Biology 106 notes:study guide (Word version)
Biology 106 notes:study guide (Word version) Bio106
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michael Hummel on Monday February 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Bio106 at Washington State University taught by Dr Asaph Cousins in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 406 views. For similar materials see Biology 106 in Biology at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 02/09/15
HIS TI 053 05 Roots f Contemporary Issues RC1 2013 RC Weller Weekly Reading Questions WRQS WK 8 HIST 053 05 Roots f Contemporary Issues RC1 2013 RC Weller All readings in the WRQs are rqerenced with two numbers the rst one indicating the week and the second the number f the reading within that week eg 1 12 13 etc as indicated immediately above the reading title and bibliographical in rmation References to WRQquestions Jr discussion purposes should include reference to the assigned reading letter All questions in the WRQare referenced as llows 11 I Reading 11 Page Question number I 1 I 2 Reading 11 Page 1 Question number 2 11 2 4 3 Reading 11 Pages 2 4 Question number 3 Double asterisks preceding a question indicate that the questions will NOT be included in the WRT but is provided to help you engage the text in a deeper manner The abbreoiation MS llowing a question means Multiple Select and indicates that you can select more than one answer option See grllabus r general explanation f and guidelines r WRQs in relation to WRTs Answers can be debated and disagreed with during class or other private discussions but answers will be graded according to the WRQ le The text is the main source r answering the questions in the WRQ le However additional answer options and occasionally corrections to the text meg be provided in the WRQ le Then re correct and incorrect answers will be determined by the WRQ le in relation to the text Example of Modi ed Question In the case below two of the answer options are followed by the phrase quotInclude this optionquot gt If lt the book gives the other answer option then all three of those would be part of your answer meaning that it would be 39all of the above39 gt If lt the book does not give any other answer options then your nal answer would be 39only two and three above39 The same basic rule concerning Include this option applies for 39Multiple Select39 questions as well that is include them together with whatever answer options the reading provides A l 15 41 The reason why the wealth power and sophistication generated within the American web never reached the same level as that within the Afro Eurasian web is because in the Americas as compared with the Afro Eurasian world A the domesticable animals needed for plowing and pastoral lifestyles were not as abundant or strong B the domesticable animals needed for transportation were not available Include this option Cthe range of environments ran primarily northsouth instead of east west and thus were more extreme inhibiting easy adaptation for people animals and crops Include this option D all of the above E only two and three above Page l HIS T 053 05 Roots f Contemporary Issues RC1 2013 RC Vleller Reading 31 ProConOrg Overview What are the solutions to the IsraeliPalestinian con ict 81 l The IsraeliPalestinian con ict is one of the world39s longest standing con icts TRUE or F 81 2 Some observers see the IsraeliPalestinian con ict A creating Arab resentment towards the West B fueling radical Islamic terrorism C as one of the primary causes for the 911 attacks Include this option D all of the above E only two and three above 81 3 Most forums treating the IsraeliPalestinian struggle maintain an impartial and nonpartisan approach to understanding it T or FALSE Page 2 81 4 Worth double points In connection with the main arguments on each side over the IsraeliPalestinian struggle match the following Use each number ve times 1 The ProIsrael camp 2 The ProPalestinian camp 1 Israel is the historical homeland of the Jewish people who have lived there continuously since biblical times 2 The Palestinian people have lived in the area of Israel Palestine since biblical times Israelijews are foreign colonizers who began arriving within the last 100 years and have no right to establish a state on Muslim land 2 Palestinians are a national entity deserving of the rights of all nations including an independent Palestinian state 1Jews deserve aJewish state because of historical injustices such as the Holocaust and because they have international support and recognition through the United Nations 1 Palestinian rejectionism and terrorism are the main reasons Palestinians do not have an independent state 2 Other Palestinians support the total destruction of Israel far right view or a quotbinationalquot or quotonestatequot solution far left view 1 The majority of Israelis support a quottwostatequot solution creating a Palestinian state alongside Israel in the West Bank and Gaza Strip 1 Other Israelis support the idea of a quotonestatequot solution either by annexing all occupied territories into the Jewish state far right view or incorporate the occupied territories into one secular democratic state far left view 2 Over 40 years of settlement activity has made it impossible to create a Palestinian state and shows that Israel has no intention of