Popular in Western Civ.
Popular in History
This 26 page Study Guide was uploaded by La'Nora Jefferson on Monday February 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 2353 at University of Houston taught by Dr. Stone in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Western Civ. in History at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 02/09/15
Essay 1 The Politics of the Protestant Reformation Q How it started O The protestant reformation began with Martin Luther arguing against the Roman Catholic Church with his 95 Theses The Theses were mainly arguing against the power of the Roman Catholic Church and the selling of indulgences Time frame O century 0 A comparison O The protestant reformation happened during the 16th and 17th Holy Roman Empire Germany I Luther Q Who He was the leader of the protestant reformation Q What He was really perplexed by God s grace and because of this he did a lot of studying in the bible Through his study he found a few discrepancies in the Roman catholic doctrine He argued against the seven sacraments and the selling of indulgences He stated that baptism and communion were really the only sacraments if there were any 0 When this movement started in the Early 16th century 0 Where Germany 0 Why Luther felt that the Roman Catholic church was teaching doctrine wrong in that they were teaching people the wrong thing about gaining salvation Salvation was not gained through good works rather it is gained by faith I Peasant Revolt of 1525 Q WhoThe Genevans and their prince bishop Q What The Genevans revolted against their prince bishop and the city council took over his powers in the late 0 When1525 Q Where Geneva 0 Why This revolt laid the foundation for the change of religion in Geneva from Catholic to Protestant It also paved the way for John Calvin to come in and spread his doctrine of calvinism Calvin s Geneva came to be the home to thousands of protestants whom were exiled from France England and Scotland This strengthened Calvin I Charles V vs the World 0 1516 King of Spain Q 1519 Holy Roman Emperor 0 controlled territories from Burgundy to Spain 0 two great ambitions O 1 Conquer all of central Europe and eventually all of Europe I actions motivated by political intentions O 2 Burn Martin Luther alive I actions motivated by religious reasons I Peace of Augsburg Q WhoCharles V Holy Roman Emperor issued it to the Holy Roman Empire 0 What A treaty made by Charles V and the Holy Roman Empire The revolution had spread too far making him realize that stopping the reformation by brute force would not work Thus he just made an agreement The ruler of the land would determine its religion People who were not happy with the religion of their country had the option of leaving and going to a different place It did not extend official recognition to Calvinist and Anabaptists as official religions Q When September 1555 mid 16th century 0 Where Holy Roman Empire 0 Why This made the division of Christendom permanent Calvinist at this point were even more determined to be recognized which caused them to lead national revolutions throughout northern europe The anabaptist were not really affected because they were separatist and did not seek recognition 0 The Outcome 0 50 years of peace I althou gh not everyone was protected by the Peace of Augsburg it still helped to calm tensions between the two main religious groups for more than 50 years 0 Political fragmentation of Germany l due to the Peace of Augsburg Germany was religiously fragmented at the end of the 16th century O England I Back and Forth with Religion l Henry VIII broke with Rome 0 defender of the faith 0 Catherine of Aragon 0 first wife 0 could not give Henry a son but had a daughter by him named Mary Henry then initiated a divorce from Catherine but it did not workout as planned As a result Henry replaced his Prime minister Wolsey to Cromwell O 1527 Charles V who was Catherine39s nephew had control over the pope and the pope no longer granted the divorce from Catherine to Henry VIII 0 1534 Parliament passed an act of supremacy there was also a new protestant archbishop named Thomas Cranmer 0 Act of Supremacy King shall be head on Earth of the England church separate from Rome I As a result of this act Henry VIII was finally able to divorce Catherine of Aragon and married Anne Boleyn l Edward VI Protestant regency 0 Henry VIII died when Edward VI was just 10 years old 0 England enacted the Protestant Reformation O The Duke of Somerset and Edward were in direct contact with John Calvin O Regency Cranmer Northumberland Somerset 0 cranmer issuing first and second book of common prayers which moves away from catholic liturgy and traditionceremony I import ant additions to bible and translations of bible available to anyone except for women children and other ignorant