Popular in American History
verified elite notetaker
Popular in History
verified elite notetaker
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Date Created: 02/09/15
HIS 202United States History 18121914 I The War of 1812 a Great Britain primary enemy of US in war of 1812 i After the revolution signi cant tensions remained between US and GB 1 Britain believed it might reverse the revolution 2 Freedom of the Seas during the Napoleonic wars Britain and France at war with one another a Brits have superiority on the seas US wants freedom of trade with both French and British i Naturally Britain did not want US to trade with France so they try to stop US trade ii lmpressment Brit warships would take US sailors from merchant ships and force them into British servitude 1 Argued that you could not undo British citizenship and therefore the US sailors were traitorous citizens 3 Territorial Expansion a US acquired large tracts of unexplored territory in the west Louisiana Purchase b Several 39warhawks39 wanted to invade British Canada to take more land b Confederacy of Native American Tribes Secondary enemy of the US in war of 1812 i Led by Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa the Prophet 1 Shawnee Indians brothers 2 Ally with british against the United States ii Much of the United States was still Indian country Large nations and communities retained control of most western lands 1 US forcing some tribes to cede land under duress Confederacy of tribes from Indiana to Alabama organized to resist expansion by United States c Second War of Independence i US invades Canada British forces repel invasion 1 Brits score signi cant victories early on Burn down the White House 2 US picks up momentum in 1813 at the Battle of that Thames where Tecumseh is killed a Indian confederacy defeated at Battle of Horseshoe Bend March 27 1814 ii US fails in objective in taking over Canada but beat the British by 1815 1 This sets the stage for the United States to grow signi cantly economically and expand westward more aggressively than ever before ll Population1815 a 18 states i 8 million people ii Rural society 1 Most people are farmers or working in agricultural business iii NYC pop just over 100k 1 Largest city in US by 1815 current population of Eugene is higher iv 13 million slaves 1 125k free blacks 2 Few slaves in northern states For the most part the north was on its way to eliminating slavery lll Divisions and Contradictions a The South is a slave society economy depends on slavery and agri export b The north is moving toward a commercial and market economy i This economy is more robust and developing much faster than the Southern States c Declaration of Independence i all men are created equal that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights that among these are Life Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness 1 Women a Women do not have universal national suffrage until after this course ends 2 Indians a Aggressively expansionist United States Many citizens believe liberty means that the government should support the seizure of Indian lands 192013 I Before the Market Revolution a 1800 US Economy i Bulk of americans living on farms 1 Crops and livestock grown are going to be consumed locally Some exchange with locals but very little long range export a Barter driven very little cash circulation b 80 of what is raised and grown is consumed locally c Subsistence economy i Candles clothing and other manufactured goods are also created on the farm ii Shoes are one specialty item that are typically made in urban areas in small shops ii In the late 181039s205 this economic system undergoes rapid change due to revolution in transportation 1 Prior to transportation revolution a horsedrawn wagon on lousy roads was the primary means of shipping 2 Water transportation begins this shift in transport Barges being drawn by horses on the sides of a canal is an easier way to transport heavier shipments a New York is the center of barge transportation The Hudson River could take you to Albany A Canal from Albany to Lake Erie gave incredible trading opportunities ll Transportation Revolution a Erie Canal 1825 i State of New York funds the digging of the Erie Canal ii Joins the atlantic to the great lakes with a single canal b Railroads i Develop later in the 18305 mainly in the northern states and along the coasts 1 13 miles of railroad in 1830 by 1840 there are 9000 miles of rail c Economic Growth i Signi cantly cheaper faster shipping allows people to engage in a national and international market 1 Fosters increased competition nationwide 2 Economic growth continues with occasional nancial panics until the Civil War III Effects of Market Revolution a Urban male workers i Traditional system of production in small artisan shops 1 Shoes barrels caskets guns specialized tools etc 2 Master journeyman apprentice slow advancement owner trains a select few craftsmen Many of the workers live at the shop or estate as boarders a The master continued to work in their craft with a degree of excellence Journeymen had advanced in the craft understood all aspects of production but do not own the business Apprentices were younger men who were learning the craft b Pace of work is generally leisurely controlled by orders Frequent breaks drinking more familial relationship than the workerforeman system that would replace it ii Breakdown of the Traditional system 1 Increasing production and selling at a national level encourages Masters to change their business strategies a Competition forces a total change in the system because of the pressures created by the competing pnces i Apprentices and journeymen do not emerge from this breakdown in ideal conditions Masters become managers ii Wages are cut hours are increased to expand production and lower cost Process of production is divided and spread out People do not learn how to create the entire product they are limited to a single low skill task at a low wage 1 ln shoemaking and textiles the need for sewing brings women into the factory system The 39puttingout system hires out women in the countryside to do minor stitching tasks at a minimal wage 2 Journeymen Protests 18291837 a Masters in New York City decide to increase hours for journeymen without increase in compensation i Journeymen begin to organize politically at the state level b The Workingman39s Party 1829 39 Do not win many elections so they turn to a new strategy Trade Unions use organization to apply pressure on masters if they refuse the push for strikes b Women and Girls i On the Farm 1 2 3 1833 30 strikes in NYC Boston New York Philadelphia all have considerable Unions 1837 strikes cease due to nancial panic and downturn in economy a Economic downturns always make it increasingly dif cult for workers to gain leverage with employers because higher unemployment makes for an abundance of cheap labor Document 1 in Course Packet a Protest by journeyman workers quotcordwainersquot b Articulate grievances in the terms of the declaration of independence 1 Division of labor by gender in American agriculture a Boys and men grow crops butchering taking goods to market b Females are responsible for household production child rearing small animal production chicken butter that is closer to the home 2 Changes wrought by the market revolution a Cash now owing into households due to selling of crops in national market Product that women formerly made are now purchased soap candles etc b Outwork i Work for cash is now brought into farm homes especially in New England that involves basic production sewing and stitching hats clothing shoes 1 Money is not very high for this work Paid by the piece ii Factories 1 Textiles a Making of cloth is the primary industry in the United States i Especially around Massachusetts fall lines in rivers is exploited to drive engines that control power looms 1 Machines do the labor but need attendants paid at a low wage b Lowell Girls i Unmarried girls from NE farms are brought into dormitories on site and build a dowry to get married ii Provided instruction on etiquette after work 1 Regimented time on the mills farm life is determined by the tasks of the day and hours of sunlight a Bells are rung to regulate the schedule iii Increased competition forces mill operators to lower wages Factory owner bars meeting together 1 Lowell Girls issue a statement in protest capitalize on Dec of lnd c Middle Class Urban women i lnitially shared the selfproduction seen on farms but after the market revolution household goods are predominantly bought 1 Women in the cities do not begin doing other work to supplement for the lost labor Husbands39 income gives these women the chance to pursue writing educate their children joining other groups of women organizing for rights 2 Domestic concerns with raising and educating children are not being valued properly Some women begin to say that the sphere of women39s responsibilities are undervalued and there needs to be new ways for them to be equally valued 3 Doc 3 Catherine Beecher separate spheres d Western Expansion i Selling on the market increases the desire for more land in the west ii Defeat of the Confederacy of Tribes adds to this migration IV The South a A Commercial economy without a market revolution i Slave owners are buying and selling human beings on an international market ii Raising crops speci cally cotton tobacco and rice that are export crops to Britain New England and to a lesser extent continental Europe b Expansion i Western expansion of the South is also becoming more rapid ii Daniel Boone led pioneers through the Cumberland Gap the passage in the Appalachians from Virginia to Kentch 1 In the south slave drives to the Mississippi frontier by slavemasters on horseback c Viability of Slavery i After the Constitution was written many Americans believed that slavery would die out because the only productive cotton could be grown in coastal area long staple cotton ii Cotton Gin short staple cotton which could grow nearly everywhere was now a viable crop because seeds could be easily separated from the bers 1 The institution of slavery becomes hugely pro table after the cotton gin and the expansion of slave plantations for cotton expands west and north a As of 1807 international slave trade is banned Natural increase along with limited illegal international trade makes the trade of slaves much more pr 1112013 Jacksonian Democracv US Leaders opposition to democracy in early years a Extension of Democracy i Founding fathers were suspicious of popular sovereignty heavy restrictions on voting 1 Many states blocked white men from voting unless they own property ii The Electoral College 1 Device used to act as a buffer between the people and elected of ces iii Early 18005 fewer and fewer states have property requirements for voting 1 By 18205 majority of states have universal white male suffrage a De nitely now the most democratic nation in the world b Some of the reason for this democratization has to do with the market revolution i Greater economic security and individualism ideology creates a greater sense of political participation c Tendencies increase with an apex in the election of AndrewJackson in 1828 II Andrew Jackson Symbol of Democracy a Jackson39s early life i Born in 1767 in back country of South Carolina 1 Studied law moved to TN frontier a Acquired large landholdings in TN slaveholder planter Owned roughly 100 saves b Quick tempered Man of action not an intellectual Feuded often ii Duel with Charles Dickinson 1 Dickinson was a political rival in TN Insulting each other and each others families Alleged unsavory things about Jacksons Wife Rachael a She had been previously married and the divorce did not actually go through Jackson39s poIiticaI enemies would insuIt his wife as a bigamist b Dickinson made these allegations Jackson chaIIenges him to a duel i Dueling was becoming increasingly uncommon Illegal in TN so they go to KY where it is still legal 1 Jackson has Dickinson shoot rst hoping that he would miss Dickinson shotJackson near the heart Jackson IeveIed his pistol aimed carefully and shot Dickinson dead iii Military man The war of 1812 1 Horseshoe Bend 1814 a Commanded Georgia miIitia troops against Native Americans who were resisting the United States in Alabama i Creeks were the major member of the Indian Confederacy Jackson kiIIs 800 of the 1000 creeks whiIe Jacksons forces suffer fewer than 50 casualties 2 New Orleans 1815 a Defeated the british after the end of the war when official word of the end of the war had not reached Jackson b Jackson becomes a national hero through these feats i Old Hickory Hickory is the hardest of the hardwoods ii The Hero simple selfexplanatory nickname iv Jackson39s political career 1 Presidential election of 1824 a No two party system yet different candidates would be put up by groups loose campaigning i Four Candidate plurality 1 Jackson 99 votes 2 JQ Adams Secretary of State 84 votes 3 William CrawfordGA Secretary of Treasury 41 votes 4 Henry ClayKY Speaker of the House 37 ii No majority vote in the election so Constitution demands that House of Representatives decides the election Only top three are eligible 1 Clay is speaker of the house throws his support behind Adams if Adams would give Clay Sec of State 2 Known later as the quotCorrupt Bargainquot a JQ Adams diary is blank when relating to this decision b Jacksons supporters felt they had been robbed democracy had been betrayed i Broader electorate particularly in west and south sanackson as hero Claim he was robbed by a Cabal that was going against the will of the people 2 Presidential election of 1828 a Runs as voice of the people against quotsmall scheming wicked menquot i Political contest now framed as common man verses elites ii Dirty election Lots of mudslinging 1 Jackson accuses JQA as being friendly with King of England drinks French wine way too educated to understand the people 2 Adams and crew attacks Jackson Wife is bigamist executed men for desertion in cold blood 3 Both sides printed out pamphlets decrying the other side a quotcoffin handoutquot Adams pamphlet that shows the cof ns of the men Jackson had shot supposedly in cold blood b Results i Jackson wins easily ii 56 of popular vote 68 of electoral vote 3 iii New England votes for Adams see Jackson as ushering in the Rule of King Mob iv Jackson supporters see it as the Dawn of Democracy Inauguration a Tons of people came into the White house for the reception i Drunken ghting trashing the White House 1 Seems to con rm conservative sense of King Mob lll How democratic was Jacksonian Democracy a Will the liberties of the common man be advanced under Andrew Jackson b States39 rights and the tariff i Strict construction confederation vs broad construction national federalism 1 2 Confederacy of the United States federal government only created for defense mutual defense raising revenue a States did not give up an sovereignty A state could conceivable ignore federal law also could leave the Union Right of secession remains Federal United States States gave up a portion of sovereignty to the federal government State still has rights but they are not unlimited States must work within constitutional framework to go against federal law Union is permanent no right to secede ii Tariff of 1828 Tariff of Abominations 1 2 3 Tariff fee or tax on foreign goods coming from a different country In the US at this time Northern States are starting to increase manufacturing In order to nurture native industry US began to think about and then passed a tariff on manufactory goods from Europe a Southern states do not want a tariff because they are an export economy Call it the Tariff of Abominations Raises the cost of living in the south who basically must import more expensive products from the North England will respond with tariff with a tariff retaliation on Southern cotton Vice President John C Calhoun is a southerner from South Carolina a Calhoun was one of the most intelligent American statesmen i Anonymously begins to articulate the idea that a state can nullify an act of congress within its own boundaries b Doctrine of Nulli cation i Calhoun anonymously writes quotsouth Carolina Exposition and Protestquot 1828 1 As that pamphlet begins to circulate there are real fears and discussion of civil war Passions are high c Earlier Crisis Missouri Compromise 1820 i In 1819 Missouri applied for admission into Union as slave state would upset the equal number of slave and free states 1 Many believed that Missouri was far enough north to be admitted as a free state 2 Compromise engineered by Henry Clay decided to admit Maine as free state to maintain the balance between free and slave states a Southern border of Missouri would demarcate the future boundary between slave and free state admission 4 Nulli cation Crisis a Jackson becomes gradually aware that Calhoun was behind the doctrine of nulli cation i Becomes clear at a Presidential banquet in 1830 on the occasion ofJefferson39s birthday Jackson rises to give a toast He says quotAre federal union it must be preservedquot 1 It was now clear thatJackson held the nationalist position 2 Calhoun responds quotthe federal union next to our liberty is most dearquot ii South Carolina nulli es the tariff in 1832 iii Jackson had the fed pass the quotforce Billquot 1 Allows federal government to use military force to ensure that South Carolina could not stop the collection of the tariff b Compromise i Clay again engineers a compromise between these factions ii Decide to reduce the tariff South Carolina has no option but to accede to these demands because it was isolated 1142013 Jacksonian Democracy continued I Review what does the battle over the tariff reveal about Jacksonian democracy a A greater democracy i Jackson is a symbol of popular democracy increased participation ii Political ght over Tariff results in battle over states rights 1 South Carolina threatens secession a Major crisis followed by compromise and stand down by SC iii The liberty of the common man is being advocated by government leaders 1 Problem of broader enfranchisement and participation is contention and con icts of interest within the plebian masses a Differences between regional economies causes a commoners contention in the tariff problem i Wanting low tariffs decreases the cost of living but also harms small businessmen II A Second Political lssue Banking System a Second Bank of the United States i Private bank chartered in 1816 1 Based in philly 2 Under the terms of the charter BoUS was sole depository of federal funds Exclusive rights to public funds a Could issue bank notes not speci cally legal tender You did not have to accept the notes but most would considering the implied security of the bank i Knowledge that the note is backed by xed deposits of the United States government means that a gold return was almost guaranteed as opposed to local banks ii Nicholas Biddle 1 President of the Second Bank of the United States 2 1832 wants bank rechartered advised by Daniel Webster and Henry Clay to apply for recharter before it expires a 1832 is an election year Biddle calculation is that Andrew Jackson will not oppose the recharter because he will fear losing the election b Jackson39s attitude toward banks i Jackson believed that banks were a location of special privilege that bred aristocrats ii If you had a national bank a small group of men with special privilege to expand their personal wealth at the expense of the masses iii Hard money is the only real money Gold specie is the only real standard Paper money is dangerous c Application for recharter 1832 i Biddle39s gambit 1 Passes house and senate in election year easily d Jackson39s veto of recharter bill i Greatly surprises everyone Vetoes it before the election despite it passing through the house and the senate ii Rails against bank as place of special privilege iii Personalizes the issue Says bank is trying to kill him but he will kill it iv Two reasons for opposing the bill 1 Having a bank of this nature was a dangerous centralization of national authority at the expense of the states a Jackson is sympathetic to states rights generally He initially supported low tariff but believe SC went too far 2 A bank makes the government the servant of rich and powerful people a Bank rules over the government A private business that hold the governments nances lts agents can invoke special favor e Bank as issue in election of 1832 i Emergence of twoparty system Democrats and Whigs 1 Jackson runs for reelection as Democrat 2 Henry Clay runs as the Whig candidate ii Jackson Landslide 1 Jackson 219 2 Clay 49 iii Jackson successfully cast the bank issue in the terms of popular democracy and successfully mobilized his supporters to follow this line of thinking 1 Biddle and his counselors belief that opposition to the bill would be political suicide were proved very wrong f Removal of deposits i After the election the bank charter would expire in 1836 1 Jackson was not content to just let that happen 2 Takes all US govt deposits out of the Second Bank Distributes them among smaller banks especially in the west a Opponents claimed that these banks were run by his friends and that these were his 39pet banks39 lll What does the ght over the bank tell us about Jacksonian democracy a Common man vs privileged rich i Whigs believed the national government could promote economic development through a strong development tariff transportation subsidies ii Jackson39s 39pet banks39 gaining large deposits maintained wealth in the hands of the few It could be said that it boiled down to battle between the Philadelphia bank and western banks Common man mobilized to win votes in a clash between wealthy groups b Journeymen i Still declining ii