making peace HIS T 053 05 Roots f Contemporary Issues RC1 2013 RC IVeller 2 The majority of Palestinians support a quottwostatequot solution creating a Palestinian state alongside Israel in the West Bank and Gaza Strip Reading 32 Marvin E Gettleman and Stuart Schaar eds Arabs and Zionists Struggle Over Palestine Introduction in The Middle East and Islamic World Reader New York Grove Press 2003 2012 147165 82 147 5 The chapter reading entitled Arabs and Zionists Struggle Over Palestine starts off by speaking of the struggle between A Arabs and Israelis B Palestinians and Israelis C Palestinians and Zionists D Palestinians and Arabs E Israelis and Zionists 82 147 6 The struggle between the two groups named above began in the when the Ottoman empire controlled the Fertile Crescent a region that encompassed Iraq and Syria and included Palestine A 1830s B 1890s C 1920s D 1940s E 1960s 82 147 7 The chapter reading entitled Arabs and Zionists Struggle Over Palestine covers MS A the situation in Ottoman Palestine in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries B World War I giving control of Palestine to Great Britain allowing Zionist settlers there to create a national home much to the distress of the Arab residents C Unrest and rebellion in the interwar years impelling Britain to abandon Palestine after World War II D the establishment in 1948 during a war between Zionists and Arabs of the state of Israel E the more than half a century of con ict and related attempts to negotiate a peace settlement which have followed from the 1948 war Palestine s Land and People 82 147 8 Ottoman Turkish authorities were concerned about preventing communal strife at Palestine s holy sites which were sacred to Muslims Jews and Christians TRUE or F 82 147 9 In Palestine during the Ottoman Turkish period of rule A The sultan and wealthy local families owned about one third of the land on which Arab cultivators worked B Ottoman rulers attempted during reforms to distribute land but many peasants preferred to have land registered in the names of trusted local notables who could bargain with taX collectors C Land grievances predated twentiethcentury problems D all of the above E only one and two above 82 147 10 Concerning proportions of the 738000 inhabitants of prewar pre1914 Palestine match the following 1 Muslim and Christian Arabs 2Jews mostly elderly living mainly in Jerusalem 2 About 85000 12 1 About 590500 80 00 82 147 1 1 The small community of Jews in Ottoman Palestine Page 3 HIS T 053 05 Roots f Contemporary Issues RC1 2013 RC lleller A kept alive the religious yearning that one dayJews living in the Diaspora outside of Palestine would return to Zion the Holy Land to await the arrival of the Messiah B kept a presence at the city s Western or Wailing Wall the remnant of the ancient biblical temple that the Romans destroyed in the rst century CE C sent emissaries yearly throughout the European and American Diaspora to collect funds to support the community and to pray with the Jews they met for their return to Zion D all of the above E only one and two above 82 149 12 Modern Zionism A had little connection to the olderJewish community in Palestine B arose in response to the upsurge of European anti Semitism C had few roots in the Middle East D all of the above E only one and two above 82 149 13 Theodor Herzl 1860 1904 as founder of modern Zionism MS A was a Viennese journalist who became incensed when a powerful antiSemitic political movement took power in his city B reacted strongly against governmentsponsored antiJewish riots pogroms in eastern Europe and the French government s false accusation of aJewish army of cer Alfred Dreyfus 1859 1935 of selling military secrets to the Germans C believed that for the protection from persecution EuropeanJews had to migrate to a land of their own Page 4 D published a book titled TheJewish State and created the World Zionist Movement in 1896 E was succeeded in his work by the British Zionist Chaim Weizmann 18741952 and others 82 149 14 Palestinian and other Arabs and Muslim intellectuals A followed the Zionist movement from its inception in the late nineteenth century B vocally opposed land sales to Zionists and Zionist settlements C were supported by the Ottoman Turkish landlords in their cause D all of the above E only one and two above HIS T 053 05 Roots f Contemporary Issues RC1 2013 RC lVeller 82 149 15 Expelled by theJews lived scattered across the Middle East Europe and the world in a Diaspora where they possessed no territory to establish aJewish nation A the Assyrians in the 8th century BCE Include this option B the Babylonians in the 7th century BCE Include this option C the Romans in the 15t century CE D all of the above E only two and three above 82 149 16 Herzl sjewish State showed the Jewish Zionists they should A strive for mutual understanding and peaceful relations with the majority Arab population of Palestine B gain the backing of a great power which would grant them sovereignty over a territorial base somewhere on earth and protect the edgling community as it grew and developed C proceed slowly without revealing their longrange goaL D all of the above E only two and three above 82 149 17 As it turned out and later provided the Jewish Zionists the services they needed that is the backing of a great power which granted them