people I moder ate Protestant doctrine 0 Everything hung on Edward s death I Mary reversion to Catholicism 0 daughter of Katherine of Aragon 0 came to power very bitter about mother being divorced from father and movement of country to protestantism O reconnects England with Rome 0 3 catastrophic mistakes 0 1 tried to get all nobles and gentry and others who had brought churchland to give up churchland so that she could reestablish catholic church as powerful wealthy state I By doing this she caused trouble At this time she did not have a huge army aristocracy so she had no power to enforce O 2 Mary allowed herself to be conned into marriage of King Philip ll of Spain I ended up being one of most disastrous marriages l king philip goal was to make england inferior to spain I made people hate even more the catholic church I did not have children I marria ge made her approval rating even worse 0 3 She burned alive around 300 and 400 people who refused to give up protestantism I most of people burned are unimportant I burned alive by catholic bishop I several of victims were important peoplebishops who refused to give up their faith 0 T homas Cranmer Q The British never forgot these things and instilled in the british this everlasting hatred of Catholicism l Elizabeth I rereversion 0 daughter of Anne Boleyn second wife of father whom was beheaded 0 very slow to take action 0 great compromiser 0 under elizabeth England spared from mass burnings 0 first thing she did after coming to power is calling parliament in 1559 l parlia ment reestablished old act of supremacy updated to 1559 and act of uniformity O S upremacy reestablished that king or queen is head of church archbishop head of church immediately under king and queen O U niformity Elizabeth had put together convocation which took out 39 articles1563 wanted to come up with religion that would disunify people the least 0 t his did not please everyone because there were some radicals but most were pleased I The Outcome 0 protestantism in England ended up working because they fused together different ideas O France I French Calvinists Huguenots vs Catholics 0 many french became calvinist juggaknots 0 many french that took up calvinist were nobility 40 I Central government vs feudal nobility provinces I Who rules France 0 Henry II was killed during ajousting accident after signing a peace treaty with Spain At this point Civil war ensues His wife Catherine de medici tries to hold everything together with her sons 0 Francis M I controll ed by Guise 0 Charles IX I Catheri ne seeks Protestant support 0 J anuary edict l Guise attack on Protestants at Vassy O F rench religious war I St Bartholomew s massacre 0 Henry III I middle course I War of the 3 Henrys O C atholic league Guise O H enry Navarro Protestant O H enry IV I The Three Henrys Q Guise 0 Catholic league 0 Henry Navarro O protestant 0 Henry IV 0 Edict of Nantes 0 transition from Protestant to Catholic 0 no more catholic league and ties with Spain I Valois vs Bourbons vs Guise Q Volis family 0 Henry Ill 0 Bourbon family 0 Henry 0 came from pyrene O Guise family 0 Henry 0 very powerful 0 very dangerous because ultra catholic in direct contact with Philip ll of spain 0 lead by duke of guise I St Bartholomew39s Eve Massacre 24 August 1572 O l quotWar of the Three Henriesquot 158889 0 murdered Henry duke of Guise Q entraged followers of Guise killed Henry iii volis 0 last Henry not murdered until about 20 more years I The Outcome 0 Henry lV15891610 0 problem he was a protestant and french monarch switches religions as he has done before I Henry 3 followers upset 0 w hat are you gonna do for us since you switched religion1598 Henry issues Edict of Nantes O E dict of Nantes protestant minority have religious rights given full civil rights and equal to catholics and this was mainly done for political reasons lasted for about 100 years 0 Where did it succeed Where not Why O The protestant Reformation was most successful in England This is due to the complete separation of England from the Roman Catholic church The political intentions surrounding this were so that the king could have more control The Holy Roman Empire was partially successful in the spreading of Protestantism The fact that some of the provinces converted are due to this success but not all 0 WHY did the various rulers do what they did O they wanted more power in their personal domain and also throughout the whole holy Roman empire Essay 2 The Great European Con agrations Comparing World Wars One and Two 0 The state of Europe 1914 vs 1939 O 1914 Europe at this time was frightened at the new unified Germany The other big powers were constantly being taunted by the German state which caused them to get caught up in entangling alliances both secret and public This desperation just fed the tensions between