Jacksonians did not take up the journeyman cause though this group voted largely democratically iii Claimed that their problems could be solved by adopting strict hard specie iv Jacksonians never examine what it would take to preserve the artisanal system IV Jacksonian democracy and the election of 1840 a Martin Van Buren Democrat i Vice prez underJackson after Calhoun Skilled politician from New York b William Henry Harrison Whig i Needs to do something loses consistently Decides that war heroes can win elections 1 Harrison headed a militia force in 1811 attacked Prophetstown in Indiana the headquarters of Tenskwatawa and Techumseh a Harrison claimed this to be an enormous victory though it was not quite the battle he claimed ii Decide to nominate Harrison because he was the most Jacksonlike character they could muster iii quotTippecanoe and Tyler tooquot 1 Name of the battle at Prophetstown and nominal vice president iv quotlog cabinquot campaign 1 Once the whigs nominated Harrison the democrats started to ridicule him for having been born in a log cabin a Claimed that if Harrison was given a pension and a keg of hard cider he would live out the rest of his days drinking and doing nothing b The whigs decided that instead of rebutting this they would embrace these charges and make them populist badges of pride i Make Martin Van Buren out as an aristocrat and Harrison as a man of the people ii As the election progressed everyone tried to capture on the log cabin birth 1 Daniel Webster a Massachusetts whig announced that he was not born in a log cabin but he wished that he was Claimed that the log cabin where his grandfather had been born was still in the family and he still took his family up to visit 2 A leader and a commoner a While the whigs capitalized on common man imagery they also promoted the rise of Harrison i Becomes a general on the frontier turns into classic rags to riches narrative ii Brings in a new issue into democracy war against native americans becomes an integrated feature of American notions of democracy b Harrison i Oldest prez elected at this point ii Actually born to a wealthy VA family plantation iii Owned six slaves likely fathered some children from these slaves iv Died 30 days after inauguration gave long address in freezing weather caught pneumonia 1162013 Indian Removal I Introduction Indian removal and Jacksonian democracy a Relationship between democracy and land i Need constant in ux of land to maintain a voting public that is 39independent39 Requires a very expansionist outlook 1 Taking of Indian lands is legitimized through this ideology Debate is how to do it a Indians have no rights to lands and will inevitably lose their holdings ii Democracy inherently requires the dispossession of Indian people from their lands b United States at war with Indian confederacy in War of 1812 Jackson and Harrison both generals who lived these expansionist policies i Jackson was a prime articulator of removing all Indians from the eastern part of the United States to the west 1 It could be said that the only thing thatJackson was committed to upon coming into office was Indian removal The tariff and bank crisis were thrust upon him and he reacted He proactively pursued Indian Removal II US policies toward Indians in the early 18005 a quotExpansion with honorquot i Assimilation proclaim that EuroAmericans have the gift of civilization to give to the Indians Literacy religion and sedentary life Believe that Native Americans are less developed but capable of becoming civilized under Euro norms 1 The Indians will surrender their lands in exchange for Euro culture after being absorbed into the general body politic 2 From the standpoint of the US this is a good deal for the Native Americans When Indians don39t embrace these policies US says those who resist and are willing to take up arms are legitimately subject to extermination b Problems i Treaty Making Process 1 United States Treaty commissions a handful of men go out to the west to negotiate with a tribe Meet with tribal leaders and present terms a Offer missionaries literacy training agricultural methods i Most native American farming was much more sustainable than Euro styles supplemented by hunting and trading 1 US commissioners want market driven farming private landholding horticulture and ceasing hunting b In exchange for this they must give up large sections of their land i Very divisive usually done under duress Some native leaders sign up many do so just to stop the ghting 1 This did not mean that they wanted assimilation This was more of an accommodation for survival ii Many reject treaties call for united action against encroachments ii Legitimacy of Genocide extermination of Indians for their lands was a genuine argument put forward 1 Two arguments against genocide policy a High Cost natives are armed and at a great distance Need to eld armies at a high cost to do this Expenses is an issue for a country with little money and a genuine opposition to taxs b Principles the United States bursts on to the world stage declaring enlightenment ideals and principles People feel it would be morally wrong for an extermination policy and the concern that Euro powers would look down on US for these actions 2 Native resistance creates legitimacy for extermination a Top officials agree with this i Jackson quotIf you take up the hatchet we will wipe the tribes from the face of the earthquot b In US policy genocide against natives is reasonable justi ed in the eyes of man and God When Natives resist the deal they are forsaking civilization in the eyes of US lll Shift in Policy of removal 18201830 a Increasing aggression i No longer are deals based on partial land seizure Want total removal all lands and exodus to the west 1 Part of current state of OK is designated as indian territory Remove all eastern Indians and concentrate in small western area ii Policy is put forward in same way earlier policy is put forward maintain the 39honor39 rhetoric 1 Claim that bad people in civilization cheats liquor traders etc take advantage of Indians need to isolate them from these bad in uences so that good in uences can be imported and controlled b jackson39s advocacy of removal i Paternalism Jackson frames discussions with Indians in a family sense where he is their father Considers them his children who do not know what is best for them ii As president he promotes legislation to encourage removal 1 Congress passes Indian Removal Act in 1830 a Idea is to get consent to remove Indians offers money and meager support IV Cherokee Removal a The Five Civilized Tribes i Cherokee a major member of this confederation ii Controlled western Carolinas TN and KY Northern GA 1 Reduced in 1830s to small areas of TN and Northern GA iii In the 170039s Cherokee fought against colonist very costly to their people Had to give up possibility for armed struggle in early 1800s 1 Wanted to embark on a project of strengthening themselves as a nation b Cherokee Nation building project i Literacy promote literacy among their own people Develop a way of writing Cherokee language 1 Develop a Syllabary characters represent each syllable a Sequoyah George Guess develops this schema b Publish the Cherokee Phoenix a newspaper i Signi cant majority was learning to write and read in native language alongside English ii Written Consitituion 1828 1 Modeled on US constitution iii Shift in agriproduction 1 Engage in agriculture along the patterns of southerners 2 More commercially oriented 3 The most wealthy own slaves a Conditions for slaves of Cherokee were not as onerous as most white plantations but they were enslaved none the less iv Adopted Christainity 1 A signi cant minority embraces Christianity 2 Create alliances with missionaries from New England v National survivial 1 These methods were adopted to protect Cherokee sovereignty and cultural identity c Georgia attacks on Cherokee sovereignty i Citizens of Georgia never recognize Cherokee as independent nann 1 After Cherokee approve constitution they attack Cherokee in force a Believe that being in the state of Georgia makes you beholden only to the state must take an oath of loyalty to Georgia d Cherokee Nation v Georgia 1831 i ChiefJustice John Marshall domestic dependent nations 1 Somewhat sympathetic to Cherokee cause 2 Rules they have no standing before the supreme court a Under constitution a foreign nation can come before US judiciary but Cherokee nation is not like Britain or France they are domestic dependent nanns e Worcester v Georgia i Missionary working with Cherokee Refuses to take loyalty oath Supreme court recognizes his standing and takes Georgia to court for unconstitutionality of loyalty oath 1 Georgia loses the case removal unconstitutional f Jackson39s response to Cherokee Nation and Georgia i quotJohn Marshall has made his decision now let him enforce itquot 1 Jackson would not support a federal response to Georgia ii John Ross appeals to Jackson he doesn39t respond to the letter Claims it39s a state matter 1 Jackson had passed the Force Bill against SC but would not enforce federal law in GA V Removal a Minority of Cherokee agree to removal in 1835 i Treaty of New Echota 1835 some leave for western lands b Trail of Tears i John Ross is principal chief of Cherokee and has most of them on his side 1 He and his allies proclaim that this is a bogus treaty and senate has to ratify it under the constitution a Senate rati es the treaty by a single vote New Echota is recognized despite its illegitimacy ii Army called on to force Cherokee out in winter of 183839 1 Detained Cherokees forced west at gun point 2 Poorly prepared not enough food exposed a Young and old die in droves b Best count is about 15k moved west in 3938 39 At least 2000 died 4000 is a reasonable estimate c Other civilized tribes had similar experiences 1232013 Slavery l Expansion and Entrenchment of Slavery a Late 1700 The NearDeath of Slavery i Slavery is the most glaring hypocrisy of the ideals of American Hbe y 1 Planters believed that they had the liberty to enslave Their sense of what freedom means is the freedom to own other people as property They will go to war to preserve this liberty ii The founding fathers came close to getting rid of slavery when they wrote the constitution 1 Many were slaveowners and many of them felt uneasy about the state of slavery a Jefferson owned slaves believed it was immoral should end sooner than later i Considered it a necessary evil They had not created the institution but they bene tted from it ii There was a sense among Americas leaders that slavery might die out naturally 1 Believed the economic basis for slavery was limited Couldn39t grow pro table cotton in many areas Short staple cotton could grow everywhere but was too labor intensive to be commercial b The Cotton Gin i The massive expansion of slavery 1 Allows for short staple cotton to become incredibly pro table 2 Southern planters reverse the opinion that slavery is a necessary evil instead cast it as a bene cial institution for both master and slave c The Difference i 1815 13 million slaves out of population of 8 million ii 1860 4 million slaves out of population of 3032 million 1 Percentage is similar but raw number is a considerable increase ll Second Middle Passage a 18001860 1 million slaves are driven west in what historians refer to as the second middle passage i The rst middle passage is the trip from Africa to the Americas the capturing and force sale of Africans into slavery ii The second middle passage emphasizes that this migration the forcible movement of slaves from eastern US to Western frontiers took a heavy toll 1 The Oregon Trail only had roughly 50k travelers during its prime decades iii Disease and Death 1 Both passages are notorious for the massive casualties caused by disease due to poor lodging and conditions 2 Family ties are sundered Often done purposefully to cow slaves and break down any sense of community b lnternal Slave trade i International slave trade outlawed in 1807 1 Still some smuggling but planters cannot import slaves from abroad any longer Now you need more internal reproduction and trade a Slave trade within US increases signi cantly More people earning their living as slave traders than ever before ii Slave owners moving west would not move their slaves typically they would purchase them from a slave trader 1 Looking for strong healthy young men and women in early 205 and late teens a Physical labor for building a plantation is brutal i Draining swamps pulling out trees clearing land ii Need your labor force to reproduce as well to maintain your labor force c New Orleans i Central hub for water route slave trading 1 Ships that come in bring human beings as they leave they carry cotton and sugar created by slave labor d Greater hardship in the West i Conditions are terrible for slaves everywhere but the conditions in the west are the worst 1 Labor demands are greater slaves are punished more frequently and driven harder lll Sexual Exploitation a Frederick Douglas39s father i Douglas doesn39t know who is father is but it is rumored that his owner is his father He doesn39t go on about this but he makes it clear his mother was forced to copulate with a white man to increase the labor pool 1 Slaveholders had established by law that the children of slave women would be slaves This is the easiest most pro table way to generate more slaves This maintains the institution when international trade is barred b Harriet Jacobs Incidents in the Life ofa Slave Girl escapes slavery in early 1860s talks extensively on the topic of sexual exploitation as the lifeblood of the institution of slavery c Corroborating Evidence i Many southerners would openly admit to these practices 1 William Harper openly admits that masters their sons overseers rape slave women with frequency Says it39s a good thing because it prevents white women from becoming prostitutes and preserves their purity 2 Mary Chestnut from Virginia planter family Wrote about pervasiveness of this practice Say their men live in one house with wives and concubines Mullatos one sees in families resemble the white children She sympathizes with white women because they have to silently suffer their husbands and sons committing adultery under their roof IV Resistance a Weapons of the Weak i Even though it was dif cult to escape or imagine the end of slavery there were daily practices to challenge slavery ii Foot dragging when commanded to harvest a certain area they work slowly iii Manipulated the racial prejudice of ignorance to act like they couldn39t understand their instructions iv Breaking tools spoiling crops b Escape i Perhaps 1000 slaves a year escaped in the 18505 proportionally not very many 1 Many more tried to escape than actually did ii Underground Railroad 1 Organization that facilitated slave escapes cared for those who made it into the north iii Maroon Communities 1 In the most southern areas slaves escaped and created independent communities in orida 2 Often in close proximity with Seminole Indians who were being forced from their land iv Impact 1 Escaped slaves especially those who write become very important a In the north live human beings who had been slaves could tell audiences how horrible the institution was i Self emancipated people testifying to their aspirations for freedom and the horrors of their enslavement was very powerful c Physical resistance i Fighting back a much rarer occurrence but usually one on one ghts 1 Slave owners downplayed these incidents ii Slave Revolts dif cult to organize very rare very consequen al 1 San Domingue 1791 rst successful slave revolt in the Americas in Haiti Eventually led to the independent republic of Haiti the rst black republic a Planters in the south were well aware of what happened in Haiti and feared that it could happen to them 2 Nat Turner Revolt 1831 a Turner was a slave that organized a revolt that involved 75 other slaves Attacked several plantations killed 50 whites b Didn t get very far hoped slaves in the are would join in and they didn39t c Terri ed southern plantation owners Made them react even harsher to criticism from the north and any sign of resistence in the South 1252013 Slaverv cont39d l Space the ways in which slaves had space within the oppressive institution of slavery that acted as a buffer a Family i Although they could not be legally married slaves married had ceremonies recognized kinship ties to some extent masters did as well The institution of family acted as a boon in these dif cult situations ii Separation of family members always a possibility powerful weapon for slavemasters b Persistence of African culture i Prior to 1800 s constant in ux of Africans into the Americas affected slave beliefs in the United States ii Voodoo in Louisiana fusion of African religious traditions with French Catholicism is labeled voodoo c Adaptation of Christianity i Spirituals slaves adapted Christianity to their own ends 1 ln 17005 masters tended to not want their slaves to convert to Christianity this changes in the 18005 a Many African americans slave preachers lead congregations A slave might go to a christain service run by a white preacher sermons focusing on slaves being obedient ln slave services led by black preacher focus on liberation book of exodus and the journey out of slavery b Slave religion involves singing dancing emotional expression Birthplace of spirituals genre of music ii Paul Robeson 18981976 quotlet my People goquot Abolitionism l Free Blacks and the Abolitionist Movement a A minority movement always in the minority even in the north African Americans were the forefront of this movement but eventually the narrative gets highjacked by famous white leaders This is an unfair characterization black leaders always played a major part b David Walker Walker s Appeal 1829 origins of abolitionist thought Walker was a free black man wrote the rst abolitionist pamphlet Following this pamphlet free blacks in north organize abolitionist societies By 1850 there are about 30 abolitionist societies in the North c Militant language quotobtain our liberty by the crushing arm of powerquot Give slaves liberty or if you wait their will be a violent uprising ll Whites and the abolitionist movement a William Lloyd Garrison in uenced by second great awakening devoted to convincing slaveowners that what they were doing was sinful Upon this realization they would emancipate their slaves i The Liberator 1831 Garrison39s newspaper ii American AntiSlavery Society 1833 Garrison organizes this society 1 Before Garrison there were whites who opposed slavery but they largely spoke in 39gentle39 tones Did not go to slaveowners and say what they were doing was sinful Hoped for gradual die out colonize freed slaves to Africa a Even whites who didn39t like slavery could not imagine a biracial society that had true equality 2 Very in uenced by religion What animates him is the Second Great Awakening The notion that human society can be perfected by convincing people that they are sinners and need to become as near to holy perfection as possibly a Notion that this could happen very rapidly Believed that in 24 years that slaveowners could become convinced that they were sinning against God and be convinced to emancipate their slaves 3 Rejection of politics no call to organize a political party thinks it would be sinful because you would be participating in a sinful institution iii July 4 1824 Historical Reenactment Garrison burns the constitution before a large assembly Calls it a compact with hell iv Bi racial reform movment black and white abolitionist get along by and large lt gains strength in the 18505 lll Southern Response to Abolitionism a Nat Turner Revolt in 1831 planters in the south blame the abolitionist movement for the slave rebellion Say northerners are putting bad ideas in the heads of otherwise happy slaves b quotGag Rule 1836 petitions sent by the people are to be read in house of representatives Southern congressmen are tired of hearing petitions against slavery Pass the gag rule that says any time an abolitionist petition comes to the HoR it will be automatically tabled i Abolitionist literature is sometimes shipped in the south southerners burn all of this whenever they get the chance c Slave codes in 1830s state laws that regulate conduct of slaves is made much more severe harder for slaves to travel d Slavery as a quotpositive goodquot some southerners begin to articulate the argument that slavery is a positive good Before most southerners argued over the morality of slavery after abolitionism new strain of argument that says its instructive lV Northern Response to Abolitionists a Most northerners did not like abolitionist movement i Regarded it as dangerous attack abolitionists ii Death of Elijah Lovejoy in 1837 Lovejoy owned a press that printed abolitionist literature mob burns down his press Lovejoy killed trying to defend himself Why did northerners oppose abolitionism 1 Most Northerners fear possibility of civil war Signi cant tensions between north and south Want to preserve the Union see abolitionists as a threat to that 2 Predominance of racism most whites in north are fearful on racist grounds of what would happen if there was emancipation or a slave revolt Don t want to live in a society with free blacks Want blacks to be sent back to Africa b Divisions within the Abolitionist movement Women women were involved in abolitionist movement from the start Usually held separate meetings for males and females but this broke down quickly 1 Grimke Sisters grew up in planter family decided slavery was sinful and became abolitionist speakers Travel the north on lecture circuit At rst only lectured to females but then men would come in soon they lectured to general audiences a This was an unusual