Nutrition Exam 1 (Part 2)
Nutrition Exam 1 (Part 2) HNF 150- Intro to Human Nutrition
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Whitney Stilwell on Monday February 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HNF 150- Intro to Human Nutrition at Michigan State University taught by Nichole Martinson in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 367 views.
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Date Created: 02/09/15
FFT Caf Whole Grains OPEN Monday Jan 26 Diet Assessment Assignment 1 DUE THURSDAY Feb 5 IN CLASS AND ON ANGEL Week 3 Problem Set DUE Monday Feb 2 11 pm Carbohydrates and Diabetes Readings and Activities Chapter 4 13ed pp111155 12ed pp106148 REALLY HELPFUL STUFF ON ANGEL Learning Objectives 1 Describe the 4 types of carbohydrates and identify their food sources a Sugars simple carbohydrates that is molecules of either single units or pairs of those sugar units bonded together By common usage sugar most often refers to sucrose i 6 total sugar molecules important in nutrition 3 are monosaccharides and 3 are disaccharides ii Monosaccharides glucose fructose and galactose 1 fructose occurs mostly in fruit honey and part of table sugar Other sources are soft drinks ready to eat cereal and products sweetened with highfructose corn syrup 2 galactose makes the sugar in milk Rarely occurs free in nature but is tied up in milk sugar until freed during digestion iii disaccharidesactose maltose and sucrose all contain glucose 1 lactose glucose and galactose bound together to make milk sugar 2 maltose malt sugar has two glucose units Appears where starch is being broken down Occurs in germinating seeds and arises during the digestion of starch in the body 3 sucrose table sugar fructose and glucose are bound together to make this Occurs naturally in many vegetables and fruits tastes sweet because it contains the sweetest monosaccharide fructose b starch a plant polysaccharide composed of glucose After cooking starch is highly digestible by human beings raw starch often resists digestion i a plant s storage form of glucose in plants and is also nutritive for human beings ii found in corn grains potatoes and other foods from plants c glycogen long chains of glucose found in animals i resembles starch as it has glucose molecules linked together to form long chains but its chains are longer and more highly branched ii nearly undetectable in meats because it breaks down rapidly when the animal is slaughtered d ber i chains of sugars but the sugar bonds are held together by bonds that human digestive enzymes cannot break ii pass through the human body without providing energy for its use iii ber is NOT in any meats or dairy products iv two groups of bers 1 soluble dissolve in water form gels and are easily digested by bacteria in the human colon Found in oats barley legumes and citrus fruits 2 insoluble bers do not dissolve in water do not form gels and are less readily fermented Found in the outer layers of whole grains bran the strings of celery the hulls of seeds and the skins of corn kernels 2 Describe the process of digestion and absorption of simple sugars starch and ber a starch digestion starts in the mouth where an enzyme in saliva mixes with food and begins to split starch into maltose Once pushed into the stomach the salivary enzyme made of protein is deactivated by the stomachs protein digesting acid Starch digestion ceases in the stomach but continues in the small intestine where a starchsplitting enzyme sent from the pancreas breaks down the starch into disaccharides and small polysaccharides monosaccharides are absorbed by other enzymes Re ned starches digest very quickly some other starches digest very slowly and release glucose later on in the digestion process Resistant starch passes through the small intestine undigested Some can be digested very slowly but most remains intact until the bacteria in the colon break it down b simple sugars enter the body just like starch but undergo another split This split is accomplished by enzymes attached to the cells of the lining of the small intestine The monosaccharides cross these cells and are washed away in the rush of circulating blood that carries them to the liver The absorbed carbohydrates glucose galactose and fructose travel in the blood stream to the liver which can convert fructose and galactose to glucose The circulatory system transports the glucose and other products to the cells c ber Many of the bers can be digested fermented by the bacterial inhabitants of the colon May release gas as the bers are broken down 3 Identify and de ne the two types of ber explain how ber differs from other carbohydrates and describe how ber contributes to heath a soluble ber food components that readily dissolve in water and often impact gummy or gellike