the powers so that when the first war started each major power was brought into war for one reason or another Some with their own agenda and others just honoring their alliances Something that is important to understand is that Germany did not want to cause a world war They also at this point in time were not seeking to have total control over all of Europe Lastly it is important to note that they are not to fully blame for the war They did however whether they meant to or not cause tension leading up to the war 0 1939 At this point in time all of the major powers have suffered tremendous losses as it pertains to money and population Their vengeance was pointed towards Germany whom they blamed the whole war on This caused Germany to of course not be as powerful forcing them into debt and inflation In this vulnerable state Germany allowed themselves to be led by a dangerous charismatic leader in the hopes of being great once again This time Germany was more intentional in their actions and goals One can argue that Germany did have a goal of not only taking over Europe but North America and the Far East as well Still the other major countries can be blamed because they let Germany get to the point of destruction instead of stopping them earlier on 0 Causes vs Triggers O Nationalism O Imperialism 0 Economics 0 Race Religion Ethnicity Q Who was to blame for 0 Starting the war 0 Continuing the war 0 Ending the war 0 Germany and World War 0 Blame l Fischer Thesis Grasp for World Power NO 0 This thesis was based on the idea that the first world war was mainly caused by imperialistic Germany He asserted that their was a connection between the Germany of World War and world war II Based on evidence it is possible that Germany was different in both of the World Wars I Deteriorated foreign policy after Bismark Q Wilhelm II 1890 O at this point the whole system had begun to go south I young came with radical ideas based off of military expenence l He wanted to match Britain in Power and in terms of an Empire I am going to drop the pilot ismarck after 20 years was sacked Bismarck s policy was more of a limited continental policy I Q erman foreign policy from this time on begins to deteriorate I 1891 Germans told st Petersburg Russia that the reinsurance treaty had expired and that it wasn t going to be renewed olitical isolation and need for capital drove Russians to seek out the French The French who were also isolated were more than happy to invest in Russia because they wanted security against Germany I 1894 Nicholas II makes trip to Paris Dual Alliance of France Russia st Petersburg 390 t hereafter Germany is in the same situation that Bismarck was trying to avoid Vengeful France on West and Russians on East I 1898 Anglo German naval rivalry ust build a high seas fleet driven by wilhelm who was never rational on navy Admiral Alfred Von Tirpitz openly claimed that the building up of the German navy was aimed at Britain his was a terrible thing for the British who had a powerful navy could not afford to have fleet challenge it is an island with lots of people ermany now antagonizing British empire on seas his drove British Closer to France which was the opposite of the response that Germany was looking for which was to prove themselves a good allie 3 O t O G I T I 1903 Schlieffen Plan 0 m ost controversialworst plan in history of world 0 n amed after head of German General Staff 0 G ermany s plan for waging war on 2 fronts O n ew that French would mobilize quicker than Russian wheel forces through low countries Belgium surround paris knock them out of own country Send armies to the east and deal with Russian 0 h ad to send entire army through one Belgian city 0 t echnically secret but everyone knew worst kept secret in the world 0 e very country in Europe had to plan a defense against this plan I 1904 Anglo French Entente Cordiale O E nglish and French patch things up Bismarck never wanted 0 w ere not exclusively concerned about Germany 390 here were no military provisions on ritish gave the French a hand in Morrocco and the French recognized British control over Egypt I 1904 1905 Russo Japanese War 0 J apanese attacked Port Arthur 0 h eavily defeated on land 0 R ussians sent entire Navy to far East and was virtually annihilated by the Japanese 0 a white people was defeated by a yellow people who were considered inferior O o n Rebound Russian zoomed pressure of Balkans in the West which gave Russians further conflict with Austria I 1905 lst Moroccan Crisis 0 R ussians threatened war twice over Morocco 0 M orocco imperialized by Europeans French along with Spain utilizing Morocco O G ermans decided to fire up controversy of French occupying of Morocco Wilhelm was sent I t rying to use crisis in Morocco in order to break french and English apart but it drove them together