and controversial thing women were not to speak in public Denounced widely in northern press for doing this along with abolitionist who allow them to do so This becomes a divisive issue early on in abolitionism i Having women speaking in public might tarnish the movement People would nd it illegitimate 2 Sojourner Truth escaped slavery active in underground railroad and abolitionist world Lecturer on slavery and womens rights Strategy 1 The question of political action a WLG is against going into politics He thinks that in a short time huge numbers of slaveowners will emancipate their slaves and kingdom of Christ will come Nothing changes fast abolitionists see their movement growing but lack of political action doesn39t make sense Some want to go into politics Garrison never agrees b Liberty Party 1840 Whigs and Democrats are not interested in abolishing slavery Abolitionist form a third party Run James Bearney who wins less than 1 of the vote Race 1 Frederick Douglass published his narrative ten years after escape In the intermediate period he joined the abolitionist and agreed with garrison Lectured on abolitionism in 1841 a Douglass was a powerful speaker 6395quot quot I appear before the immense assembly this evening as a thief and a robber I stole this head these limbs this body frommy master and ran off with themquot 2 As time goes on douglass breaks with Garrison does not believe moralsuasion is enough May be necessary for violent uprising a Publishes newspaper The North Star in 1849 i Garrison is unhappy about this Over time there is a split between white and black abolitionists 3 Henry Highland Garnet calls for greater resistance militarism revolt 1282013 Women and Libertv l Women and the declaration of independence a Coverture i Though 39men39 being created equal is taken today as a general humanity the founders were thinking of white men and propertied white men in particular 1 universal suffrage is limited to men with property until the 18205305 during Jacksonian democracy ii For women there are signi cant limits to liberty 1 African American women represent the ultimate denial of rights Lowest on the scale of liberty 2 White women in the most privileged of social classes are even highly restricted in legal rights a No right to vote b No right to speak in public c Single unmarried and widowed women have some legal rights i They can make contracts convey property have limited property ownership rights ii Married women were subject to the rights of coverture their rights were covered by the rights of their husband Their husband owned all property the wife owned and where restricted from activities by husbands lncome regarded as husbands property 1 Women had no sexual rights either in a marriage Birth control abstention from sex are incredibly limited a Over the course of the 19th century birth rates declined as women gained greater control over their sexual rights b In the 1840s and 18505 women39s social movement becomes more robust and public ll Early assertions of liberty a Frances Fanny Wright i quotpriestess of Beelzebubquot widely reviled by ministers and priests ii Scottish descent immigrated to US in 18205 travelled extensively and spoke in public 1 In her speaking tours she launched a far ranging broad critique of American society and its institutions Attacked organized religion as corrupt Criticized capitalism and advocates producer cooperatives a kind of proto Marxism followed Owensism 2 Attacked slavery advocated interracial marriage Birth control and sexual freedom in marriage for women b Working class protest i The rst American industries were in textiles that relied on young women as the base of employment 1 Lowell mill girls protest low wages wanted to meet in public to present grievances Owners wouldn39t allow them to do so Coopt the declaration of independence to assert their rights c Early phase is not a full movement i Individual acts and gures but not a popular movement lll Feminist Movement a Abolitionist movement as incubator i Critical to getting feminist movement going The abolitionist movement politicized and publicized women activists 1 Angelina and Sarah Grimke sisters from slaveholding family renounce their heritage and get involved in abolitionism Develop arguments for women39s rights through their experience with abolitionism ii Creates a space for women to start speaking in public 1 Very soon women begin speaking to mixed groups b Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Seneca Falls i Key gure in women39s rights movement ii conservative family 1 born in 1815 in upstate NY 2 father Daniel Cady was a self made man Middle class became lawyer then judge A federalist Married into patrician elite NY family the Livingstons a Aimed to marry off ECS to a blueblood family When she is 15 they send her to a boarding school the Troy Female Seminary Girls from well off backgrounds would learn proper manners and etiquette French a nishing school Not designed to send women into a profession iii Conversion 1 At Troy Female Seminary Elizabeth had a conversion experience The school is in the burned over district of the Second Great Awakening She had grown up in a Christian family but she realized she was sinful and devoted her life to jesus and entered into the world of millennial reform a Returns home but never meets someone She is 25 and it is starting to seem she is headed toward being and old maid b While visiting cousin Garrett Smith she meets fugitive slaves he was protecting as part of the underground railroad i During this visit she meets Henry Stanton iv Henry Stanton 1 Ten years older than Elizabeth Cady 2 He had been converted in the Second Great Awakening abolitionist speaker and temperance advocate 3 They marry Elizabeth kept her maiden name within her married name a fairly radical move at the time and an indication of the attitudes the couple shared v Temperance speaker 1 ECS begins speaking on temperance and begins involvement with abolitionism 2 Disagrees with husband over whether women should speak in public over abolitionism At rst she agrees but after a couple of years she changes her mind due to the in uence of Lucretia Montt vi Lucretia Mott 1 Speaker in abolitionism movement thought women should speak in public on the subject ECS comes under her tutelage and disagrees with her husband vii Disagreements with Henry 1 Public speaking becomes a major contention in the couple 2 Henry begins to become interested in political career ECS was a Garrisonian who found politics innater evi a As Henry pursued his political career he had to move around This was dif cult for ECS who was trying to raise their three children i He is not doing well in larger political circles moves to Seneca Falls in New York hoping to gain political clout in smaller area ii She does not like Seneca fas acks social life few women to talk to Mosquito ridden iii Complains to her friends of her husbands treatment of her He was patronizing and as she got more experienced his attitudes toward her wore thin 3 Lucretia Mott visits in 1848 suggests a women39s rights convention in Seneca Falls to be organized by ECS Suggests that she write a statement of grievances to be acted upon a On the eve of the convention she uses the Declaration of Independence rewrites it to address major women39s concerns i Uses the grievances against King George III very effectively b At the convention there were several speeches The original declaration did not include a resolution in favor of women having the right to vote On the second day of the convention she would include in the resolutions the right for women to vote i quotit is the duty of women in this country to secure the right to the elected franchisequot ii All other resolutions passed unanimously the right to vote only passed narrowly 1 It only passed because of a speech by Frederick Douglass who advocated women39s right to vote c Recently in the United States Seneca Falls was invoked in Barack Obama39s second inauguration address i quot we the people declare today that the most evident truths that all people are created equal just as it guided our forebears at Seneca Falls Selma and Stonewallquot N Division among women a Why did it take over 70 years for the 19th amendment to be passed i The Civil War interrupted the momentum of the movement The issue of black male suffrage divides the women39s movement ii Men do not favor the right to vote for women and many women themselves do not think that they should have the right to vote b Catherine Beecher and 39separate spheres i Middle class woman facing situation of women in cities during the market revolution do not have to spend as much time producing items for household consumption can devote more time to management of household Notices more men are becoming professionals in her social class 1 She argues that women should consider their work at home as a profession Says that these separate spheres are equally important but women39s sphere is not equally valued 2 She writes The American Woman s Home with her sister Harriet Beecher Stowe a Women now had the total primary role in raising children 3 Catherine Beecher held that women voting would be wrong because God did not create women to work in the public world c Separate spheres and race i The doctrine of separate spheres as articulated by Beecher is isolated to upper middle class white women ii Sojourner Truth Isabella Baumfree 1 Born a slave escapes at a young age Active in abolitionist and feminist movement 2 In early 18505 at women39s rights meeting stands up before a mixed crowd to heckling but rouses the crowd Rebukes idea of separate spheres as a conservative class isolated concept d Elasticity of separate spheres i Notion of women in society expands and changes over times ii That women have particular moral characteristics is quickly expanded 1 Beecher soon advocates that women become teachers because it ts with women39s domestic role a This moves them out of the home 2 With temperance women have the duty and responsibility to speak out against alcohol abuse because of how it effects the home a This gives women the accepted chance to speak in public 3 On the eve of women gaining the vote many articulate the need for women to vote because of their role in the household That women because of their special nature are needed to clean society up 1302013 Manifest Destiny and the War Against Mexico I The situation in the West in the early 18405 a Oregon i Joint occupancy with Great Britain 1818 1 Spanish claim to area is over northern boundary recedes to 42nCI parallel Russia has given up its claims 2 United States claims up to 450 3 Declare joined occupancy with Great Britain Both country s citizens are allowed to settle a On the ground British are on the ground with Hudson bay and the fur trade b This occupancy is stable until the 1840s ii Oregon Fever early 1840s 1 In 1841 75 families leave independence Missouri on the Oregon trail and settle in the northern Willamette valley 2 By 1843 875 families cross the Oregon trail numbers continue to increase 3 Situation signi cantly changed in Oregon Impetus to solve who owns the Oregon country becomes important a Settlers are all americans don39t like British want to join the Union b Pressure mounts for resolution to Oregon question in favor of the United States b Texas L lndpendence 1 Part of spain until 1821 Mexican revolution wins independence and Texas becomes a part of Mexico a In late 18205305 American Anglos start moving into Texas i They are large landholders with slaves mostly 1 By early 18305 they are getting restless start demanding some autonomy 2 1835 Anglo Texans declare their independence from Mexico ii Alamo and San Jacinto 1836 1 President Santa Anna leads assault on Texas 2 Anglos defeated at Alamo 3 Months later Texan forces led by Sam Houston defeats Santa Anna in April defeat Santa Anna a Treaty signed that gives Texas its independence iii Republic of Texas 1836 1 Becomes its own country ll Election ofJames K Polk a Expansionism i Reoccupation of Oregon and reannexation of Texas 1 Platform when he runs for office is quotwhat do I stand for stand for the reoccupation of Oregon and the re annexation of Texasquot a Implies that US once held Oregon though it never did b He lied in claiming that Texas was included in the Louisiana purchase ii Polk is really after California 1 No gold yet but Polk sees necessity of California to the union Manifest Destiny a John O Sullivan 1845 i Coined the term in an article Sullivan was a democratic party journalist Dems were in favor of aggressive expansion 1 quotthe right of our manifest destiny to overspread and possess the whole continent which providence has given us for the great experiment of liberty and federated self governmentquot 2 God is committed to the success of the United States 3 Manifest obvious and happening in the present b Thomas Hart Benton 1846 i Democratic senator from Missouri very expansionist ii The caucasian race in oregon have spread a human group supposedly from central asia They have constantly moved west conquered other people created civilization spread across the United States and is now in a position to complete world history It is now in a position to do commerce with China and invigorate their ancient predecessors 1 Benton lays out a racial hierarchy with Blacks and Indians as the lowest rungs 2 No one denounced this kind of speech it was what everyone believed The united States was a white nation and US political leaders believed it to be so The United States is an undertaking of the Caucasian race IV Resolution of the Oregon questions a 54 40 or ght i A bluster threatening to go to war for the territory but set the stage for a compromise with Britain and got the territory up to the 49th parallel V War against Mexico a Border dispute i Early 1845 Congress votes to annex Texas 1 Anglos who had the revolution wanted to become part of the Union Early 1845 is the moment for this a In the past Texas wanted to come into the US at times but was rejected so not to upset the balance between slave and free states ii Sabine river is Mexico39s claim for the Texan southern border iii The United States claimed it was the Rio Grande iv Mexico is willing to agree to a boundary at the Nueces River V In early 1845 Polk dispatches troops that cross the Nueces and take up a position b Diplomacy i Polk dispatches John Slidell to Mexico City 1 Says that if you accept the Rio Grande the US will take over Texan property claims Will purchase New Mexico and California for a handsome sum 2 Mexican government will not even listen to him Even receiving him would recognize the legitimacy of Texas 3 When polk learns that Slidell has been rebuffed he moves troops further south to the Rio Grande a Clash with Mexican troops the war begins ii Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 US acquires New Mexico Texas Arizona and California iii The problem now is the possibility of new territory provoking enormous debate over slavery in the new areas 212013 Sectional Crisis 18501856 l War against Mexico causes a new sectional crisis a Wilmot Proviso free Soil i David Wilmot obscure member of the house of representatives Introduced a provision for money used to ght the Mexican war 1 Slavery cannot exist in any territory gained by the Mexican war or no funding for the war a Congress would not pass this proviso but it put the issue of slavery39s expansion at the forefront of the Mexican American war ii Free Soil provision any territory taken during the war is going to be free soil no slavery 1 Many people take his side but it is defeated in the HOuse b Extension of Missouri Compromise Line 36quot0 3039 i Some say that the most logical action is to extend the line that was settled in the Missouri compromise Extend the line to the paci c ocean c Popular sovereignty i Democratic in nature but very dangerous for the new territories ii Let the people who settle the new territories decide whether or not the territory will become free or slave d Slaveowners39 rights i John C Calhoun famous powerful congressman ln nulli cation crisis in early 1830s said that states have the right to nullify federal law 1 He takes a pro slavery position Since the territories are common property of all citizens and since slaveowners have the right to own slaves under the constitution it would be unconstitutional to abridge those property rights a All of the other solutions are unconstitutional according to Clay because they violate property rights ll Compromise of 1850 a Henry Clay quotGreat Compromiserquot i Emerges at moments of con ict between north and south to form a compromise on behalf of the idea of keeping the union intact Key gure in resolving both nulli cation crisis and Missouri compromise ii Daniel Webster similar congressman works alongside Clay on these compromises b Provisions i California as a free state 1 By 1850 CA population has increased so rapidly that they don39t need to go through a territorial period Gold rush brings in a massive population 2 Advantageous to northerners ii Utah and New Mexico Territories popular sovereignty 1 Two new territories from within Mexican cession They would be subject to popular sovereignty 2 Middle position iii Abolish slave trade is District of Columbia 1 Many northerners felt like it was unseemly to have the sale of human beings in the capital 2 Northern advantage iv Stronger Fugitive Slave law 1 Stronger enforcement for recaptured slaves 2 Concession given to southerners lll Weaknesses of the Compromise of 1850 a Fails to solve problem of slavery in territory only delays it i In four years the Compromise of 1850 breaks down over territorial problems b Creates new problems Fugitive Slave aws i Provisions and consequences 1 Greater power to save owners and slave hunters to track and recapture escaped slaves a Adjudication of whether or not and African American was the slave went to a magistrate not a trial i If the magistrate decides that the individual is not the slave in question they are paid ve dollars If they conclude that it is the slave they were paid ten dollars 2 Any citizen of any northern state would have to assist slave owners and their agents in apprehending a slave a Summoned to deputization for save catching b Forces northerners in the service of southern slave owners in free 50 states Creates considerable resentment among white northerners who were not abolitionists Being drafted into slave catching was unconstitutional ii Publicized injustice 1 In 1851 highly publicized case in Indiana Slave had escaped 16 years before suddenly his former master showed up and takes him back a People in the north found this kind of thing to be odious criminal turns people in north more against southerners c Growing antislavery sentiment in North i Objections to extension of slavery 1 The majority of people in the north will never become abolitionist but they do object to the notion of the south becoming stronger ii Slave Power 1 Northerners feared that the south was controlled by a small slaveowning aristocracy was corrupting notions of American liberty 2 Expansion of slavery in the west would give them so much power that they will continue to pursue this route legalize slavery in the north a Possibly extend slavery to whites White workers wont be able to compete with slave labor b More northerners see things through this economic lens than the moral lens of abolitionism Slavery is a threat to white liberty and wellbeing iii Antislavery and antiblack sentiment in the territories iv Repugnance to slavery itself 1 Harriet Beecher Stowe Uncle Tom s Cabin a Hugely popular book Highlighted the brutality of the institution of slavery b By 1853 it has sold 1 million copies c Northern readers became more aware that slavery was an institution that harmed human beings i Not ready to say we should abolish slavery but more sympathetic to abolitionism lV Kansas Nebraska act 1854 a Introduced by Stephen Douglas i He introduced the Kansas Nebraska act and gets it passed ii KNA organized remaining territories in Louisiana Purchase under the principal of popular sovereignty 1 Nulli es the Missouri Compromise line 2 Douglas was trying to keep the democratic party intact Dem party had a northern and southern wing but sectional pressures were pulling the political parties apart a Douglas needs to prevent this for his presidential runs b Organization of Unorganized Territory under pop sovereignty would make southern democrats happy but says that northern territories will be organized as free because cotton can39t be grown in northern areas iii Northerners are furious over the destruction of Missouri Compromise incredibly unpopular 1 Seemed to people in the North that Douglas had been captured by the Slave Power and this was one of their plots to expand slavery 2 Encourages northern states to combat Fugitive Slave Law a Begin passing laws in northern states called personal liberty laws Legal for people to refuse to cooperate in apprehension of slaves b Confusion in Kansas i Two territorial constitutions Two territorial capitals 1 A few settlers and native people in KA but once Douglas passes the law people pour in 2 Most are people with strong opinions on slaver a In New England abolitionist groups form settlement organizations on behalf of anti slavery b Missourians have crossed the border armed to defend the territory for slavery ii Election for Territorial Convention 1 Pro slave forces win because of Missourians and electoral fraud 2 Anti slavery forces say it is a sham 3 Exposes the problem with popular sovereignty 4 Anti slavery hold their own election set a new capital and write a separate constitution 5 Lecompton is Slave capital Lawrence is free capital V Bleeding Kansas and Washington DC a May 21 1856 Sack of Lawrence i Escalating violence