characteristics to foods b lnsoluble ber the tough brous structures of fruits vegetables and grains indigestible food components that do not dissolve in water c Unlike other carbohydrates ber cannot be broken down in the human body so most of it just passed through the digestive tract unchanged Some ber however is susceptible to fermentation by bacteria in the colon d bers are plant constituents that are not digested directly by human enzymes but their presence in the diet contributes to the health of the body i health bene ts include promotion of normal blood cholesterol concentrations and reduced risk of heart disease control of blood pressure reduced risk of hypertension modulation of blood glucose concentrations reduced risk of diabetes maintenance of healthy bowel function reduced risk of bowel disease and promotion of healthy body weight 4 Be able to state the daily value for ber as de ned by the Dietary Guidelines and the WHO recommendation for re ned sugars a Daily value for ber i 38 grams of total ber per day for men through age 50 30 grams for men 51 and older ii 25 grams of total ber per day for women through age 50 21 grams for women 51 and older iii 45 servings of fruits 45 servings of vegetables b World Health Organization recommendation for re ned sugars i 010 of total calories from re ned added sugars 5 Explain how hormones control blood glucose concentrations during both fasting and feasting a Insulin stimulates glucose storage as glycogen i After a meal when blood glucose rises the pancreas release insulin which signals the body s tissues to take up extra glucose Muscle and adipose tissue take up some excess glucose to build glycogen in muscles or convert it into fat b glucagon helps to release glucose from its glycogen nest i the liver releases glucose into the bloodstream for the brain and other tissues when the supply is running low When blood glucose starts to fall too low glucagon oods the bloodstream and triggers the breakdown of liver glycogen to free glucose Enzymes in the liver cells attack the glycogen to release a surge of glucose into the blood for use by all the body s cells 6 Compare and contrast the differences between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes including causes symptoms and treatment a type 1 the type of diabetes in which the pancreas produces no or very little insulin often diagnosed in childhood although some cases arise in adulthood Formerly called juvenile onset or insulindependent diabetes i arises when the person s own immune system misidenti es the protein insulin as an enemy and attacks the cells of the pancreas that produces it thus resulting in the pancreas not being able to produce insulin anymore ii glucose concentrations build up in the blood after eating a meal while body tissues are starving for glucose The person must receive insulin from an external source to assist the cells in taking up the fuel it needs from the bloodstream iii must be injected in a shot because it protein and would be digested if it were taken orally iv no solution to type 1 diabetes v possible causes genetics viral infections diseases toxins allergens disordered immune system vi treatments regular insulin injection matching food intake b type 2 the type of diabetes in which the pancreas makes plenty of insulin but the body s cells resist insulin s action often diagnosed in adulthood i body tissues lose their sensitivity to insulin muscle and adipose tissue don t respond to insulin by increasing their uptake of glucose from the blood As blood glucose climbs higher the pancreas continues to producer larger amounts of insulin ii risk of developing type 2 rises with weight gain aging and physical inactivity and falls with a nutritious diet as part of a healthy lifestyle iii can be reversed by a healthy diet iv possible causes genetics lifestyle factors abdominal fat v treatments healthy lifestyle exercise don t smoke 7 Compare and contrast the nutrient differences between whole grains and re ned grains and the components of the grain included in each type of food a nutrient differences in whole grains and re ned grains i whole grain bread has 100 of the nutrients iron thiamin ribo avin niacin vitamin B6 folate ber magnesium and zinc ii re ned grains unenriched have levels much lower ranging in only 2030 of the nutrients that are originally in whole grain bread iii re ned enriched grains have higher values in the iron thiamin ribo avin niacin and folate only because they are required to add those back into the bread after re nement b components of the grain in food i bran quotouter shellquot protects seed the chief ber donator of a grain also B vitamins and minerals ii germ nourishment for the seed inner part of the grain provides B vitamins vitamin E and antioxidants iii endosperm provides energy carbohydrates