § A  theory  predicting  how  and  when  we  detect  the  presence  of  a  faint  stimulus   (signal)  amid  background  stimulation  (noise)  [no  single  absolute  threshold  and  the   detection  depends  partly  on  a  person's  experience,  expectations,  motivation,  and   alertness]/[why  people  respond  differently  to  the  same  stimuli,  and  why  the  same   person's  reactions  vary  as  circumstances  change] ○ Subliminal:  stimuli  you  cannot  detect  50  percent  of  the  time  for  conscious  awareness   (below  your  absolute  threshold) ○ Priming:  the  activation,  often  unconsciously,  of  certain  associations,  thus  predisposing   one's  perception,  memory,  or  response § Much  of  our  information  processing  occurs  automatically,  out  of  sight,  off  the  radar   screen  of  our  conscious  mind.   ○ Difference  thresholds  (just  noticeable  difference:  jnd):  the  minimum  difference  a  person   can  detect  between  any  two  stimuli  half  the  time  [the  stimulus  becomes  detectable  to  us,   how  do  we  recognize  if  the  stimulus  changes] § It  can  increase  with  the  size  of  the  stimulus § Weber's  law  (Ernst  Weber):  the  principle  that,  to  be  perceived  as  different,  two   stimuli  must  differ  by  a  constant  minimum   percentage(rather  than  a  constant   screen  of  our  conscious  mind.   ○ Difference  thresholds  (just  noticeable  difference:  jnd):  the  minimum  difference  a  person   can  detect  between  any  two  stimuli  half  the  time  [the  stimulus  becomes  detectable  to  us,   how  do  we  recognize  if  the  stimulus  changes] § It  can  increase  with  the  size  of  the  stimulus § Weber's  law  (Ernst  Weber):  the  principle  that,  to  be  perceived  as  different,  two   stimuli  must  differ  by  a  constant  minimum   percentage(rather  than  a  constant   amount) □ Ex.  Lights:  8%,  weights:  2%,  tones:  0.3% -­ Subliminal  Persuasion ○ Acknowledge/  influence  people  in  certain  way  (powerful) -­ Sensory  adaptation:  diminished  sensitivity  as  a  consequence  of  constant  stimulation ○ Benefit:  freedom  to  focus  on  informative  changes  in  our  environment  without  being   distracted  by  background   chatter ○ We  perceived  the  world  not  exactly  as  it  is,  but  as  it  is  useful  for  us  to  perceived  it. ○ It  allows  us  to  focus  on  changing  stimuli -­ Perceptual  Set:  a  mental  predisposition  to  perceive  one  thing  and  not  another,  affects  (top-­‐down)   what  we  hear,  taste,  feel  and  see ○ What  determine  our  perceptual  set?   -­‐the  preexisting  schemas  (influence  how  we  apply   top-­‐down  processing  to  interpret  ambiguous  sensations) -­ Context  Effects ○ The  context  creates  an  expectation  that,  top  down,  influences  our  perception -­ Motivation  and  Emotion ○ Influence  perceptions  (top-­‐down)  and  color  our  social  perceptions ○ Perceptual  bias


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