in Kansas culminates in a vicious attack on Lawrence by proslavery militia Burn the place and loot it b May 22 1856 i Preston Brooks SC attacks Charles Sumner Mass 1 Sumner gave speech called quotthe crime against Kansasquot attacks Senator from South Carolina as someone whose mistress was the 39harlot of slavery39 A dire insult to Brook39s mentor 2 Brooks beats sumner severely Breaks his cane on Sumner Sumner not able to return to the senate for a long time c May 2425 1856 i John Brown fervent abolitionist Had gone with New England settler societies to Kansas Fought for abolition in Kansas 1 After Sacking of Lawrence John Brown decides to take matter in his own hands a Believes in the shedding of blood for the atonement for slavery Sees himself as instrument of God for the purpose of spilling blood i Recruits 8 young men Goes to pro slaver settlement Potawatamee Creek 1 Goes door to door shooting heads of households Hacks up sons Kills 1012 people in the Potawatomie Massacre ii Guerilla War Bleeding Kansas 1 Mini civil war in Kansas as the sectional crisis is playing out there 2 The Civil War is ve years away but its prelude is indicitave of the bloodshed to come 242013 Coming of the Civil War I Impact of KansasNebraska Act on national politics a Political realignment i WhigDemocratic system replaced by RepublicanDemocract system 1 Formerly Whig and democratic parties ran across sectional divide of the North and South Republicans and Democrats are strongly sectional 2 KA NB act moves parties to split and divide along the MasonDixon line a Republicans are the party of the north Democrats still exist in north but lose all power irrelevant b Whig party disintegrates c No reason to compromise anymore when parties have strict sectional identity Formerly parties needed compromise to get northern and southern members to fall in line b 1854 Election i Entire congress up for elections not a presidential year ii Democratic losses 1 Northerners are still angry with Stephen Douglas repeal of Missouri compromise Northern democrats are pushed from of ce as they are seen as tools of the Slave power a Prior to this election Dems held 91 seats after they have 25 Lose almost 34 of their seats in the North i Little basis for democratic party for the north Stephen douglas tries to hang on c KnowNothing Party i Antiimmigrant nativist party 1 Speci cally opposed Irish immigration due to potato famine 2 Native born protestant Americans are unhappy with Irish immigration because the Irish are Catholics a Very few Catholics in US at this time high degree of antiCatholicism Fear that Irish will bring foreign domination from the Pope Believed that the Pope wanted to take over US with Catholic immigrants i Emissary from Vatican in US protestant newspaper claims he is here to quotrivet ItaIian chains upon usquot ii Threat of tyranny so great from Papa conspiracy required absolute secrecy of membership of party If members were asked if they were a part of the party they would claim quotthey knew nothingquot secret handshakes pass phrases etc 1 Some northern democrats vote with Know Nothings d Republican Party i Organized in 1854 in response to KANB act ii Ideas of the Republicans 1 Do not stand for abolition of slavery in the south a Abe Lincoln said in 1854 that they wanted the territories for free white people If slavery is in the new territories you cannot have this system Economic competition is his argument not moral opposition to slavery b Allow more liberal policy for granting land to free white settlers in West Eventuay becomes Homestead Act during the war iii SIogan quotfree so Free Iabor free menquot iv Sources of support 1 Supporters of earlier abolitionistantislavery parties a Liberty Party 1840 and 1844 gained some strength but replaced b Free 50 Party 1848 and 1852 becomes abolitionist party Joins with republicans 2 Know Nothings 3 Whigs and Democrats in the North a Some of both of these defeated parties move towards the Republican party b Overall 1854 represents a massive dramatic rapid electorate transition v Election of 1856 1 John C Fremont Rep 114 2 James Buchanan Dem 171 ll Further Polarization a Dred Scott vSandford 1857 i The case Dred Scott is a former slave who sued his transitioned owner for freedom Scott39s previous master had taken Dred Scott in to free state of Illinois and territory of Wisconsin where slavery was illegal under Missouri compromise and put to work Sanford had lost previous cases appeals to supreme court ii The decision 54 split with 9 different opinions rationalized 1 Black people are not citizens slave or free a Northerners found this reprehensible b SC could have dismissed on jurisdictional grounds but continued with the substantive issues in case 2 Missouri compromise is unconstitutional a Scott39s claim regarding territory was wrong Missouri compromise was unconstitutional on same grounds ofJohn C Calhoun Territories are common property of all citizens of US so cannot abridge property rights of some citizens b This also means that popular sovereignty is illegal Any impediment to slavery is infringing on property rights b Impact in North i Slave power north sees decision as slave power capturing the judicial branch of the US 1 Politicians begin to see this as the end of the status quo Cannot continue on this way 2 William Seward39s irrepressible con ict speech a Two labor systems of the US are coming to an unstoppable con ict cannot have it both ways 3 Lincoln39s quotHouse Dividedquot speech a In race against Douglas for Illinois Senate seat b Says that US will become either all free or all slave not compromise between these two systems c South39s view of situation i See themselves as the victims of northern aggression 1 Think that north is bent on prohibiting their way of life that North will move against them to destroy slavery ii John Brown 1 Raid on Harper39s Ferry 1858 a After Potawatomie Massacre Brown begins to conspire to create a slave revolt Spends time consulting with Northern abolitionists ln discussions with Frederick Douglass Douglass doubts the feasibility of a slave revolt working and advises against it Still Brown gets some support from white abolitionsits in the North b Brown and 22 compatriots move on federal arsenal on Potomac at Harper39s Ferry i Go to nearby plantations to arm slaves with seized armamaments 1 None of the slaves were willing to do as John Brown said No grassroots planning 2 Brown is apprehended tried in Virginia under Virginia law for treason Hanged iii Reaction to John Brown 1 Previously had thought that most northerners thought that Brown was deranged After the raid northern intellectuals and politicians come out in support of Brown claim he was hero Becomes a martyr in the north a Southerners see this advocacy of terrorist activities of Brown and proof that North has not connection with southern way of life See North as aggressively hostile d Election of 1860 i Democratic party already mostly a southern party splits into northern and southern branches with separate candidates 1 Stephen Douglas northern dem 29 12 electoral 2 John Breckinridge southern Dem 18 72 electoral a secessionist 3 Abe Lincoln Republican 40 180 electoral 4 John Bell Constitutional Union 12 39 electoral a Party of compromise e Civil War i Election of Lincoln is nal nail in coffin that the north is out to abolish slavery 1 Immediately after the election seven southern states hold secession conventions and leave union 2 After Lincolns inauguration Lincoln says he does not accept their right to leave but he makes it clear that he doesn39t want Civil War or to abolish slavery in the South ii Fort Sumter 1 South Carolina move to gain control of the fort res on the fort in early april of 1861 262013 Abraham Lincoln Slaves and Emancipation l War aims a South i See document 12 1 Put themselves in position of revolutionaries Say that for far less cause than this the founding fathers rebelled against King George III ii Protect the right to have slaves b North in 1861 Preserve the Union i Regard seccession as illegitimate Preserving the union is the duty of the federal government 1 This is not yet a war that is to end slavery at this point c North in 1863 End Slavery i War aims change in 1863 ii Increasingly clear that north will win the war push abolitionist agenda ll Lincoln view on slavery and race a quotHonest Abequot i Lincolns role in the Civil War and his untimely assassination after its conclusion has encouraged mythologizing the President ii The idea of 39honest abe comes after his death Folk stories about Lincoln as a young boy 1 Was a clerk someone overpaid their bill by a few cents young Lincoln realized their mistake and walked eight miles to return the petty sum iii Lincoln was a politician and ambitious man His law partner said that Lincoln39s ambition was a little engine that knew no rest b quotThe Great Emancipatorquot i The image of Lincoln towering over the evils of slavery and emancipates slaves all on his own is a modern myth that makes Lincoln a superhuman gure 1 A fable recounts that at one time Lincoln went to New Orleans and went to the slave market saw a slave girl being sold The sight seared him quotthe iron entered my soul and from that point on I was resolved to rid us of this evilquot a Likely a fabrication created by early historians ii Lincoln kept his abolitionist beliefs quiet as he ran for various offices until he was secure in the presidency iii The Emancipator myth does not correspond to Lincolns political career 1 Never said much against the fugitive slave act 2 ln debates with Stephen Douglas he regularly said that he would not oppose slavery 3 He did think that the extension of slavery into the western territories would be bad for the country Viewed slavery in general as a moral evil a Thought that the best solution was to send slaves back to Africa Did not think US could be a biracial society and did not think that blacks were fully the equals of whites 4 Lincoln would adjust the racial equality terms of his message depending on where he was in Illinois c Lincoln39s mind a house divided i Lincoln was a man of his time He was a complicated politician III Lincoln39s goals in 1861 a Major considerations i The question of slavery early on he said to Horace Greely editor of an abolitionist paper New York tribune 1 If I could save the union by freeing no slaves I would do it If I could save it by freeing all the slaves I would do that If I could save the union by freeing some slaves I would do that ii Border States 1 Absolutely critical that border states stay in the union The confederacy could choke off the Mississippi take the capital and advance their lines into the North a Had to be careful about slavery early on in the war to ensure that these states would not secede iii Conservative Northerners 1 Willing to pay taxes ght support federal government if war becomes about slavery 2 A war to preserve the union will keep these people in Lincoln39s camp IV Pressure on Lincoln for emancipation a From abolitionists and radical Republicans i Frederick Douglass was putting pressure on Lincoln alongside other African Americans in the North 1 White abolitionist were doing this as well inside and outside of the government a Radical republicans want to go farther than Lincoln and make it war against slavery i Secretary of State William Seward pushed Lincoln ii Thaddeus Stephens in the House of Representatives was a major radical republican b From slaves i In 1861 slaves are becoming aware of Lincoln39s election and the coming war ii Instantly slaves see this as the realization of the hope for freedom FinaIIy deliverance was at hand 1 In 1862 Union armies moving into Virginia Encounter black man on a plantation He had gotten word that Union army was approaching so he went up to the master39s room and put on his clothes informed the master he was taking over 2 Self emancipation like this is encountered across the south 3 Slaves ee north to get behind Union lines a In 1850 1000 sIave a year escaped through Underground railroad b In 1862 tens of thousands were escaping every month 4 Some slaves escaping behind Union lines would become soldiers in the Union army V The Emancipation Proclamation a The military situation 1862 i Lincoln begins to consider issuing an Emancipation proclamation However there is a question of timing 1 Military situation is not going well for the north ii Despite North39s economic advantages the South has superior commanders 1 George McClellan supreme ground commander of Union army attempts to take Richmond VA General Robert E Lee defeats him Lincoln fears that Great Britain will recognize the confederacy Lincoln does not want to issue an emancipation proclamation because it will look like an act of desperation iii September of 1862 Antietam 1 2 3 b Provisions Lee moves north to invade the Union Union forces block him Not really a strong Union victory but it did cause Lee to retreat and blocked an invasion into the north This was suf cient victory for the Emancipation proclamation Antietam was a horri cally bloody battle 5k killed 18k wounded in one day a Not the bloodiest battle of the war b Nearly 1 million men died in the Civil War More than combined casualties of both world wars c People believed the war would be a quick affair Bull Run actually had spectators i Goes into effectJanuary 1 1863 ii Applied only to areas in open revolt Confederate States 1 Border states allowed to maintain slavery 2 3 Slaves within areas that the Union army seized would be emancipated Essentially the emancipation proclamation did not free a single slave a It did signal that this would be a war to end slavery c Slave Responses i Immediately embrace the proclamation ii Former slaves are forming Lincoln leagues and celebrating deliverance d Impact of the emancipation proclamation i Strengthened resolve and morale of the north 1 Gave the war a highly moral dimension ii African Americans in the military 1 Freed slaves and free African Americans were called to serve in combat in the union army a At rst they were in construction brigades and secondary positions b Massachusetts 54th famous all black unit i Appealed to his superiors to allow his unit to ght in combat ii Played key role in attack on Fort Wagner in South Carolina Took heavy losses but took the fort 1 Became a major news story celebrating heroism of black unit 2 Lincoln commented on the importance of black servicemen in the war effort a Having black soldiers and seamen is not a question of taste but of physical forcewhich can be measured and estimated Keep it and you can save the union throw it away and lose it e End of the Civil War i Charleston South Carolina 1 Heart of the confederacy most prominent city of the rst state to secede No state was more radically for secession than South Carolina 2 As union armies approached Charleston they saw slaves taking over plantation estates 3 News stories reported black children dancing on the grave ofJohn C Calhoun singing 39John Brown39s body39 2112013 Possibilities of Reconstruction I What would freedom really look like after the Civil War a Reconstruction period 18651877 I ll Freed People immediately after emancipation a New attitudes i Letter ofJourdon Anderson to his ex master ii New names basic human right something momentous had happened and needed to express it in terms of their self description 1 Some male slaves named themselves after famous americans from history alexander Hamilton Thomas Jefferson George Washington or names that expressed their desires Chance Great Sojourner Truth a Should be addressed formally by whites Mister or Misses Smith 2 Former practice of stepping off the sidewalk to allow white people to pass is not as accepted iii Gun ownership many former slaves acquire rearms drink liquor when they wish wear the clothes they want own dogs 1 For women dress was important Freed women want to wear colorful scarves parasols b Migrations i People begin to move more slaves had signi cant restrictions on movement 1 Some didn39t have a particular destination just travelled because they had the freedom to do so 2 Most had purposes however many sought out family members who had been sold off a Lots of freed people on the road in the immediate aftermath of the war searching for taken relatives ii General shift of freed people moving from rural areas to cities in the South 1 Small shift but still a signi cant trend that keeps pace 2 Belief that freedom might be fuller in urban areas Planters and old attitudes left behind in the country 3 More opportunity for work Domestic service manufacturing c Churches i African Methodist Episcopal Church 1 Key institution of the African American community 2 Underground churches from slavery era emerge as public open institutions a Organize formally erect buildings i Formerly slaves attended white churches sat in the back subjected to sermons about obedience ii New Churches 1 ln Charleston SC within a year of the end of the civil war there were 20 black churches where none had existed before 2 Political expression of the Christian message Justice and Freedom have new meanings within these new churches d Education i Necessity very few slaves given opportunity to read literacy 1 Many realize that need to educate freed slaves or they will remain an underclass 2 In 1865 spontaneous formation of organizations of freed people who are promoting education setting up schools a Former slaves are lacking in capital but band together to create schools b By 1869 freed people had raised 1million toward educann ii Freedman39s Bureau 1 Federal institution Funds sent to south 2 Recruits northern teachers to go to the south and teach blacks a Largely white women are recruited b Many come with paternalistic ideas of white superiority but others come with genuine humanitarian concerns iii White women from the north as quotsoldiersquot 1 Many feel that this is how they can serve the cause of the nation in the way that their male counterparts had served the nation in ghting in the Civil War a Many had lost relatives in the war Some had served as nurses e Politics and the right to vote i Beginning in 1865 and beyond organizations formed to lobby for the right to vote for freed men 1 Write petitions often citing declaration of independence demanding enfranchisement a Emphasize history their service to the nation i Service as soldiers during the Revolution ii Service as soldiers during Civil War ii As freemen petition for the right to vote it creates a division within the ranks of women advocates in the womens movement 1 Right of women to vote has been put to the side as sectional con ict and abolitionism incread 2 Now talking about giving black men the right to vote stirs up debate within the womens movement a Priority should be women not blacks others think that blacks need right to vote secured lll Land and Labor a 39forty acres and a mule i Many freed people took for granted the fact that in order to be truly free they would need their own land 1 Seemed pretty clear that they didn39t need as much land as the planters Never demanded 5k acres per family 40 acres would be sufficient 2 The planter class has a monopoly on land need to seize their property in order to promote freedom of freed slavells a Considered just and reasonable because a they were traitors and led to bloodiest war and b because they had worked the land and therefore deserved it ii For former slave owners looking for a new economic system that looked and operated like slavery as much as possible 1 No land redistribution 2 Labor system as close to slavery as possible Low wages forced longterm contracts a Strikes illegal b Failure of land redistribution i 1880 in Georgia blacks are 47 of population own 2 of land similar in throughout the rest of the south 1 There was an opportunity for greater egalitarianism but it failed 2 Republican party is strong in 1865 could push land redistribution bu t he don39t do it ii Republican opposition 1 Thaddeus Stevens a Advocated for land redistribution called for seizure of 400 million acres Believes that southerners had not claim to land because they wer traitors 2 Property rights a Many republicans feared that seizure of private property would undermine constitutional bounda es i Republicans weary of radical organizations who speak of redistribution b Sait that freed people needed to work for what they go Bootstrap pulling if you are black 3 Homestead Act 182 a Promised 160 acres to anyone willing to work that land b Shows double work for freed people c Barriers for freedpeople to acquire land on their own i Republican party suggests that blacks should work to improve their station ii Wages are very low iii Even if you save enough money white people wont sell it to blacks iv Loans many have to borrow money to begin new enterprise v As a result freed people remain landless d Sharecropping i Plantation owners wanted a system of low wages and longterm contracts ii Sharecropping was close to slavery 1 Give a majority portion of crop yield to landlord can sell off remaineder 2 Because renters don39t have capital and need equiptment andimals and seed they have to borrow money from wealthy a When they pay their yearly debt they do not have enough to repay their debt b quotdebt peonagequot live in quasi slave system 2132013 I Presidential Reconstruction 186567 a Lincoln39s assassination April 14 1865 b President Andrew Johnson i Chosen in 1864 to try to reach out to more conservative northerners and send a message to the south that once the civil war ended he would not be punitive 1 Johnson a democrat former slave owner ii Leniency toward the South 1 Lincoln wasn39t going to be a radical toward the South but Johnson favored the south much more than Lincoln would have 2 He didn39t call the process reconstruction he termed it restoration a