I 1907 Triple Entente England France Russia 0 f lanked central powers of Germany and Austria 0 v irtually all of Europe divided into 2 huge threatening alliances O c ore Germany Austria italy 0 s urrounding England France and Russia 0 e urope ready for an attack 0 l t was not a good idea bringing Britain into the war this really upset the balance and peace that Bismarck tried so hard to make I 1908 09 1st Balkan Crisis s erbia south slavic state in Balkan had independence 0 w anted to pull together all of southern slavs and create better kingdom O A ustrains and Russians pulled into Balkans O r eps of Russian and Austria foreign ministers O R ussians want ability to send black fleets through 0 A ustria military occupied the Bosnia Herzenegovina I a nnounced to world formally that they were going to absorb Bosnia without telling Russia russians did not get naval passeages that they wanted I 191 1 2 nd Moroccan Crisis 0 W hen France sent an army to Morocco Germans sent the gunboat Panther to the Moroccan port of Agadir in order to protect German citizens residing in Morocco The British thought that the Germans were trying to make the port into a naval base Nothing actually happened The British sent an expedition to Morocco just in case something were to happen in order to defend France The French and British navies agreed to cooperate O T his coupled with the building of the German navy caused France and Britain to enter into a de facto alliance I 1912 132nd Balkan crisis 0 s urfs droves turfs off of Europe basially causing them to flee country gt0 ustirans warned surfs get out of albania U urfs thought that Russians would protect them buth they back out because did not want to face Germany 0 L essons to be learned Russians were embarrased yet again by their passivity and their allies were less willing to restrain them Austria realized that things only worked in their favor by using violence or force These things would be kept in mind when 1914 comes I 19143 rd Balkan crisis 0 i une 28 assasination of Franz ferdinand and wife 0 i uly 5th Germany blank check to Austria Austria 0 T he Germans urged the Austrians to move quickly and attack Serbia while the other countries were still upset at Serbia I T hey wanted to keep the war local I d id not want the Russians to get involved but they were prepared for both France and Russia if needed be They did not think that the British would get involved J uly 23 Austria gave an ultimatum to Serbia whom answered back in a deliberately soft and conciliatory way almost as if to mock Austria uly 28 Austria declares war on Serbia rom this point on all hell breaks loose Germany declares war on Russia and France Germany enacts the Schlieffen plan which compromises the neutrality of Belgium and thus brings britain into the war Britain declares war on Germany quotBlank Checkquot to Austria 0 july 5th Germany blank check to quotquotO left AH O The Germans urged the Austrians to move quickly and attack Serbia while the other countries were still upset at Serbia I They wanted to keep the war local I did not want the Russians to get involved but they were prepared for both France and Russia if needed be They did not think that the British would get involved I Schlieffen Plan 0 Who This plan was based off of the ideas of Count Alfred Von Schlieffen who was chief of the German general staff at the time Q What This was a plan for war on two fronts The French and Russians The goal was to outflank the French frontier defenses by going through Belgium to the Channel and then going to the south and east to overtake the French and crush them against German fortress at Lorraine On the eastern front the Germans were on defense against the Russians until they had finished taking over the French They thought that they could enact this plan in 6 weeks 0 When 1903 Q Where Germany Russia France Belgium 0 WhyBelgian neutrality would have been compromised Every European was planning a defense for this plan This plan was very specific and down to the T It was really dependent of the time of mobilization of the other powers This is one reason why it failed It also left the other Big powers on edge and some ways accelerates the coming of World War This also brought about Trench warfare Being as it took Germany longer than it expected to try and defeat the French This brought every European power into the war including Britain at this point 0 Sympathy I Tried to restrain AH after issue ultimatum to Serbia l Couldn39t afford to lose AH support the only ally I Tried to force quick war 0 Germans can39t take all the blame I Other countries Serbia Russia France England 0 serbia O colonel dimitrievich head of intelligence of gov and general staff head of the black hand secret terrorist organization I seems to have coordinated assassination of archduke and wife 0 