a territorial base in Palestine and protection as they pursued their cause A 1 France 2 Germany B 1 Germany 2 Russia C 1 Britain 2 the United States Great Britain Zionism and the Arabs 82 150 18 World War I helped move Zionist plans much closer to realization TRUE or F Page 5 HIS T 053 05 Roots f Contemporary Issues RC1 2013 RC Vleller 82 150 19 The 1917 letter from British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Lord Balfour 18481930 written to British Zionists A assured them that the British government would consult Arab leaders about this momentous shift in policy B assured them that the British government viewed with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home for theJewish people C was known as the Balfour Declaration D all of the above E only two and three above 82 150 20 In response to the British government s Balfour Declaration the Arabs A remained skeptical of the phrase in the declaration saying nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of the existing non Jewish communities B did not accept British assurances that a national home would not become aJewish state C both of the above 82 150 21 After the war the victors 82amely Britain France and the Allied Forces A translated the SykesPicot agreement which divided up the Middle East among Britain and France into League of Nations mandates B got the League of Nations to include the Balfour Declaration as a formal part of Britain s Palestinian mandate C aided the Arabs in establishing independent states of their own D all of the above E only one and two above Page 6 82 150 22 categorically opposed the Balfour Declaration and British control of Palestine but welcomed both A1 the Zionists 2 Arabs B 1 Arabs 2 the Zionists Zionists and Palestinians under British Authority 82 151 23 David BenGurion 18861973 A migrated to Palestine from Poland in 1906 B rose to power in two of the three institutions which Jewish Zionists created for statehood and social solidarity C became Israel s rst prime minister when it declared of cial statehood in 1948 D all of the above E only one and two above 82 151 24 In connection with the institutions whichJewish Zionists created in order to achieve the goals of statehood and social solidarity match the following 1 The Histadrut Labor Federation and the Jewish Agency 2 the Jewish National Fund N F 1 Responsible for bringingJewish immigrants to Palestine from especially Russia Europe and the United States 2 Handled land purchases in Palestine from Arab and Ottoman landlords on behalf of theJews 82 151 25 the land question became the main point of contention between Zionists and Arabs A Prior to World War I B in the postwar mandate years C both of the above HIS T 053 05 Roots f Contemporary Issues RC1 2013 RC lleller 82 151 26 TheJewish National Fund N F which bought up land in Palestine under regulations that provided that it would forever belong to the yishuv was nanced by A theJews of Palestine themselves B DiasporaJewry especially those dispersed in the United States and Europe C both of the above Page 7 82 151 27 The immigrantJewish settlers in Palestine A wished to depend only onJewish labor B ejected Arab rural workers C provoked strikes and accelerated Palestinian dispossession and proletarianization D all of the above E only one and two above 82 151 28 In spite of all the land purchases made by theJewish National Fund the Jewish Zionists never controlled more than of the total mandate territory A 5 B 8 C 14 D 20 E 33 82 151 29 When Palestine s Britishcontrolled administration took shape A the bulk of the tax revenues came from the far more numerous Arabs B initial Arab unwillingness to participate ensured the smallerJewish community of disproportionate in uence on how to spend tax revenues C Palestinians received fewer jobs and less credit agricultural aid and welfare bene ts D all of the above E only one and two above HIS T 053 05 Roots f Contemporary Issues RC1 2013 RC Vleller 82 151 30 Economic hardship in the 1920s and 30s in amed Arab resentment toward A the British B the Zionists C the Arab landlords who continued selling land D all of the above E only one and two above 82 151 31 often inhibited the Palestinians from acting collectively on their grievances A Class divisions B Clan rivalries C both of the above Flareups and Revolts 82 15253 32 Deadly battles raged injerusalem and nearby towns in 1929 when yishuv members attempted to A take over control of Palestine from the British B bring chairs benches and screens to separate men and women worshippers to Jerusalem s Western Wall C both of the above 82 153 33 The 1937 Peel Commission report by the British government issued in response to a major Arab revolt recommended eventual partition of Palestine with Zionists receiving enough territory to form aJewish state after the termination of the mandate TRUE or F 82 153 34 In the Arab uprising aka revolt against the British government s 1937 Pee1 Commission report some Arab notables A joined the revolt B collaborated with the British C both of the above Page 8 HIS T 053 05 Roots f Contemporary Issues RC1 2013 RC Weller 82 153 35 The Palestinian Muslim mufti alHusayni A escaped the military battles in Palestine in 193738 between the Arabs on the one side and the British and Jews on the other B spent much of World War II in Nazi Germany doing radio