Reconstruction implies signi cant changes in the South They had left the Union Slavery was going to end and political and civil rights would change Potential land redistribution Blood had not been shed for nothing b Restoration implies a reinstatement of the past with as little change as possible i Leaders of the confederate government were traitors renounced the country Johnson proposed a lenient approach to that issue Said anyone could come in provided they took a loyalty oath 1 Very wealthy powerful southerners were excluded These were a minority Required a presidential pardon 3 States would have to ratify the 13th amendment that s all they had to do to rejoin the Union c Radical Republican opposition to Johnson i Some call for land con scation most don39t though they want fundamental social change ii Don t want to punish southern leaders forever but want real change in the South d Southern states readmission i By December 1865 all states have been readmitted Have legislatures that are in session ii Black Codes 1 New southern legislators pass laws that try to move the political and economic situation as close to slavery as possible a Restrictions of freedom of movement b Require labor contracts If you were not working on a plantation in a rural area you would be subject to arrest 2 To attack the black codes Republicans in congress pass civil rights legislation that counters the codes Johnson vetoes the legislation Congress overrides him a Republicans also draft and pass a new amendment the 14th amendment to strike against Black Codes to ensure that citizenship means something e Alexander Stephens Senator from Georgia i US congress comes into session with Vice President of CSA as a Senator 1 Republicans nd this outrageous ii Johnson who already had a lenient policy pardoned anyone who asked for it ll Radical Reconstruction 18671874 a Reconstruction Acts attack by republicans on presidential reconstruction i Military districts reorganize southern states deny their readmission Declared as a state of territories and organized under military occupation Enforce Civil Rights laws ii Loyalty oaths many southerners have to take these iii 14th and 15th Amendment must pass these amendments for state readmission 1 14th no state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privilieges or immunities of citizens of the United States a Johnson advises southern states not to ratify the 14th amendment and they don39t 2 15th all men have right to vote no discrimination based on race b Division among women39s rights activists about the 15th amendment i Elizabeth Cady Stanton National Womens Suffrage Association Against 1 Opposes 15th amendment because she thinks it should include the right to vote for women Organizes group to push this message ii Lucy Stone American Women suffrage Association For 1 Favors the 15th amendment Supported by Frederick Douglass Says this is the Negro s hour c Andrew Johnson vs congress i Brewing constitutional crisis Johnson39s veto is overridden by congress Removes Edward Stanton secretary of war from overseeing the military reconstruction of the south Does so unconstitutionally ii Impeachment of PresidentJohnson these acts get the Congress infuriated 1 House indicts Johnson Avoids expulsion by one vote in the Senate d Republican Power in the South i Johnson has no chance in 3968 election Grant wins ii Republican party gaining power in the South 1 Some republicans being elected in the South are freedmen a They are voting in signi cant numbers and elected 2 Scaawags republicans who are white southerners who support the party 3 Carpetbaggers people who have moved down from the north take up residence in the South and become republican leaders a Political enemies see them as loathsome opportunists who take advantage of southern suffering 4 Most republicans elected to of ce are white a Two black senators 20 representatives One governor who assumes of ce iii Corruption 1 Southerners charge that republicans are corrupt because black people took control and they believed they were un t to rule 2 Most historians note that there was considerable graft in postcivil war reconstruction but were not worse than what was going on in the North a These governments made real contributions Carried out necessary economic and infrastructural work i Railroads built throughout the south had to raise taxes for this reason ii Republican state governments in the south also made signi cant strides in funding educa on 1 In 1860 literacy rate for blacks in 10 2 By 1890 literacy is around 90 Ill Reestablishment of White Supremacist Democratic Rule 187077 a White supremacist violence i Primary vehicle for restoring white democrat rule in the South b Ku Klux Klan i One of several secret paramilitary societies ii Often lower middle class white people Political leaders not a part of these groups but provided cover iii Informal militia of the democratic party iv Essentially a terrorist organization 1 Abram Colby Black legislator taken to woods stripped and beaten for three hours 2 Random executions 3 Night riding stage midnight raids on houses 4 Jack Dupree president of Repblican party club in Mississippi Klan cut his throat disemboweled him in front of his wife c Colfax Louisiana Massacre i Democrats claim that they won the election ii Black legislators who legitimately won the election prepared for armed whites to come in and seize the legislature by force iii Massacre ensue whites kill most of the black legislators kill all prisoners d Ku Klux Klan Act 1871 legislation helps break up the Klan but it regroups e Retreat from reconstruction i Agenda ful lled decide that keeping military force in the South forever is bad Let free people fend for themselves ii Disillusionment with Reconstruction 1 Its not going well and some believe that giving African Americans power might be a bad idea 2 Horace Greely advises free people to quotroot hog or diequot make it on you own 3 John Shepard Pike The Prostrate State toured the south in the 18705 Civilization has been attened in the South by Black governments iii Response to Class con ict in the North causes conservatism to grow in Northerners 1 Worker39s demands for 8 hour day Major movements for legislation for this a Upper classes oppose this on rights of property 2 Economic Depression in 1873 a Signi cant class con ict riots strikes in northern cities b Response to this especially in view of events in Europe Paris Commune creates rst fears of communism c As upper class northerners experience class con ict in the North they are less inclined to support reconstruction in the South 3 By mid 1870s Northerners are prepared to abandon reconstruction IV Election of 1876 End of Reconstruction a Rutherford B Hayes Republican 479 popular 165 electoral b Samuel Tilden Democrat 51 popular 184 electoral c 20 Contested Electoral votes i Some state legislators could not decide on body of electors ii Congress sets up special commission of 15 members 8 Republican 7 Democrats Vote on strict party lines iii Hayes gets all 20 votes wins by single electoral vote d The Bargain of 1877 i Democrats agree to Hayes if Republicans end reconstruction Industrial Capitalim I How the Civil War stimulated economic growth a Financing capital accumulation i Financing the civil war changed the way the economy worked in the United States 1 Issued bonds and loans to private investors a After the civil war the bonds were due and paid US and UK businessmen gained considerable pro ts from these investments They would then invest this pro t in large capital enterprises rail industries b Western Expansion i Homestead Act 1862 1 Republican party legislation Sets up arrangement where family heads can claim 160 acres of public lands for free if they improve the land for ve years a This encourages massive settlement after the war b Also encourages corrupt practices of industrial Iandgrabbing c Railroad expansion i 1869 completion of the rst transcontinental railroad 1 The two decades before the civil war it was possible to build a transcontinental railroad but politics got in the way a The placement of the railroad will greatly bene t the region of the country where it is placed Louisiana to California Chicago to San Fransisco i The whole point of the KANB act and Stephen Douglas popular sovereignty scheme was to secure a railroad through lllinois b Defeat of the political power of the south nulls these considerations c First transcon rail joins Chicago and San Fran ll Railroads and economic development a quotStandard timequot i Before the railroads the position of the sun determined what time of day it was ii National railroad schedules need a standard measure of time Four time zones created to facilitate rail schedules 1 Not until WWI that the government of cially adopts Standard Time b Agricultural expansion i Land policy and rail make it possible for many new areas for agriculture in the west 1 Wheat production is signi cant 2 Corn is grown as a market crop predominantly feed for animals 3 Grange and ranch land put into livestock production a In Oregon Sheep and cattle east of cascades Wheat production in western areas c Rails iron and steel i Secondary industries for rails ii lron production given massive boost for great demand from railraod d Iron and Steel Coal i Coal mining increases in the east for the making of steel and fueling trains e Reduced Shipping Costs i Massive rail system makes shipping cost and times signi cantly less ii People and goods moving across the country at unprecedented rate Changes concepts of time and space lll Case Study Andrew Carnegie a Bio born in Scotland father was a weaver in artisanal system of production Impact of power looms in Britain pushes his dad out of work Comes to US looking for opportunity Andrew was 13 when he arrived First works in bobbin factory then sells newspapers Gets a job as a secretary for the Pennsylvanian railroad while still in his teens Works up his way to superintendent for the railroad By 1872 at about 40 years old he had become very wealthy because he had invested his earnings pro tably i Decided to invest his money into the steel industry in its early years ii Carnegie said he wanted to make something not just be an investor Applies his knowledge of business management to the entire process of steel industry b Processes and Production of Steel i Study costs gets a broad overview ii Reduce costs most ef cient reduction is replacing skilled workers with machines Knowledgeable skilled workers can be replaced by mechanization and semiskilled workers iii Invest in latest tech goes against what most steel magnates were thinking Newest tech as soon as it comes out Quick replacement of parts will return a better investment iv Work machines and men very hard willing to break machines down replace them Runs three shifts instead of one Constant production c Pay off i First ton of steel cost him 56 ten years later it cost him 12 ii Sets pattern of how to do things People emulate the Carnegie system d Philanthropy and inheritance taxes i Advocates philanthropy funds libraries in cities and small towns that cannot afford it ii Proponent of steep inheritance taxes Thought that it was only fair that everyone grow up with very little Wealth should not be totally inherited People should start out on an equal playing eld iii quotduty of a wealthy man is to live a modest and unostentatious lifequot lV Case Study The Disassembly Line Hogs to the Slaughter a Porkopolis Cincinnati s nickname used all parts of the hog except the squeal V How Business Firms got larger in the late 18005 a Case Study John D Rockefeller and the Standard Oil Company i Oil re neries 1 Drilling for petroleum across the country In the late 19th c it is for re nement into kerosene for lamps and cooking ii Oil Fields 1 Companies would own the elds and then sell to re neries who would then sell to retailers iii Rockefeller 1 Decides to buy up elds re neries and distributors Controls production costs and is able to cut them signi cantly 2 Monopolistic logic Rockefeller wants to eliminate all competition 3 He never controls all re neries but has many of them a Moves on to buy up oil elds to gain even greater control over the industry and keep all pro t in house b Eventually moves to buy the retailers Fueling stations controlled in a vertical and horizontal monopoly iv The object is control over as much of production as possible and drive everyone out of business b Case Study National Biscuit Company biscuits are crackers i Late 18905 NBC decides to buy up as much biscuit production as possible ii Economies of scale iii Marketing and Branding 1 quotUneeda Biscuitquot creating a slogan apply a national advertising campaign Add and emblem and patriotism and you will sell 2 Barnum39s animal Crackers use entertainment value of Barnum circus to sell food to children 3 Develop other products becomes Nabisco VI Justi cations for growing inequality in the Gilded Age a Gilded outwardly golden hides mundane impoverished interior i Americans troubled by ostentatious displays of wealth while many are desperately poor b Social Darwinism i Charles Darwin Origin ofthe Species 1859 1 Applies theory of evolution and competition of nature to social groups Species adapt to environments and the weak die out People take this idea and apply it to society a Society works in the same way as natural selection quotsurvival of the ttestquot ii Herbert Spencer 1 Gives voice to social Darwinism 2 Says the reason we have inequality of wealth is because the wealthiest are the ttest gone through process the proves their tness Signi cant numbers of poor people are the detritus doomed to die 3 Educating the poor is tampering with nature Creates more un t people 4 Powerful argument that says that inequality is natural iii Inequality in a democracy 1 Due to the nature of the system inequality must be rationally justi ed in order to be maintained a Growing concerns about wealth inequality is at odds with principle of human equality 2 People need to defend the system use social Darwinism as the explanation for exploitation and wealth disparity a Making inequality natural based on evolution makes inequality inevitable and unopposable b Those who are most t accumulate the most wealth Helping the poor in counterevolutionary harms society s natural order c Social Darwinism not only applies to socioeconomic condition but more easily applies to race c Rags to Riches i Horatio Alger proli c American author Famous for his stories that suggest an open system of opportunity for those willing to work hard 1 Son of a minister too sickly for Civil War service for the Union becomes a minister instead Thrown out of his congregation for pedophilia ii Ragged Dick 1867 1 Alger39s rst novella published chapter by chapter in monthlyweekly publications 2 Wrote many of these stories along the same plot line a Young boy grows up in modest circumstances through skill luck and perseverance he rises to great stature b Promoted ambition thrift and capitalism iii Myth 1 Andrew Carnegie personi es the rags to riches story 2 John D Rockefeller also resembles the Alger stereotype a Went to a 16 wk business college Employed as secretary climbed the ladder and invested wisely 3 Upward Mobility a If it exists why isn39t everyone rich Workers and Farmers in the Gilded A9 I Meaning of the term quotgilded agequot a Mark Twain Twain published a novel in 1873 titled The GildedAgeA 7ae of Today in collaboration with Charles Dudley Warner i Satirized the socioeconomic dimensions of the north at this time 1 Increasingly pervasive political corruption in Grant administration 2 Speculative investment mania b Gilded a surface that is covered in gold leaf to give the impression that the object is actually gold i lmplies super ciality and deceit 18601880 ii Period of growing inequality of wealth ll Conditions for wage workers a Wages i After the civil war real wages increased slightly over time The main reason for this is that a small group of highly skilled wage workers top 15 have an increase in their wages 1 You would also have to keep yourjob in the face of mechanization of the labor system 2 These workers could afford to maintain a household where your wife doesn39t work you can pay for a house and have a few luxury items ii This means that roughly 80 of houses need other income b Increase in women and children in the labor force i Predominantly single women married women are rarely employed outside the home ii Sweatshops small factories where sewing and smaller products are assembled for a very low wage bad working conditions iii Long days of work 1216 hours a day 6 days a week 1 Sewing have to buy your own sewing machine to get the job Paid by number of pieces produced not time spent III Problem of growing inequality of wealth a Henry George Progress and Poverty i The bestselling book on political economy of the US for 30 years ii Terrible paradox industrial revolution grants us new technologies that increase productivity progress and mastery over nature At the same time poverty is rampant wealth disparity urban decay alongside expansion IV Class Con ict a Demands for 8 hour day i Most workers are working 1016 hrs a day 6 days a week 1 Workers question how they can have liberty if all of their time is spent working can only get by through constant work 2 quoteight hours for work Eight hours for rest eight hours for what we willquot b Depression of 18731878 i Financial crisis Jay Cook a chief nancier of the Civil War signi cant bank network overinvested in rail investments fail and subsequent house of cards falls apart Very similar logic to 2007 1 Creates massive unemployment demand declines factories shut their doors 2 Continues for ve years Unemployment at least 20 in cities ii quottrampsquot 1 Looking for work across the country 2 This term of 39going out on the tramp becomes pejorative Dangerous lazy criminal people 3 Gun Industry promoted as quottramps terrorquot gun ownership increases after civil war especially in urban areas iii Great Chicago Fire 1871 private relief agencies had some money left over Unemployed people ask for leftover aid they are refused iv Tompkins Square New York riot 1874 park in New York 7k people gathered mostly unemployed 1 quotwork for breadquot 2 Call on government for work projects if they cannot provide that give them basic food 3 New York police break up the protest v National Railroad strike 1877 1 First national strike in US history 2 Baltimore and Ohio lines drop their pay rate for employees others follow suit a Federal troops keep rail open ght against strikers c Reconstruction i Aggressive reconstruction of the South reinforcement of liberty of freed people 1 White democrats contest this terrorize whites 2 Northerners pull away when things get ugly use it to strike a political dal with Lincoln 3 Northerners get apprehensive with tumultuous labor atmosphere V Conditions for farmers a Falling prices i 18641868 Wheat at 196 ii 18851889 wheat at 090 b Impact of de ation on debtors i Example of loan for 2k payable in 5 years 1 Price of wheat 2 a bushel 1000 bushels 2 Price of wheat 1 a bushel 2000 bushels c If you are a farmer who is not in debt lowering prices is ok because other prices will fall too but if you have debts it is a real problem i Price of cotton continues to plummet ii Plenty of poor white farmers are sharecroppers after the civil war The falling prices due to demands of industry harms farmers 2202013 Populism l The People s Party a A party of farmers and workers that tried to succeed as a third party failed b Most signi cant challenge to industrial capitalism in the late 19th century i Strongest grass roots third political party in the history of the United States ii Historically known as the populist party ll Workers and Politics a 18705 i Number of strikes 1 Tompkin square riots work or bread 2 National railroad strike ii Knights of Labor 1 Quasi socialist group want to build a society called the quotcooperative commonwealthquot Most powerful labor group of the late 19th century Allowed universal participation anyone who works can Jonn a Bankers lawyers professors not allowed b Organize African American workers to some context 4 May Day May 1St of 1886 is a general strike for the eight hour work day a In Chicago two days after May Day there is a strike at the McCormick Reaper works Police come in and try to break up the strike Shoot and kill some workers b The following day there is a protest meeting at Haymarket Square in Downtown Chicago May 4th i Organizers are not the Knights of Labor they are a small vocal group of anarchists ii Give speeches at the end a bomb goes off and kills a police of cer Police start shooting people iii Considered to be the rst American Red Scare c Leads to signi cant decline in the Knights of Labor i Formerly the group had thought of entering in the political arena ii In their place emerges the American Federation of Labor iii American Federation of Labor 1 Samuel Gompers leader of AFL 2 Different from knights of labor a Not willing to organize everyone like KoL b Organize skilled workers only c Gompers wants to improve their situation through quotpure and simple unionismquot i Means thinking carefully about negotiating contracts with rms that allow for skilled labor to bargain with owners UJN 3 No politics a Gompers doesn39t want to enter the political arena b For practical reasons he nds that the American political system will be a distraction Win rights on the shop oor c Marks a considerable shift from the all encompassing politically minded KoL to a limited organizing apolitical AFL lll Farmers and Politics a Farmer39s Alliances i Tens of thousands of farmers have formed these organizations by the 18905 1 Hundreds of thousands of African Americans joined 39colored farmers alliancesquot ii Printing Money 