and protein 8 Describe the relationship between different types of carbohydrates whole grains re ned grains and sugars sugar and high fructose corn sweetener and cardiovascular disease obesity dental caries and diabetes a whole grains i eating whole grains gives you a lower chance of getting type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease b re ned grains i eating re ned sugars and ours has been observed to relate to diabetes ii eating re ned carbohydrates easily provides excess calories that contribute to body fat stores and type 2 diabetes rises in direct proportion to body fatness c sugars i mouth bacteria rapidly metabolize sugars into acids that cause dental caries ii drinking one or more sugarsweetened soft drinks a day has been linked to diabetes iii high fructose corn syrup is linked to obes y iv a diet high in fructose speci cally high fructose corn syrup could eventually lead to prediabetes Termsconcepts Given the termsconcepts be able to provide the de nition of the term according to the readings and lecture notes Given a de nition of the termconcept andor an example be able to state the term 1 simple sugar simple carbohydrate sugars including both single sugar units and linked pairs of sugar units The basic sugar unit is a molecule containing six carbon atoms together with oxygen and hydrogen atoms 2 monosaccharide single sugar units mono means one saccharide means sugar unitquot 3 disaccharide pairs of single sugars linked together 4 polysaccharide another term for complex carbohydrates compounds composed of long strands of glucose units linked together 5 glucose a single sugar used in both plant and animal tissues for energy sometimes known as blood sugar or dextrose most used monosaccharide in the body 6 fructose a monosaccharide sometimes known as fruit sugar the intensely sweet sugar of fruit is made by rearranging the atoms in glucose molecules 7 sucrose a disaccharide composed of glucose and fructose sometimes known as table beet or cane sugar and often as simply sugar 8 maltose a disaccharide composed of two glucose units sometimes known as malt sugar 9 lactose a disaccharide composed of glucose and galactose sometimes known as milk sugar 10 starch a plant polysaccharide composed of glucose After cooking starch is highly digestible by human beings raw starch often resists digestion 11 ber the indigestible parts of plant foods largely nonstarch polysaccharides that are not digested by human digestive enzymes although some are digested by resident bacteria of the colon Fibers include cellulose hemicellulose pectins gums mucilages and the nonpolysaccharide lignin 12 types of ber a soluble ber food components that readily dissolve in water and often impart gummy or gellike characteristics to foods An example is pectin from fruit which is used to thicken jellies Soluble bers are indigestible by human enzymes but may be broken down to absorbable products by bacteria in the digestive tract b insoluble ber the tough brous structures of fruits vegetables and grains indigestible food components that do not dissolve in water 13 ketosis an undesierable high concentration of ketone bodies such as acetone in the blood or urine 14 ketosis in pregnancy 15 re ned refers to the process by which the course parts of food products are removed 16 enriched refers to the addition of nutrients to a re ned food product 17 whole grain grains or foods made from them that contain all the essential parts and naturally occurring nutrients of the entire grain seed except the husk not re ned 18 3 parts of grains bran endosperm and germ 19 glycogen a highly branched polysaccharide that is made and stored by liver and muscle tissues of human beings and animals as a storage form of glucose Glycogen is not a signi cant food source of carbohydrate and is not counted as one of the complex carbohydrates in foods 20 high fructose corn syrup a commercial sweetener used in many foods including soft drinks Composed almost entirely of the monosaccharides fructose and glucose its sweetness and caloric value are similar to sucrose 21 glucagon a hormone secreted by the pancreas that stimulates the liver to release glucose into the blood when blood glucose concentration dips 22 insulin a hormone secreted by the pancreas in response to a high blood glucose concentration It assists cells in drawing glucose from the blood 23 lactose intolerance impaired ability to digest lactose due to reduced amounts of the enzyme lactase 24 glycemic indexload Gl a ranking of foods according to their potential for raising blood glucose relative to a standard such as glucose or white bread GL a mathematical expression of both the glycemic index and the carbohydrate content of a food meal or diet glycemic index X carbohydrate
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