broadcasts which opposed the Allied efforts to defeat the Axis powers C declared himself an avowed Nazi D all of the above E only one and two above Note Fer llzefellewing lwe qaestiens 32 9 33 n0 answer is given in the lenig39jasi think abeia the issues raiseal anal be prepareal l0 a iseassyear answers in class 82 36 Why did the Palestinian Muslim leader alHusayni oppose the Allied efforts to defeat the Axis powers A Because he had decided to join the German cause and became an avowed Nazi B Because he was residing in Germany at the time and felt coerced ie social and or political pressure to do so C Because he was angry with the British and American pro Zionist policies in the Middle East D all of the above E only two and three above 82 37 British and American proZionist policies in the Middle East seem to have effected A Hitler s attitude toward and treatment of the Jews in Europe B Palestinian Arab and Nazi German cooperation and mutual support for one another s causes C both of the above Page 9 HIS T 053 05 Roots f Contemporary Issues RC1 2013 RC lVeller 82 153 38 As war approached the British fearing further sabotage of Middle Eastern oil installations issued another report the 1939 White Paper which A rejected the partitioning of Palestine into two states one Arab and one Jewish B promised free elections and independence to Palestine after ten years C imposed new restrictions on bothJewish immigration and Zionist land acquisition D all of the above E only two and three above 82 153 39 As the Nazis murdered EuropeanJews the Jews both in Palestine and around the world refused to countenance any other solution than A unrestricted immigration forJews back to Palestine B the of cial founding of aJewish state in Palestine C both of the above Zionist Nation Building War and Statehood 82 15354 40 The Histadrut General Federation of Jewish Workers A did not admit Arab workers to membership B did not arrange for equal pay scales between Arabs and Jews C did not establish an Arab af liate federation of workers D all of the above E only one and two above 82 154 41 faced an opposition led by Russianborn Vladimirjabotinsky 1880 1940 who wanted to establish aJewish state on both sides of the Jordan River A 1 Orthodoxjews 2 Reformedjewish group B 1 Labor Zionists 2 Revisionist movement C 1 Native PalestinianJews 2 Immigrantjewish movement 82 154 42 Two Likud leaders who had served in illegal militia groups that engaged in the killing of Arab civilians former Irgun commander in chief Menachem Begin 1913 92 and Stern Gang member Yitzhak Shamir 1915 eventually became prime ministers of Israel TRUE or F 82 154 43 During World War II the British A prohibited political organizing among Palestinian Arabs B kept many Palestinians in exile C soldiers and other law enforcement of cers searched Palestinian Arab homes at will con scated evidence and arrested and held Palestinians inde nitely D all of the above E only one and two above 82 154 44 As Nazi persecution of Jews increased A so did British and Arab opposition to the augmented immigration stream B Great Britain Canada and the United States refused to accethewish refugees increasing the focus on Palestine as the only place to which EuropeanJews could ee C anguish over the Nazi extermination of six million Jews swung global opinion behind the Zionist cause and away from Arab plight D all of the above E only one and two above HIS T 053 05 Roots f Contemporary Issues RC1 2013 RC lleller 82 154 45 When faced with the question of whether Palestine should become the main refuge for Europeanjews eeing from persecution in Nazi Germany Arabs A could nd no compelling reason why the world community believed that Jewish suffering had to be recti ed at Palestinian expense B searched unsuccessfully for ways to present their situation to a world which was mostly unsympathetic toward the Arab cause C both of the above 82 155 46 Although Victorious Great Britain emerged in 1945 weakened and unable to hold on to its empire so they turned the Palestine question over to the United Nations which had replaced the League of Nations TRUE or F 82 155 47 Concerning the UN Special Commission on Palestine which issued two different recommendations in 1947 following British withdrawal after World War 11 match the following 1 The Majority Recommendation 2 The Minority Recommendation 2 Supported a federated state with autonomousjewish and Palestinian areas 1 Called for partition into Arab andJewish states with Jerusalem as an international zone 82 155 48 Although the minority recommendation was rejected by both Arabs andJews the majority recommendation A was rejected by the Arabs as well B was accepted by theJews C was approved by the UN afterJewish acceptance D all of the above E only one and two above Further questions for thought Page 11 1 Was the UN s approval of the majority recommendation in uenced by priorJewish approval of the plan 2 Why did the Arabs reject both recommendations On what grounds HIS T 053 05 Roots f Contemporary Issues RC1 2013 RC IVeller 82 155 49 In the war which followed UN approval of the majority recommendation 82 15557 51 Concerning the Palestinian refugee problem A France and Czechoslovakia supplied the Jews with armaments B Indirect military aid came fromJordan s King Abdullah who kept the Arab Legion out of major battles in exchange for