1 In order to stop declining prices for their prices and being hammered by debt is due to insufficient amount of money in circulation 2 Advocate schemes to increase money supply a More printing money b Restoring free coinage of silver i 1873 govt stopped coining silver to transfer to gold standard iii Government ownership of railroads 1 Nationalization of railroads are so essential to public welfare they should be owned and operated by the government iv Income tax 1 Generates revenue and helps redistribute wealth to a minor degree IV Forming a People s Party a Money in Washington i Workers and farmers see existing political parties as having been bought by industrial and capital interests b Gaining the working class i People s Party is mainly farmers but need to court working class to join their numbers ii James Weaver candidate for the Peoples party in 1892 1 Does well in plains but Northeast and Midwest block him out 2 8 of the popular vote 3 Had the potential to do much better a Populist party trying to appeal to farmers and workers but there are not a large majority of very unhappy farmers and workers b Many might have decided not to vote populist because there were fundamental differences between the interest of farmers and workers i Farmers want in ation workers do not want prices to go up especially on basic goods c By the time farmers come around as a political force workers had been thrashed by Haymarket Square c Political Barriers Facing Third Parties i The People s party had much greater potential to gain votes but they failed due to existing political loyalties ii The North 1 Many farmers are republicans and loyal to the party 2 When the populist party formed they told farmers that they needed to continue to vote for republicans Said that if they vote populist the democrats will win a Essentially voting populists will allow the traitors from the south to take the capital b quotvote like you shotquot allowing democrats to win will be dishonoring those who fought in the Civil War iii The South 1 All white farmers are democrats including poor sharecroppers a Democratic party gives similar message to their oya constituents Democrats say that if you vote for populists you will throw your vote away the Republicans will return to the south African Americans will take over legislatures b Fears of social mixing between blacks and whites i Empowerment of black men interracial marriage ii The race card in the South trumps what populists are trying to do iv William Jennings Bryan 1 Talented orator from Nebraska with somewhat of a populist streak Represented the western democratic pa y 2 Focused on free coinage of silver to gain popular farmer support a Populists decided to go with Bryan in the presidential election of 1896 against republican William McKinley 3 Cross of Gold a Bryan pushed for silver coinage i Took a train car tour of the United States and preached his message b McKinley wanted only gold i If Bryan is elected silver would ood the market create in ation paper money would be worthless ii Stayed at home and allowed people to come and visit him A distinguished statesman would not go out on a promotional tour v Election of 1896 1 McKinIy wins popular and electoral 2 McKinley outspent Bryan by 201 a Wealthy people backed Mckinley fearing what would happen if Bryan was elected 2222013 im Crow De nition ofJim Crow A legal system to reduce or eliminate the civil and political rights of African Americans in the South a After 1877 violence of the reconstruction period toward African americans and their white allies is decreased but remains systemic b The system has two major aims disenfranchisement and segregation c Origins of the term 39jim crow39 i Appears in the 18305 the name of a stock gure in minstrel shows popular forms of traveling entertainment featured song and dance acts of white people in blackface imitating African Americans in a manner that reproduced racial stereotypes 1 Jim Crow was typically an elderly bumbling comic gure in these shows 2 Applied later to postreconstruction period 3 Remains in place until it begins to become dismantled after WWII during the civil rights movement ll Disenfranchisement a Timing1890 i Danger from Farmers39 AlliancePopulism 1 A signi cant threat to the power monopoly of the democratic party 2 Movement of poorer farmers is a signi cant problem for democrats who rely on those votes to maintain power of white elites a Democrats tell voters that vote for populist will be throwing a vote away since they cannot win i Republicans will return ii Racial order in the south will be overturned 3 White and black sharecroppers are in a similar situation potential for political union along class lines a Democrats want politics to based on race create laws to make it almost impossible for blacks to vote if some poor whites lose enfranchisement then they are not a big loss ii Even after the return of the white democratic party in the South African Americans are still participating in politics but it is down compared to early postwar numbers 4060 still voting 1 Fewer black people in political of ce but there are still some 2 In the 18905 States in the south begin to pass laws to restrict the capacity of African Americans and some whites to vote iii Cannot pass a law that plainly states that Blacks cannot vote because it is unconstitutional so they scheme to create a system of exclusion b Mechanism i Poll tax 1 Not burdensome but signi cant 2 Have to pay up to six months before election 3 Required to show a receipt for earlier purchase 4 Poor people are not able to vote both white and black ii Literacy tests 1 Voting restricted to those who can actually read done under pretense of keeping ignorant or incapable people of making governmental decision 2 Often they had to read the constitution out loud a The of cial in that district was administering the literacy test determining who passes and who doesnT i Easily able to discriminate on individual level iii Grandfather clause 1 Anyone whose grandfather who could vote before 1866 is exempted from the various tests taxes and prerequisitites 2 Very obviously racially targeted 3 Allowed poor whites to get by restrictions iv By 1900 only 10 of African American men are registered to vote lll Segregation a Scope of segregation i While southern society was always segregated it is formally and legally organized during the 1880s 1 Swimming pools restaurants shing beaches drinking fountains restrooms hospitals schools public transportation housing cemeteries ii Interracial marriage are formally passed 1 Had been seen as totally socially unacceptable but now a formal criminal offense 2 Legal challenge in 1884 to supreme court Supreme court upholds it by saying that it is equally disadvantageous so it iis constitution a Not deemed unconstitutional until 1967 b Plessy v Fergu50n1896 i Homer Plessy is plaintiff From New Orleans Well established African American community in New Orleans with more access to resources 1 Plessy was a light skinned African American man went into white car on the railroads a Did this intentionally with backing of people in New Orleans wanted to be arrested to create a test case to segregation laws b Filed lawsuit on grounds that transportation laws requiring segregation violated the 14th amendment c 14th Amendment no state shall make or enforce any law that will abridge the rights of any citzen without due process of law ii 39Separate but equal39 1 Supreme court upholds segregation laws on grounds of separate but equal As long as there are separate facilities that are equal in quality it is constitutional 2 71 decision near unanimity 3 Claim that all that these laws do is create equal opportunity for people No stamp of inferiority 4 Not overturned until 1954 in Brown v Board ofEducaton lV Lynching a Figures i 18821888 715 ii 18891898 1123 iii 18991908 809 iv 19091918 590 b These are not Klan attacks i Not all involve blacks but most do c lda B Wells investigation of Lynching i General public discourse was that the reason lynching happened was that an African American man had raped or attempted to rape a white woman 1 Governing of cials would always say that they did not condone vigilante justice but would justify the actions of those who committed it due to the nature of the crime ii lda Wells determined that if you looked at the charges made about why a mob was lynching someone in very few cases did it have anything to do with sex consensual or otherwise 1 Most lacked a reason at all others for being 39saucy39 getting in a ght economic competition with whites petty theft etc 2 Some cases have to do with relationships with white women but in almost all of the cases the relationship was consensual iii Visual evidence 1 Illustration of photograph made into postcard of lynched blacks These are being circulated and collected Lynching becoming a public spectacle V African American responses to Jim Crow and Lynching a Emigration i Kansas Exodusters after reconstruction in 1879 southern blacks start to ock to Kansas for new opportunities Around 20k people 1 Kansas is a symbol of freedom John Brown started his ghts there 2 Most farm some urbanization 3 Things are better than they are in the deep south but segregation still apparent ii OklahomaIndian territory 1 ln 18905 more around 100k African americans move to Indian territory 2 Meet with Cherokee and other former southwestern tribes Cherokee had owned slaves who still lived with them a Creates some complications between tribes and blacks iii Outside of the US 1 Some talk in African American communities of going to Africa a Liberia set up by white advocates of colonization as a way to end slavery by sending freed people to Liberia i Some move but very expensive ii Many think that it is a way to freedom iv Opposition 1 Frederick douglass criticizes return to Africa You are an American and should stay and ght for rights b Direct Challenges i Protests 1 People do protest but very dangerous for their lives 2 Marches on state capitals ii African American Newspaper 1 Publicize lynching 2 Mainly in the north have to be careful in the south if they want to last survive iii National leaders 2272013 European Immigration I Push factorsPull Factors a Both are always at play when we talk about motivation for immigration throughout history i Push factors are those things that inspire people to leave ii Pull factors are those things that inspire people to go to a certain destination II First wave 1840s18805 a lrish i Potato famine 1 Bad harvest due to a blight and English predation forced many lrish out of Ireland a Potato crops all over the world affected by the disease b Ireland was particularly affected because the Irish poverty required total reliance on potato crop Most irish are tenant farmers for English landlords Landlords are raising other products so there are export products available They do not use this export surplus to feed the Irish c quotGod caused the Blight but the English caused the Faminequot d Ireland lost 13 of its population through death and immigration i Dif cult to travel because of poverty but people mobilze and pool all of their resources toleave H Labor 1 Most Irish were farmers before they left but they had to stay in eastern cities because they lacked the money to move west and set up a farm a The easiest thing to do if you don39t have resources is nding work in an urban area 2 Find work in unskilled heavy laborjobs a New York is building its infrastructure need massive heavy daylabor b Irish women worked outside the home as domestic servants textile miIIs iii quotwhitenessquot 1 Great deal of discrimination against Irish when they arrive a quotNo Irish Need applyquot appears in many help wanted adds 2 Racial categories are not xed in time They are not objective categories They are socially and historically constructed and subject to change a Often the Irish were not considered 39white39 i Part of this was Catholicism nativism anglo centrism b After a time they are considered 39white39 b Germans i Skilled workersmiddle class 1 Similar to journeyman shoemakers from preindustrial era a Skills are being displaced by machinery b Not peasants c Losing capacity to maintain their skills and income 2 Many go into the cities and start in printing industries a Others start up new industries like brewing b Some move to the Midwest and farm ii Push Factors 1 Some economic hardship factors behind German migration but not as bad as Irish 2 Industrial displacement iii PuII Factors 1 Hope among middle class German liberals in 1840s of reform of German political system a Wave of liberal revolutions in 1848 don39t work out in Germany b Some well off educated German middle class are coming for political reasons c Scandinavians i Economic Hardship 1 Peasants have hard time holding on to their land a Some take up farming mainly in upper great plains b Paci c Northwest enclaves Take up work in extractive industries timber sheries canneries c Railroad workers ii Begins after the Civil war 1 Small farmers peasants lll Second Wave 1880519105 quotThe New Immigrantsquot a Southern and eastern Europe i For observers within the united States from this period the second wave of immigration was very different Coming for different reasons with different ideas and backgrounds 1 There is nothing essentially different from this wave of immigration from any other This is just part of the dialogue that occurs with every wave of immigration in the United States The new group is always considered something different a This wave had more Catholics and Jews than previous decades Different language groups forming 39ethnic enclaves39 b Aspects of immigration i World context 1 Primarily economic people are leaving Europe and Asia going to Argentina Chile Peru Canada and the United States People are not exclusively going to US 2 Myth of American exceptionalism traditional narrative claims that people came to the United States because of political situation and freedoms ii Industrial revolution 1 Driving force behind the economic changes that are moving people across the country 2 Enormous impact on artisanal labor skilled people are being displaced iii Religious persecution 1 Pogroms in Eastern Europe there is a signi cant persecution ofJews that is getting worse a Laws prohibit land ownership in many countries b Violent attacks againstJewish communities 2 Jews move to other places in Europe but also the United States a Most end up in cities iv Return migration 1 We often think that migrants set out for a new land and never return This is not the case especially in later waves of immigration a Many believed that they would return to the home country i Family would send off a few young men or women to work abroad Work for a few years and return with their money 1 Often what happened was that those who left wanted to stay encouraged others to come 2 Others do come back send money back a This increases as ocean travel gets cheaper and faster v Social networks 1 Chain migrations a Networks of people who know each other build crossatlantic contacts Gradually transfer close social circles to one area vi 39New39 immigrants and 39Old39 immigrants 312013 Immigration Continued l Responses to quotnew immigrantsquot a Nativisim i KnowNothing Party of the 18505 was one of the rst signi cant political parties with an antiimmigrant platform ii American Protective Association 1 Try to get exclusionist legislation passed 2 Gain greater in uence in the depression of the 18905 a In down economic times people tend to turn on minority segments of society especially immigrants b Americanization i Ford Motor Company 1 Ford established Americanization programs for their workforce 2 You have to go to quotAmerica classquot in order to keep your job a Focus particularly on language and civic responsibilities b Coercive conformity ii quotThe Melting Potquot 1 Various programs around the nation usually private push learning English shedding former culture 2 Thomas Bentons former diatribe on the destiny of the Anglo Saxon race is becoming much more expansive de nition of American identity due to massive in ux of immigration Still eurocentric 3 The quotMelting Potquot was originally the title of the play written by Israel Zangwill a The idea was that all newcomers have something to contribute to America and will forge a new society different from anything in Europe iii New basis for quotwhitenessquot 1 Earlier in the 19th century whiteness was restricted to AngloSaxons of Northwestern Europe 2 This evolves to expand across all of Europe including Southern and eastern Europe a Jews still face signi cant antiSemitism and Catholics are portrayed as servants of the papacy c Toward Cultural pluralism i Horace Kallen 1924 different from the melting pot concept All different groups can retain their cultural identity while still being American Do not need absolute cultural conformity which is a positive good that makes America unique ii Mainstream American thinkers were not thinking this way until Kallen iii This is the precursor of modern American multiculturalism sian Immigration l Pushpull factors in Chinese Immigration a 184051920 600k Asian immigrants maybe additional 400k in Hawaii which is annexed in 1920 i Before 1920 Asian immigration is predominantly Chinese with Japanese as secondary group b Broad Context economic hardship i British imperialism Opium War 183942 1 British buy a good deal of Chinese tea British have trouble convincing imperial officials in China of the value of British goods and manufactures Have to pay for tea in gold and silver 2 British decide that marketing a highly addictive product will help the trade imbalance Opium a The Delano family of the United States got involved in this trade as well 3 British force opium on China China tries to stop this in the 18305 because of the negative effects of large scale opium addition Destroy some British stores of Opium Britain wins a military victory over China ii Indemnities and taxation 1 After the war the British impose indemnities on the Chinese government for causing the war 2 Chinese government enforces heavy taxes 3 British force Chinese to cease producing textiles to eliminate British competition Creates massive unemployment in China c Gold Mountain California i lndenture 1 Most Chinese who want to leave are much poorer than European immigrants a Purchasing ocean passage required going to a broker who would lend you money for passage Once in the US you had to pay back the passage ii The question of quotcoolie laborquot 1 As Chinese become unpopular among mainstream americans they are claiming that everyone is coolie labor a This implies impressment and near slavery conditions Working more or less permanently as a slave b Antichinese voices are adopting antislavery language and applying it to the Chinese Chinese Immigrants a Mostly men intention to return i Many do especially because of antichinese legislation ii 95 male population Female immigration heavily restricted b Mining i Earliest profession for Chinese immigrants in placer mines 1 Move on the part of white miners to impose taxes on foreign miners a Seek to exclude any nonamerican groups Asians Latin Americans and European immigrants 2 Chinese can still earn a living mining but it makes things very hard Begin to work on the periphery of mines c Railroad labor i After the civil war construction of transcon railroads Union paci c and Central Paci c 1 Central Paci c segment Chinese workers critical in building the rail 2 Charles Crocker saw that they could hire Chinese for lower wages skilled with explosives willing to take risky jobs a Chinese did strike over low wages once Crocker cut off their food supply because they were in the Sierra mountains in the middle of the winter and broke the strike d Urban labor in San Francisco i 1860 3000 chinese ii 1870 12000 chinese iii Make up roughly half of the labor force 1 San Francisco develops smaller scale independent industries because of the cost involved in shipping goods from the east Chinese involved in all of these industries e Laundries i Expansion of Chinese labor through laundry system is widespread on the west coast This was one of the few industries that Chinese were allowed to operate in and it served as a niche that had no direct competition with white male workers f Agriculture i As time goes on some Chinese are able to get involved in agriculture ii Skilled at intensive cultivation due to experience with dif cult rice growing iii Fruit tree hybrids pruning orchard specialization 1 39Bingquot cherries are named after a Chinese immigrant that was developed in Oregon Movement for Chinese exclusion a Workingmen39s Party i Dennis Kearney leader of the party ii Organized in 1873 during a depression gives movement life iii Attacks wealthy people who employed Chinese labor to make their fortunes iv They don39t get very far politically but they begin to shape American dialogue that favors Chinese exclusion b Chinese exclusion Act 1882 i Makes it very hard for new immigrants to come into the United States ii In the aftermath of Chinese exclusion act sees rise in violence against Chinese 1 Throughout California Takoma Seattle 2 Rock Spring Wyoming riot against Chinese labor on railroad 5060 killed IV Japanese Immigration a Japan39s policy i Japan had forbidden emigration from Japan for a long time ii Began to change policies in 1884 1 In Hawaii labor contractors wanted to recruitJapanese laborers Japanese govt willing to permit this on limited basis a 600 jobs available 28000 applied for them b Primary push factor lower classes in Japan are incredibly poor few opportunities iii Signi cant numbers ofJapanese come to the Mainland speci cally the Paci c coast as Japan39s emigration restrictions loosen bJapaneselabor i Japanese in Oregon 1 Hood River Specialized