P rime minister vaguely aware of assassination plot 0 s erbians either actively involved in planning or that it was just the prime minister and colonel there was clearly some serbian knowledge of the assassination 0 had been part of turkish empire for 500 yrs about I only been independently recognized since 1878 at berlin conference I could argue that serbs concerned about slavic neighbors Austria I serbs christian turks muslims and now being crushed by Austrians 0 Austria 0 tyrannt bankrupt empire on the edge of war I racist towards northern and southern slavs l oppres sing serbia O A ustria extended an ultimatum to serbia that was deliberately insulting Austria was trying to trick Serbia into war 0 multi racial multi ethnic multi lingual empire l Austria ns scared of Serbians hought that Serbia wanted to pull slavs out of Austria so they thought that they had to crush them 0 c oncerned with integrity of empire 0 caught between serbs and Russians therefore it was a matter of survival for the Austrians 0 Russia 0 Russia and be criticized in many ways that Austria can be I Also multi racial empire 0 4 3 Russian 57 non russian they too were racial oppressive I also tyrannic bankrupt gov O h ad no parliament Q It was the Russian decision to mobilize even before Austrians had declared war on the Serbians I having premobilized july 29 orders partial mobilization to Austria and by july 30 full army was mobilized O b lew crisis out of control put Germany in an impossible place which led the Germans to react the way that they did 0 coming under tremendous diplomatic pressure from French to mobilize O Russians had been humiliated 3X by japanese first balkan crisis Germany and Austria second balkan crisis Germany and Austria I if they have to back down again then they would seem pitiful so they could not afford to back down 0 Russia at home was undergoing an economic fall out I protest ing workers industrial strikes etc I if we go to war with germany it will rally the people this worked for about a year where the Russians supported the czar 0 France 0 French role not as involved as Balkans O Threatened Germany with extinction 0 French president prime minister and ambassador visited Russia and did everything in their power to ensure that Russians would mobilize 0 French terrified of Germany I knew that in the event of war entire German army would be going against the French I still upset by having a couple of their provinces that Bismarck took I had to depend on an ally to help with defense from Germany i Germany 1 Germans desperately wanted to localize war in the Balkans a in the blank check it was stated to punish serbia quickly because did not want Russia to become involve b when it became clear to Germans that everyone was ready to fight it seems as if Germany had tried to get the Austrians to reverse their decision to go against serbia c Germany of 1914 is not the Germany of 1940 ii England 1 some critics of British gov say that British should have exerted more tough love over French allies a Argument 1 if french would have be restrained then French would have restrained the Russians and the Russians could have restrained the serbians b Argument 2 you should have been tougher with the Germans period should have made it clear that any war involving France and Austria then British should automatically come in 2 anyone in Germany should have realized that in the event that something happened on the continent between the other powers then Britain would have to come in a this would be in Britain39s best interest because it was highly populated and industrialized and were highly dependent in international affairs b Britains obsessed with the need of balanced power and Germany messed this up Germans seen as barbaric when Germans released full blown warfare on water they almost starved out the British Navy 0 Germany and World War ll 0 Blame l Hitler39s Mein Kampf l lnstigated war thru invasion of Poland 0 Sympathy l Treaty of Versailles the stab in the back 0 Germans lost entire merchant marine and overseas colonies 0 Army limited to 100 thousand men 0 Germany lost its tanks 0 very vengeful 0 French 0 got back Alsace Lorain 0 got the right to work the coal mines of the Saar for 15 years 0 Q militarized 0 Germany west of the Rhine and fifty kilometers east was to be a demilitarized zone Allies could stay on the west bank for 15 years 0 Germany had to pay a hug war reparations Q league of nations written in the treaty 0 not much faith could be put into the league of nations They had no army all decisions had to be made unanimously and they excluded the Soviet Union and Germany 0 Clause 231 Allies wrote into to treaty Germans bared a lot of the pain from it This stated that Germany was to be blamed for the whole entire war 0 obviously the Germans did not agree with this they