control over the Jordan River s West Bank and Arab Jerusalem after the war C Israel declared its statehood 1948 D Victory came to theJews by 1949 because of better staff work the efforts of skilled and dedicated ghters and the yishuv s near total mobilization and unity of purpose E The horror of the Holocaust stirred wide support across the Western world for the Zionists victory 82 155 50 Concerning the divergent views of the Palestinian refugee problem which followed the 1948 War match the following 1 The Of cial Zionist Explanation 2 Palestinian View shared now in part by a new wave of Israeli scholars 2 Argues that Israeli forces drove many of the 700000 or more Palestinian refugees out of their country through techniques such as slaughtering or threatening to slaughter entire villages 1 Concludes that Arab leaders encouraged their people to ee so that they could return after the expected Zionist defeat and resume their lives in Arab Palestine By this account the Israelis bore no responsibility for Arab refugees who by leaving forfeited their homes and property Page 12 A most Palestinians who ed their homes in the 1948 war registered as refugees with the UN and found substandard housing in the crowded camps of the West Bank the Gaza Strip or inJordan Lebanon and Syria B the UN General Assembly at the end of 1948 passed Resolution 194 which called for the return of the Palestinians to their homes C those deciding not or those not able to go back to their homes should receive compensation for lost and damaged property D all of the above E only one and two above 82 157 52 In relation to the numbers of Jewish immigrants and resulting percentage of Jews in Palestine after the Knesset Israeli Parliament passed the 1950 Law of Return match the following 1 By 1951 2 By 1961 1 680000 had arrived most of them Ashkenazicjews from Europe 2 Sephardic immigrants from North Africa and other Middle Eastern countries made up 45 percent of Israel s population 82 157 53 The Jewish migrants who arrived rst after the 1950 Law of Return took possession of Palestinian homes TRUE or F More War More Suffering 82 157 54 Disputes overJordan River water in amed Israeli Syrian tensions TRUE or F HIS T 053 05 Roots f Contemporary Issues RC1 2013 RC IVeller C both of the above 82 157 55 After requesting the withdrawal of UN troops stationed in the Sinai President Nasser of Egypt closed the Straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping thereby provoking an Israeli attack TRUE or F 82 157 56 The word provoking in the above sentence shows that the authors believe President Nasser of Egypt was responsible for starting the 1967 war TRUE or F 82 157 57 The authors could have chosen to use the word risking instead of provoking in the above sentence resulting in a different interpretation of the events TRUE or F The answer to Qs 5657 is True This illustrates how important word choice is when writing history 82 157 58 As a result of Israel s victory in the 1967 war over Egypt and the Arab states allied with it A Israel occupied the Gaza Strip from Egypt former Jordanian territory on the West Bank and Syria s Golan Heights B Israel gained control of the Sinai peninsula from Egypt Include this option C Several hundred thousand more Palestinians came under Israeli control D all of the above E only one and two above 82 158 59 Israel aka the Israelis A refused for years to deal directly with Palestinians but only with Arab states and the Knesset passed a law forbidding diplomatic contact with Palestinians B concluded that the 1967 war had extinguished all Palestinian claims to property or homes in the former mandate territory Page 13 HIS T 053 05 Roots f Contemporary Issues RC1 2013 RC IVeller The Palestine Liberation Organization PLO 82 159 60 The founding of the PLO in 1964 at a meeting in Cairo of the Arab League came at the initiative of President Nasser of Egypt because A he wanted to unify competing Palestinian factions B prevent the emergence of an independent and militant Palestinian organization C both of the above 82 159 61 The war in 1967 which Israel won dramatically changed Middle Eastern political and social dynamics by 82 159 62 The PLO A bringing all Arabs a sense of despair at their political and military impotence B discrediting Arab secular regimes C giving new freedom and with it increasing importance to the PLO to negotiate their own political destiny with Israel D all of the above E only one and two above A was refashioned by Palestinians into an independent political organization B appointed Yasir Arafat as its chairman C gained UN recognition in 1974 D all of the above E only one and two above 82 159 63 The PLO gradually during the 1970s modi ed its goals from would presumably agree to withdraw after negotiations to from which Israel A l seeking a state over a more limited territory 2 creating a secular state over all of mandate Palestine Page 14 B 1 creating a secular state over all of mandate Palestine 2 seeking a state over a more limited territory 82 159 64 By the 1980s Arafat had marshaled the PLO leadership to formally Israel s right to coexist with a future independent Palestinian state A reject B recognize 82 159 65 Israeli and US political leaders importance and legitimacy A rejected B accepted C wavered over Arafat s
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