in Orchard care develop longstanding Japanese community a Harvesting growing hybridization fruit packing ii Familiar pattern 1 Begin to see demands on the part of nativists to ban Japanese c quotGentleman39s Agreementquot 1907 i Worked out an arrangement between Japan and US Japan agrees to stop sending ordinary laborers as long as family members ofJapanese already in the United States to continue to migrate 1 Japanese migration stream not as male oriented as Chinese ii quotpicture bridesquot Japanese men made arrangements through matchmakers in Japan who provided photographs for potential suitors in United States 1 This increased under Gentlemen39s agreement d Anti alienland laws i Japanese immigrants more than Chinese immigrants tended to own small farms Mainly in California ii In 19105 and 205 California passed laws that said that foreigners could not own land in the state 1 Understood to be constitutionally viable 1St generation Japanese were not considered citizens because of the Naturalization Act that only allowed 39whites39 to become citizens a Deeding land to American born Japanese relatives like sons daughters and niecesnephews allowed land to stay in the family 342013 American Indian Nations and Settler Colonialim l De nition of Settler Colonialism a A concept developed and wrangled over by historians legal scholars sociologists etc in order to de ne what the United States is from the point of view of Native Americans b The united States is a colonial entity in the same way that Britain was in India and Africa i People do not talk as much about US imperialism andor colonialism ii The US was involved in a different sort of imperial expansionism than the classical European model c The United States is a settler society i Longstanding belief of constant westward expansion since before the founding of the nation 1 Mining booms agricultural lands cattle grazing etc will overtake the Indian lands 2 Belief that the 39laws of historical progress39 are such that the Native Americans would eventually disappear a British model was extractive no one believed that lndians would disappear from India The british used their labor to extract wealth no plans for displacing population with British b This is the opposite of the American model The native population is to be removed They will not be a labor force ll Phase One a Dispossession and con nement i Taking of indigenous lands and restriction of population to reservations 1 Reservations were rst understood to be temporary but they become permanent b Violence a consistent piece of the process i Threats of violence not all native peoples fought against US encroachments and vice versa The threat that it could happen however was always present ii Environmental destruction iii Disease iv Treaties lll Case 1 California gold rush a Gold discovered in 1848 i Mass migration to CA from all over the world ii Creates considerable amount of violence against native people from Sierras and North iii Gold rush is potentially the worst possible scenario for Native Americans 1 Large in ux of people 2 Predominantly male population 3 All willing to act independently and resort to violence b Vigilantes and militias i Created all across CA led by community leaders ii They hunt lndians indiscriminately No need for any crime or charge iii These are exterminatory paramilitary forces iv Begin in the 18505 and continue through the late 18605 almost 20 year vigilante extermination campaign 1 Government is opposed to wholesale extermination Sets up treaties that exchange large swathes of land for money and assistance a US senate must ratify any treaties with Indians CA legislators convinced other legislators in DC to prevent ratifying the treaties because they were quottoo nice to Indiansquot b California takes over its own indian policy as a result End up unof cially funding genocidal militias c Population decline in CA as a result of policies i 1848 150000 ii 1860 30000 iii 75 decline in population In current US population loss would be around 200 million lV Case 2 Paci c Northwest a Rouge River Wars i Gold discovered in early 18505 similar process to California in Oregon Territory Organize exterminatory militias 1 Federal government attempts to halt some of the violence Fail to negotiate treaties federal government forces people to move to the coast a Settlers do not care much about coastal lands at this time When settlers do seek coastal lands the process repeats and Indians are once again removed b Willamette Valley i Different situation than the Gold miners ii Impact of disease in Willamette valley so severe that once there is serious settlement in the area they populations of native peoples had diminished severely from smallpox and malaria 1 Survivors in the valley end up moving to the coast Some reservations on the coast are formed of people who came together from all parts of western Oregon Mixed tribal heritage c 185455 treaties i Isaac Stevens territorial governor of Washington 1 2 Designed the treaties that created contemporary reservations in PNW In Puget sound area number of Indian nations that he negotiates with a Moves east and negotiates treaties with plateau peoples Stevens would propose the settlement of a treaty on a certain date Through translators he says that he wants most of the land Americans are coming and the only route to survival is giving up land for assistance ii OWhi Yakama 1 2 3 Claims that his people do not want to sell and wants to be left alone Stevens responds by saying that if you refuse a treaty soldiers will wipe you from the earth a This is a common characteristic in indian neganUons Under this considerable duress Owhi concedes Indian land V Case 3 Colorado a Pike39s Peak Gold Rush 1859 i Affects the Cheyenne the most ii Colorado is quickly organized as a new territory as a result of the gold nd Done during the Civil war iii Miners would come across a series of roads that cut through Cheyenne hunting territory disrupting their ability to survive 1 Number of Cheyenne attack people moving through their hun nglands b Colorado third Regiment i Colorado organized militias because of the ongoing civil war and gold boom ii Led byJohn Chivington c John Chivington the quotfighting parsonquot i Served in the civil war ii As a preacher his duties would typically be consoling the troops but Chivington wanted to ght particularly Indians iii Quoted as saying quotI have come to kill Indians and believe that it is right to use any means under God39s heavenquot d Sand Creek Massacre November 1864 i Instead of moving against raider Cheyenne along the roads he decides to attack a sedentary group ii Led by Black Kettle these Cheyenne hoped to avoid con ict 1 2 Hoisted American ag and white ag of surrender when they see Chivington39s regiment coming Chivington ignores this kills most of the group almost all are noncombatants women and children e Cheyenne Land loss i Following the sand creek massacre and further aggression against the Cheyenne tribe 1 By the end of the civil war there are no more Cheyenne lands in Colorado Vl Northern Plains a Lakota Sioux Cheyennes i These groups are fairly powerful Mounted people use rearms Control large areas of the Northern plains before arrival of white settlers b Bozeman Trail 18651866 i Gold discovered in Western Montana ii Signi cant movement of gold miners into western Montana 1 Travelled the Platt River in Nebraska along the Oregon trail diverge north into eastern Wyoming Cut through central Wyoming and into southern Montana 2 As overlanders move through these areas on the way to the gold mines they are attacked by these tribes 3 After the civil war the federal government constructs forts to protect travelers a Lakota and Cheyenne attack forts wipe out regiments of US troops i As a result of indian military success Federal government decides to negotiate a treaty with them c 1868 Treaty i Reduced Lakota territory but still a fairly large area ii Covers several states allows for extensive hunting ground iii Many leaders agree but some want to continue to ght because they are giving up land after winning a military victory iv This treaty is much better than what was offered most other tribes especially those in eastern Oregon v The treaty is understood to be a permanent settlement but from the standpoint of the United States this is not going to be permanent lN some point they will demand that these people give up more land d Destruction of Bison i In 1868 Buffalo populations have declined but still several million animals 1 Still possible to support themselves through hunting ii The introduction of railroads however drastically changes this situation 1 American hunters able to access these areas more easily hunt with large caliber long range ri es 2 Buffalo hunted for their leather Factories need leather belts to run machines before the introduction of rubber a Buffalo are being killed for a world market British factories required buffalo hide drive belts to operate iii By 1878 there are not enough buffalo to support the Sioux tribes e Gold in the Black hills i Black hills are part of the 1868 treaty reservation mainly in western south Dakota ii Historically this is sacred land to the Sioux and important to them economically iii US military expedition go into the Black hills led by George Custer 1 The expedition nds gold and soon there are several thousand miners illegally extracting gold from a reservation a At rst the federal government tries to keep them out but they are not serious about it b The economy is in a depression at the time federal government likes the idea of gold discoveries because they believe it will stimulate the economy c Taking the Black hills becomes a priority By 1875 76 this is on the national agenda i Many Lakota and Cheyenne are willing to ght for their land So they launch a major military expedition against the Lakota and Cheyenne 1 About 4000 troops involved Custer returns to command a portion of the troops f Little Bighorn June 1876 i Lakota and Cheyenne destroy the 7th cavalry under Custer s command ii One of the most successful military ventures for native americans iii In total the Lakota and Cheyenne kill 3x as many people as the American soliders but they are unable to support themselves economically iv They are forced to give up their independence and become charges of the US government 1 Reservations reduced by 13 black hills ceded to US 362013 American Indian Nations and Settler Colonialism Phase Two I Phasell a Coercive assimilation i Native americans are no longer taking up arms against the United States They are con ned to restricted areas Now they can be forcefully assimilated into American culture ii In the future the United States believe that reservations will disappear as native people are absorbed into the mainstream culture 1 There is also the racist notion that they will die off in a Darwinian competition with 39superior39 American culturerace Suppression of religion and culture a Vision quests b Sun Dance i Many tribes in the plains had a central annual ceremony called the Sun Dance Several communities would assemble around the summer solstice ii Elaborate preparations lasts four days The idea is that it is important as a way of renewing the tribe as a people and the health of the earth itself 1 Some individuals make pledges for physical sacri ce and chaHenge iii The federal government determines that this is pagan and uncivilized Indian agencies say that they cannot do it anymore 1 Considerable resistance to the change federal government says if they don39t give it up they will no longer provide necessary food provisions Educann a Richard Henry Pratt quotKill the Indian Save the Manquot i Ran the Carlisle school ii Promoted his school as the best opportunity for native children iii Published before and after pictures of his students to exaggerate the abilities of his schools b Carlisle boarding school i Teenage children sometimes younger leave their homes and go to a school far away from the reservation ii Carlisle is the most famous of these schools located in Pennsylvania iii Children given new names forbidden from speaking native languages indoctrinated in Christianity c Zitkala Sa Privatization of tribal lands a Reservation lands are tribally owned Indians adhere to American sensibilities of private property i Federal government breaks up tribal lands and distributes them to head of households Similar to homesteads 1 Believe that this will move Indians away from tribal sensibilities produce crops for market appreciate individualism ii Dawes Act 1887 formal law that privatizes indian land b Land that was left over from privatization is usually gobbled up by government and private purchases i Reversed in the 19305 but large amount of Indian land had already been permanently lost as a result Strategies a Accommodation i Crow Tribe 1 Crow live in the Northern Plain Montana 2 Much smaller group than Lakota and Cheyenne under 3 threat from these larger tribes before 18605 US more of a distant threat Favored diplomacy over outright resistance once put on reservation ii Plenty Coups 1 2 Young Crow eventually a tribal leader had a vision as a young man a Saw a forest of trees under a huge coming storm b In the end it knocked down all the trees of the forest except for one The tree housed a chickadee i Elders interpreted Chickadee revered as being a vigilant observant bird They believed that the Crow were in this position The only way they could survive is through vigilance caution staying out of trouble Allied with the United States in 18605 a Sent scouts to ght for the US army against Lakota and Cheyenne i If Custer had listened to his Crow scouts he might have survived b Attempts to overturn colonialism i Ghost Dance 1 In the late 18805 after the settlement of reservations there is a huge politicalreligious movements that sweeps across many western reservations 2 Stems from the teachings of a Paiute prophet Wovoka ii Wovoka 1 Said that a cataclysmic event of some kind could restore the earth to how it had been 80 years ago Game and sh would return Drought would go away Dead ancestors would return 2 European americans through this cataclysm would be removed or destroyed altogether 3 This would happen through supernatural means not warfare iii Wounded Knee Massacre December 1890 1 US government decides to send troops to suppress this movement 2 Mainly in Northern Plains against the Lakota Overseas Imperialism a Campaign results in the Wounded Knee Massacre in which the 7th cavalry Custer39s old unit decides it is going to disarm a group of Ghost Dancers Firing breaks out 240270 Lakota killed Mostly noncombatants l The question of overseas imperialism a Most americans did not believe that acquiring overseas territory but believed that the country should expand across the North American continent to the Paci c i Manifest destiny expressed the divine right for the United States to expand this way ii They saw overseas imperialism as a European venture All the more evidence to avoid it 1 The United States spread liberty it didn39t acquire territory and rule over other people a Though they believed this it is not a wholly accurate notion Expansion of American territory over the continent involved ruling over native people not very different from European imperialism except for proximity b If we have a majority against Imperialism How does it end up happening ll Arguments for imperialism a Commercial empire i lsthmian canal 1 If the United states were to gain shipping access through the Gulf of Mexico to the Paci c Ocean American shipping to Asia would be greatly improved a The French attempted to build a canal through the isthmus of panama They failed because workers died off in droves from malaria and yellow fever b United States decides to pick up where French left off US supports a plot supporting Panamanian independence movement Panama formerly a part of Colombia ii China Market 1 European powers are already trading in China in series of relationships competing for spheres of in uence in China 2 US calls for an open door policy equal footing for China trade a US sets up small bases on islands across the Paci c on the way to china b Grows the US navy iii Depression of 189398 1 These arguments for increased trade competition gives weight to more imperial tendencies b Ensure the continued superiority of the quotAngloSaxon racequot i Teddy Roosevelt 1 One of the strongest advocates for extending US power overseas 2 Roosevelt from the east coast from a wealthy patrician family Had a rich and varied career Well educated 3 Roosevelt was an unapologetic supporter of US conquest of Native Americans Believed that they were bested because Anglos were a superior race a War against savage people is the most righteous of all wars 4 Roosevelt wants to continue the superiority of the Anglo Saxon race in overseas imperial conquest 5 Notions of Masculinity the strenuous life a Re ecting on his life in the west Met men that were quotreal menquot who had built the West b Wants women to bear more children feared quotracial suicidequot c Manliness indian war forging civilization from the wilderness is what has made the country great c Avoid the problems of a closed frontier i The west has been conquered there are no Indians to ght the frontier is closing and a major aspect of American identity is coming to an end ii Roosevelt among many others sees that US is going to need to do something about this 1 Athletic competition was one way that he suggested maintaining manliness and conquest namely American football and boxing iii Extending the frontier was another possibility 1 Some claim that war is a necessity for the Anglo Saxon race to remain superior It has conquered the world through warfare if Anglos stop engaging in physical acts and warfare they will lose their edge to other racenation 2 The united states had gone for a considerably long period without a war III How did overseas imperialism happenquot a Conspiracy i Elitists in the government and society hatched a plot to send the US into the imperial Game b A Series of accidents i History is messy and processes of war opportunity thrust the US into the Imperial game without a conscious will to do so c Third Path i Events happened that allowed advocates of US imperialism more support to expand overseas IV The SpanishAmerican War a Revolutionary movement in Cuba i Cuba was a colony of Spain ii Cubans are revolting against Cuban rule seeking independence By 1896 revolutionaries control 23 of the Island 1 Spain enacts a brutal counterinsurgency campaign Concentration camps massacres 2 People in the United States identify with the revolutionaries struggle against tyrannical imperial power b quotYellowpressquot Wiliam Randolph Hearst i Cheap daily newspapers are in competition for sales and generate sensational news stories to sell papers ii Hearst s New York Daily is one of the most successful 1 Calls on US to do something about Spanish tyranny in the name of liberty iii Spanish ambassador ridiculed President McKinley for being weak Hearst gets a hold of this letter and waits for the right time to publish it 1 Most people do not want a war with Spain over Cuba but McKinley is under pressure to do something 2 Sends the USS Maine to go down and observe the war 3 Hearst then publishes the letter to stir up the public c Explosion of the Battleship Maine Feb 1898 i Explodes in the middle of the night ii 266 sailors are dead iii General impulse of americans was to claim that Spanish mined the harbor and that it hit one 1 More plausible theory was that coal for engines heated up and exploded the ammunition 2 No de nitive reason for how the Maine sank iv US treated it as a cause for war after a few weeks war is declared on Spain d John Hay quot splendid little warquot i Friends with Roosevelt ii Believed that this would be a bene cent war would help mend the nation iii Roosevelt assembles a band of likeminded elites and friends to compose his 39Rough Ridersquot to go down to spain e Public opinion i Once things develop public opinion shifts from discouraged toward war to support ii See business opportunities in Latin America iii Convert catholics to Protestantism f Roosevelt and the Rough Riders at quotSan Juan Hillquot i Roosevelt was an amazing selfpublicist ii Didn t give much credit to key groups of soldiers African American units that did considerable ghting 1 Roosevelt always had to be the center of attention If Teddy Roosevelt went to a wedding he wanted to be the bride at a funeral he wanted to be the corpse iii The war was over in six months V Expansion of the Spanish American War to the Philippines a US Military acquisition i When war broke out in Cuba with Spain US sent a ship under Admiral George Dewey from Hong Kong to Philippines 1 In short order this ship expels Spanish from Philippines b Annexation Independence i Many americans were opposed to taking over the Philippines It was immoral and outside of the national character 1 They also said that they should not take them over because the US already had problems with Asian immigration racist antiimperial argument ii Others said that US was not the best at selfgovernment why would we be able to 39civilize39 the Filipinos iii Kipling s quotWhite Man s Burdenquot 1 Kipling a British imperialist Of cial in India Writes this poem to the United States 2 Suggests that US should take up the burden of imperialism but that it has costs iv Annexation is seen as a positive for those who wanted a commercial empire to Asia 1 Would extend missionary ability to convert non protestants c Filipino opposition to annexation i Emilio Aguinaldo leader of Philippine patriots Allowed back into country under US but US boxes him out of discussions with Spain ii He starts a revolt against US occupation iii US sends troops