had no say in the treaty so they could not negotiate it This kind of added insult upon injury because the Germans had already lost a lot of land territories which had important natural resources This was something that Germany was unable to live down and is impart a cause of the second World War 0 written by John Foster Dollusstict presbitarai l Reparations Q The Americans thought that the Germans should pay for the damage done the civilian population and the allies property However Britain and France were worried about their debt to the US so they wanted Germany to essentially pay for the whole thing which not only included damages but pensions and to survivors and dependents I Crippled economy I Issue of nationalities split apart ethnic Germans l Lack of democratic tradition I Desperation and Hitler s charisma O Nazis must take most blame I Other Countries Italy France England Russia I Italy 0 ideology fascism O The italians were angered at the outcome of the first world war They felt that they had not been awarded correctly for their actions in the war 0 there were the elites and middle class and they very easily grasped onto this ideology 0 First modern country in history to go fascist 1922 l Mussol ini kind of like the godfather to hitler in terms of Fascism l Mussol ini did not seem to have ambitions for world power rather he sought more power around the mediterranean and this is what separates him and hitler O o pposed the fascist takeover in Austria one of the only countries in the west to speak out against it 0 w anted the four power conference with italians Germans English and french O P act of steel spring 1938 reaffirmed in 1939 O i n 1938 there is evidence that he was leaning towards alliance with england and france he did not want to cause a world war 0 l taly was dragged into war by Germany I Germany 0 over 70 million Germans 0 four power nuremberg Tribunal 0 pretty much blamed whole war on Hitler 0 some officers hung Q A J P Taylor vs Hugh Trevor Roper 0 got into an argument 0 Taylor was a radical he did not think that hitler was a nice man but he did not think that ne was any worse than any other statesmen felt that hitlers main goal was to unify Germans beyond that there was really no evidence showing that Hitler wanted to take over the world felt that more blame should be put on the west for not doing anything and for letting GErmany get as far as they did 0 Trevor Roper thought that Taylor was wrong he thought that Taylor did not take into fact the premeditatoin of Hitler quotes from a second manusript that hitler wrote that never got published reuniting germans was only part of his ambtiions he had plans on invading russia and eventually all of Europe 0 Hitler believed that great culture meant being able of conquering Hitler says that only way for Germans to achieve permanent greatness is to move farther east He thought that the Japanese would get rid of the chinese and then slowly thougt that each country would take over the other until one was left Germany I Anglo French 0 Paris Peace Conference 1919 0 their fault for blaming everything on Germany 0 have to remember that the west was hurting I 40 of Frenchman killed or mamed in war I Almost as bad for the british l everyo ne was indebted France to england england to the US so they needed to take it out on germany 0 they should have realized that if they wanted to foster modern democracy in Germany they should have shown them more mercy Q Appeasement 19303 O twenty years later they were too easy on the Germans when they should have been harder 0 west were still hurting from the previous war so they did not want their to be another war can39t have another war so there must be someway to avoid war 0 Failure to revive the 1907 Triple Entente Summer of 1939 O evidence that there were genuine attempts that Stalin reached out to the west kind of warning the west 0 they had every reason to mistrust the Russians Russians released cominturn feared stalin stalin killed hundreds of thousands l Russia 0 a lot of evidence destroyed O Comenturn 0 caused hatred and mistrust between Russian and Western democracies 0 may have been desparate the rest of the west is exerting some kind of control 0 Kpd and Nsdap vs spd O stalin ordder agent who was in charge of kpd to join with facist in destroying democracy in the west 0 hitler was probably going to come to power anyway 0 Stalin and the west 0 an interpretation was that stalin was taking support for west and secertly supporting Germany to help themselves 0 purges made a terrible impression of west 0 he really did try to signal to the west putting malitov in charge only contry to send any troops into spain objected to some of hitlers actions and the west did onthing so why should he have any faith in them
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