to Philippines three year counterinsurgency campaign 1 Guerilla warfare in Philippines is much different from US training 2 In order to get intelligence information US would subject captured Filipinos to quotwater curequot almost the exact same thing as waterboarding used by US against Guantanamo prisoners a It became public knowledge was matter of considerable debate 3112013 Currents of Reform and Innovation in the Progressive Era I Progressive Reform 19001914 a Common denominator applications of scienti c methods and ideas i Second Great Awakening was previous major reform movement it was grounded in religion unlike progressive movement which was based on social scienti c methods 1 Trying to develop solutions to discreet social problems b Context industrialization i Concentration of economic and political power ii Labor problems 1 Bad working conditions 2 Women and child labor 3 Strikes labor unrest at new height iii Inequality racial and economic iv Urbanization 1 Concentration of people in cities causes problems with crime sanitation housing v Social problems ll Settlement house movement a Begins in 18905 and gains steam at turn of the centry i Middle class americans who live near cities are aware of problems in the cities particularly in immigrant areas ii Decide that they do not understand the reason for these problems but some decide to live in immigrant communities to try and help people They don39t know what they need but they are going to try and nd out Want to get at source of urban problems 1 Some would take a survey of housing discover bad sanitation and poor ventilation Connect these conditions to disease a Inform the city government try to convince them to pass a law that requires landlords to ventilate apartments b Politicians of city of Chicago don39t want to do this Landlords giving considerable donations to politicians 2 This leads settlement house volunteers to investigate political system in Chicago Come up with ideas for political reform in city government to make it more responsive to problems a In a way they are becoming ontheground political scientists iii Eventualy there are over 400 settlement houses in Chicago iv These houses provided an opportunity for a growing but small number of women professionals b Hull House Chicago i Most famous of the settlement houses ii Headed by Jane Adams publicized the settlement house movement c Jane Addams Twenty Years at Huly House 1912 III Labor reform a Triangle shirtwaist re 1911 i 150 out of 500 workers die in the re ii People see the re and demand reforms investigate causes and try to eliminate these problems 1 Establish state federal and local laws that regulate factory conditions b Concerns about women workers i American Federation of laborno 1 Largest labor union coming out of 18005 2 AFL was uninterested in political strategies 3 Interested in organized skilled white male workers a Wants to get rid of women workers in factories because they compete with males and drive down wages ii Industrial Workers of the World yes 1 Led by quotBig Billquot Haywood 2 Nicknamed the 39Wobbliesquot 3 They wanted ONE BIG UNION a Organize everybody according to industry regardless of skill race and gender 4 lWW were theatrical sense of publicity a In 1912 there was a major strike of 30k workers in Lawrence Massachusetts over reduced wages b Wobblies didn39t organize the strike but they immediately publicized it c Got children of workers and took them to NYC Held a parade of children of strikers to gain public sympathy 5 Becomes known as the quotBread and Roses Strikequot a Connected to women who wanted not only enough to eat but enough to live a decent life Connected to the 8 hr day iii Women39s Trade Union League Yes 1 Organized by middle class women 2 Protective legislation argue that women need protection in the labor force a Not based on equality claims that women are the weaker sex and their reproductive capacity they need special protection b Need laws for maximum number of hours in a day or week for women workers 3 Muller v Oregon 1908 a Supreme court case out of Portland Oregon passed a law that restricted the hours per day that women can work to 10 hrs b Supreme court upholds that law Says they can interfere in the laws of contract for the good of society to protect women 4 Lochner vNeW York 1905 a NY passed a law that says that anyone who is a baker can only work 8 hrs a day Applies to men and women b Supreme court says no cannot interfere in laws of contract without gender discrimination IV Scienti c Management a Frederick Winslow Taylor Principles of Scienti c Management 1911 i Applied scienti c methods in terms of observation and analysis to make factory labor more ef cient If you made production more ef cient you quotgrow the piequot of pro t eliminate the threat of labor protest b quottime and motion studiesquot i Example need to make sure that bricklayers are setting bricks in the most ef cient way possible Start timing various bricklayers recording stats 1 Decide that this should be systematized 2 Translates to machine operation moving of iron ingots etc ii Workers are quite suspicious of all of this Believe that this will result in greater and oppressive oversight in what they do Replace skilled workers by unskilled labor with blueprints 1 Pro t increases do not mean increased wages V Reform of Government a Political bosses political machines i Most city governments are controlled by political machines in the period 1 This means that politicians provide services to large immigrant populations Political boss is assigned to area of the city and provide services bailing people out ofjail nding employment repair etc in exchange for voter loyalty a Involves distribution of contracts kickbacks corruption b Functions in certain ways but middle class reformers nd this corrupt and inef cient c In early 19005 they try to reform these political machines b Civil Service reform i Instead of people getting govt jobs based on patronage they should be quali ed 1 Create civil service exam c Urban Reform i Instead of a single mayor who stands as political boss there needs to be a sytem with a city commissioner who actually runs daytoday operations A professional organizer who is hired as a neutral administrator d Electoral reform i More attention to voter registration ii Movement toward direct election of senators instead of going through state legislators iii Move to direct primaries iv Reform of the ballot to reduce corruption and inef ciency 1 Decide that Australians have best method of voting US adopts Australian ballot Formerly you went to the poll and received a ticket and you would place your ticket in a box a Discouraged multiparty voting Only could vote straight ticket VI Birth Control a Margaret Sanger coins the term birth control Came from large family of 11 children Mother had several miscarriage births died at young age Sanger became a nurse and advocate for birth control in early 19005 i There were methods of birth control but they were not entirely effective not publicized ii Sanger writes books on the subject sets up a clinic in NY b Comstock Law i Social Purity movement in 18705 prohibited distribution of quotobscene lewd or lascivious material through the mailquot ii Legislators claim that birth control is this material iii Sanger is jailed for days VII Eugenics a Lothrop Stoddard The Rising Tide of Color Against White World Supremacy b Laws allowing forced sterilization in 1907 3132013 National Issues in the quotProgressive Eraquot l Woman Suffrage a Review situation after Civil War i Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B Anthony National Woman Suffrage Association 1 Seneca Falls Convention in 1848 is a prewar watershed of Women39s suffrage a Abolitionism overwhelms the women39s suffrage movement b Debate over the 15th amendment divides women39s right to vote ii Lucy Stone American Woman Suffrage Association 1 Support the 15th amendment follow Frederick Douglass lead African americans need to capitalize on political momentum b Division and quotdoldrumsquot i Lasts until 1890 very little achieved in women39s rights c Revival of suffrage movement 189019105 i Two women39s suffrage associations unite ii Women being active in various areas in reform inspires greater activism in womens rights 1 Jane Adam39s settlement house movement activity in politics Interested in reforming society which leads to greater political action for women d Arguments for suffrage i Social housekeeping 1 Women need the right to vote because it is going to take women to clean up the political mess a Women are more moral than men so they are more suited to reforming society Corruption in politics is the product of males 2 Clearly plays on gender stereotypes at the time and succeeds e Tactics of the movement i Adopt a state by state strategy for suffrage ii In the state of Oregon this is a bit delayed 1912 iii One of the things blocking progress at state level is liquor industry 1 Do not want women to have the right to vote because they reasonably fear that women will favor prohibition legislation a Stems from the same kind of argument that women are making about how politics needs women39s moral virtue b Middle class women especially say that alcohol is a major social problem iv By 1910 women shift to a national strategy 1 Inspired by Great Britain women39s suffrage movement is quite militant a Emiline Pankers she and her daughters were leaders of the movement arrested for making angry speeches in parliament various social disorderly conduct Go on hunger strikes in jail b American women see this and try to adopt some of the tactics of these british women stage public protests suffrage parades i 1913 suffrage parade on Woodrow Wilson s inauguration day f WCTU Women39s Christian Temperance Union i Largest organization of women in the country at this time ii Liquor interest try to stop campaigns with their money ll Conservation of natural resources a Awareness of limits i At the beginning of the 19th century Americans believed that they would never run out of land or resources because of the massive untapped continent ii Great Lakes Forests 1 After the civil war massive pine forests in the Great Lakes region become valuable commodities No one believed that they could be cut down but by the 1890s the forests are depleted in a single generation a By the end of the 1800s many americans have a sense that resources are depleting i Near extinction of the Bison iii Growing sense that government needs to get involved in managing natural resources b Scienti c management of forests i Gifford Pinchot Friend of Teddy Roosevelt studies forest conservation in Europe Convinces president of this importance 1 Not concerned with sustaining healthy ecosystems or wildlife He is thinking of forest management on basis of scienti c principles to increase productivity over the long term a Past private enterprise system is going to lead to depletion sap the strength of the United States 2 Sustained yield management don39t want to exceed cutting down what is sustainable Replant areas that have been cut Suppress res a Now we know that re suppression is harmful to ecosystems b Controversial people in the west don39t like it Timber companies hate it c Roosevelt agrees however and begins to expand national forests 3 Becomes head of new federal agency The Forest Service a Grows federal preserves of forest land tremendously ii National parks and monuments 1 Growing sense of disappearing resources 2 Redwood Forests a Discovery of the redwood the largest tree in the world is a moment of national pride for the United States i The English were not willing to buy into this idea demanded proof US sent over cut down tree and reassembled it in London 1 Considerable battle over scienti c name of the tree Settle on Sequoia when Americans and British trying to name tree after Washington and Wellington respectively b Preserving redwoods as a national monument was inspired by the inferiority complex American had toward Europe It was a sign of American identity and greatness lll Antitrust a Sherman Antitrust Act1890 i Halfhearted attempt at stopping monopolies ii Says that large trusts are illegal but no enforcement mechanisms 1 Used more for breaking up unions than initial causes iii 1896 McKinley wins election 1 Says that American people are willing to trust big business 2 Bryan was attacking banks and concentration of wealth while McKinley was the candidate of big business b Roosevelt approach to Antitrusts 19011904 i Takes on trusts denounces them as quotmalefactors of great wealthquot ii Roosevelts approach to the trusts is not anticapitalists he says that capitalism needs to be saved from itself Capitalists are behaving so badly that they are giving credence to the arguments being put forward by socialists iii Northern Securities Company 1 Roosevelt39s rst target A railroad trust formed by merger of Northern Paci c and Great Northern railroads Gets justice department to go after them iv Trust Buster 1 TR gets reputation as a trust buster after he goes after some particularly bad examples 2 Wanted to scold business into behaving more responsibly 3 Not trying to break down capitalism trying to reform it for its own good c TR support for business regulation i Pure Food and Drug act 1906 1 Upton Sinclair39s Theunge created a public outcry over quality of prepared meat a A muckraking journalist Sinclair39s novel was designed to create sympathy for workers in meat processing plants instead the public demanded more sanitary food preparation lV Election of 1912 a William Howard Taft republican 1908 i TR claimed he did not want to run for of ce again but he changes his mind 1 Roosevelt felt that Taft was insuf ciently progressive too friendly to big business Begins to think of running for president again b Taft wins the nomination of the Republican party and Roosevelt forms his own party i Splits the republican party Roosevelt39s party becomes the Bull Moose Party c Democratic party i It has been in terrible shape for a long time still reeling from Civil War 1 William Jennings Bryan three time candidate loses all the time ii Decide to nominate an intellectual academic 1 Woodrow Wilson a southerner governor of New Jersey somewhat progressive Could appeal to north and west d Economic Election main issue in the race is the legitimacy of large corporations Becomes a debate between Roosevelt and Wilson i New Nationalism Roosevelt 1 Big business is here to stay Foolish to think of going to a preCivil War form of capitalism 2 We do need to have the federal government regulate these capitalist enterprise 3 Need to save capitalism from itself ii New Freedom Wilson 1 Suggests that going back to an earlier economy in which there was not big business 2 Wants to break up trusts won39t need regulation so much under these condition e Results i Wilson 418 435 electoral ii Roosevelt 274 88 iii Taft 232 8 iv Debs6 0 V Consequences of the 1912 election a New freedom or new nationalism i Wilson actually takes Roosevelts new nationalism approach Too dif cult to turn back the economic clock b Clayton Antitrust Act and Federal Trade Commission 1914 i More serious regulation on monopolistic industries ii Federal Reserve is established to monitor large banking industries iii Origins of the modern state economy c Consensus about trust and big business i Nation has decided that big business is here to stay but there needs to be some form of regulation 3152013 World War and Liberty l Outbreak of war in Europe a American society is fundamentally changed by events in Europe b War breaks out in 1914 i Serbian nationalist assassinates Archduke Ferdinand of the Austro Hungarian empire ii Diplomatic Alliance system in Europe unravels leads to most massive war 1 10 million soldiers die in WWl 2 Unprecedented level of and scale of warfare c After the war Spanish Flu killed additional 20 million II US entry into war April 1917 a Us remains neutral for most of the war holds to traditional isolationist policy i Quaint notion that congress might agree to war 1 Six senators voted against war 50 representatives vote against war including the rst woman to serve lll Internal divisions a quotSafe for democracyquot i Wilson s reason for taking the US to war ii The idea was that this was a battle between the forces of good and evil The united States must intervene on the side of the forces of good High moral language If quotthe Hunquot germans won democratic civilization would be destroyed b Opposition to war i Many suggested that struggle between Brits and Germans was an imperialist struggle over colonies ii Others held to traditions of isolationism c Progressives and the war i Most of the progressives who had been involved in the movement before the war decided that they would support the war ii Tried to calculate how going to war would help their domestic agendas 1 Going to war would strengthen the nation increase capacity for domestic reform by creating larger government unity greater national purpose iii Minority of progressives were deeply suspicious Felt that war would be a disaster Reasons for entering into the war seemed dubious 1 Dragged into the war by munitions industry 2 Feared the impact that war would have on American society a Likelihood that war would advance the causes of national strength liberty and democracy would destroy these things b Release forces of reaction 3 Jane Adams founded Women39s Peace party to oppose the war 4 Randolph Bourne critical of intellectuals in progressive circles who he formerly shared an agenda with IV Would the War advance liberty and democracy a Women i Suffrage movement growing in 19105 WWI helped them promote their agenda ii Woodrow Wilson as the Kaiser 1 Wilson s demand that war was to make the world safe for democracy was an ample opening for women to show the hypocrisy of American democracy 2 Women protest outside of the white house say that Wilson who opposed women39s suffrage was no better than the Kaiser 3 Alice Paul prominent suffrage activist iii 19th Amendment 1920 1 Wilson relents has to give in because of his own war rhetoric b Prohibition i Early movment in early 20th c for national prohibition 1 Different from temperance that was getting people to voluntarily give up alcohol ii War gives prohibition greater strength 1 Beer seen as an unpatriotic beverage Brewing industry is in the hands of GermanAmericans Makes it an easy target iii Passage of 18th amendment in 1919 iv Advance of liberty 1 People who wanted prohibition on belief that it strengthen the nation and created greater opportunity for liberty 2 Others felt that this was an affront to personal liberty c Immigrants i War leads to greater nativism in the United States 1 Resurgence of the KKK now targeting Jews Catholics Immigrants as well as African Americans ii Germans targeted at large 1 Sauerkraut as quotLiberty Cabbagequot iii Restriction on quotnew immigrantsquot and Asian immigration early 19205 1 Quota systems set up in way that prefer northern European groups Eliminate southern and Eastern euro groups d Free Speech i Popularity 1 War was not hugely popular loses popularity as time goes on a Government needs to sti e dissent feared that it would cause major problems ii Espionage Act 1917 1 Jail people for speaking out against the war iii Eugene Debs in Jail 1 Prominent socialist politicians 2 Convicted for ten year sentence after the war had ended Still gained 1 million votes while in jail e Labor Movement i AFL still largest labor union Still led by Sam Gompers 1 Still dedicated to staying out of politics and organizing skilled white owrkers 2 Support the war Hoped government would reward them Not supporting the war might see govt turn on them ii Industrial Workers of the War 1 More radical organization 2 Oppose the war 3 Many wobblies get arrested giving antiwar speeches knowing that they will be arrested iii Major crackdown on labor after Bolshevik Revolution in Russia 1 Russian revolution in 1917 Bolshevikscommunist seize power 2 Many people were willing to go after the labor movement in the US anyway after the Russian Revolution they have claim that all labor organizations are a threat as bad as the Bolsheviks 3 Has a severely negative impact on AFL even though they supported the war and distanced themselves from communist sympathizers f Native Americans i Enlistment 1 Native Americans enlisted in signi cant numbers In much greater proportion to their population than any other groups a Some want to prove loyalty to US others upholding tribal traditions of service in warfare b Native American women are nurses c 5 of Native American servicemen die in combat in comparision to 1 of deaths in total sercice ii Zitkala Sa39s Call for citizenship 1 Enthusiastic about citizenship for native americans but others suspicious iii Indians quotgrantedquot citizenship 1924 iv Some Indians rejection of quotgiftquot of citizenship 1 Re ecting on US policies towards native Americans see citizenship as another means of assimilation destruction of Native American culture g African Americans i Most African American leaders support WWI 1 Ida B Wells supported the war with same logic of Sam Gompers Supporting the war will get greater recognition and support from government ii Discrimination in Service 1 Served in the war in signi cant numbers 2 No Black troops allowed in victory parade iii Tulsa Oklahoma Race Riots 1921 1 Increase in violence between whites and blacks 2 Large well off African American community in Tulsa a Black man accused of raping a white woman taken into custody by police b Lynch mob forming armed African americans try to stop the mob Some violence c Whites in Tulsa respond to that by going to black part of Tulsa by burning the place to the ground and killing 300 people
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