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Exam 1 Review

by: Alyssa Rothfeld

Exam 1 Review PSY110

Alyssa Rothfeld
GPA 3.5
Professor Gillis

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Professor Gillis
Study Guide
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alyssa Rothfeld on Monday February 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY110 at University of Miami taught by Professor Gillis in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 214 views. For similar materials see Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Miami.

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Date Created: 02/09/15
Six Approaches 1Psych0analytic Freud our personalities consist of ID ego superego studied the unconscious mindearly childhood experiences relating to sex and development 2 Behavioral Watson Skinner in 1913 Watson wrote an article debating Freud because he thought the work was imaginary only behavior can be observedmeasured Skinner studied rats and pigs egdog hears a bell and gets food from now on when he hears the bell he will salivate because he relates the bell and food 3 Gestalt Kohler Wertheimer look at the big picture study peoples expressions movement clothing not just what they are saying the whole is more than the sum of its parts 4 Humanistic Maslow Rogers all people are motivated to reach their full potential however we get stopped along the way by negativity of important peoplelife 5 Cognitive thinking memory language problem solving creativity a thoughtthinking we tend to repress or not know what we are thinking 1950s 1960s claims behaviorists are wrong 6 BiologicalMedicalPhysiological brain chemistry hormones gendermen are physically more aggressive than women Important Figures Charles Darwin 1859 O biologist associates with the theory of evolution natural selection adaptation survival of the fittest 0 On the Origin of Species by Charles Darwin natural selection acts on individual differences in the population and that natural selection could not occur if there were no natural variation in a population to begin with This led to investigations of individual differences in people which led to psychology Sir Francis Galton 1884 anthropometric lab studied individual differences famous for eugenics killing off things that are not the best collected data on people in a street fair type lab in London measured height weight strength breathing capacity vision memory etc all ages 0 further away you are from someone family wise the further you are in characteristics Wilhelm WundtTitchener O 1879 Wundt setup a university program to study psychology in a scienti c matter 0 1893 Titchener was a student came to US and founded rst American school of psychology school of structuralism introspection research technique that involves a careful observation of one s own reactions to a stimulus trained to look within ie you stare at the sunset then analyze your own thinking about the sunset our main feature is cognition awareness so lets break that down into other awarenesses involving our senses structuralism William James O O wrote Principles of Psychology in 1890 gave us the idea of stream of consciousness if uninterrupted you go from one thing to another your mind wanders Sigmund Freud 1900 0 world famous in Vienna Austria and throughout Europe also has a reputation in America book on interpretation of dreams dreams are motivated by your subconscious mind which affects our behavior and mind Ivan Pavlov 1920s 0 eXperiment put German shepherds in tight harnesses and put tubes in their salivary glands collected saliva and presented food to see how much the dogs salivated problem everytime the man who fed walked back in the dogs would salivate upon seeing him therefore the data was skewed this happened because they associate that man with food because he s the one feeding them John Watson 1913 0 only wants to study things that can be observed such as behavior 0 founded school of behaviorism in 1920s 0 famous for little Alvert studies he put baby Alvert on the bed and presented a white rat Alvert was happy to see it play with it pat it Afterwards the rat was put in front of Alvert and the doctors starteld the baby with pots and pans The next time the rat was placed in front of the baby he was kicking screaming and crying because he associated the rat with the noises from potspans tried to counter condition the phobia but the baby was adopted before he had the chance 0 believed phobias are classically conditioned and you could teach a phobia to a baby Scientific Method 1 science begins with careful observation humans have always wanted to know about the world around them 2 after observation we develop theories are never proven and connect the dots theory is just simple tentative eXplanation from our observations 3 theories lead to 1 testable hypothesis can be proven false 0 ex take 40 people and divide in half one group gets coffee the other doesn t if there is a stimulant one thing has to be different we can t measure too many things if theres a stimulant the heart rate of coffee group should be higher 4 test the hypothesis and see if your answer is proved or disapproved Two Approaches to Research 1 True Experiment randomly dividing subjects into 2 groups in order to get groups that are equal on uncontrollable variables age intelligence gender therefore we have equaled the effect of extraneous variables If we don t do this any of those extraneous third variables might explain any effect we observe on the dependent variable and we could not infer causality ex mean coffee gp 75 bpm mean no coffee gp 65 bpm may infer that coffee CAUSED an increase in heart rate 2 Correlational Method measure two variables calculate the relationship 0 Pearson s Correlation two variables move togetherdirect relationship Weaknesses in the Correlation Method Third Variable Problem weakness in correlation studies caused by the fact that a correlation between any two variables may be caused by an unknown third variable Directionality Problem If A and B are correlated we don t know if changes in A cause changes in B or vice versa gt quot CORRELATION DOES NOT IMPLY CAUSATION correlation studies often have directionality problems Testable Hypothesis must be disconfirmable or falsifiable so that an experiment can either support it or not May explain one outcome with one explanation and a second outcome with a second explanation etc finding alternate explanations make a prediction and ONLY THEN collect the data to see if it comes out as predicted Fields of Specialization 1 Human Services P clinical phddoctorate psyc b counseling everyday life adjustments c community navigate social workerfinance housing d school interact with students motivate amp discipline 2 Applied Fmer o H J educational forensic legal jurors lawyers judges sports industrial organization health medical setting doc patient relationships engineering user friendly equipment 3 Experimental PPSHF social personalty cognitive developmental change grow over a lifetime physiologicalmedicalbiological Two Branches of Statistics Descriptive present date in an easy to understand way 1 Measure of Central Tendency a Mean the average b Median falls in middle distribution of numbers c Mode most frequently Measure of Variability range difference between high and low a Range b Standard Deviation S average extent to which all scores vary from the mean c Variance Zscore subtract population mean from individual score st dev The Normal Curve Correlation coef cient Pearson s r Ranges from 10 to 10 A correlation has 2 qualities direction and magnitude Negative correlation two variables go in opposite directions Correlation is 0 it is weaknonexistent Positive Correlation variables vary together in same direction Correlations have two independent qualities Magnitude and Direction 6 7 Graphs Bar Histograms Line Graphs Data Tables Inferential uses some descriptive statistics make judgments or inferences about reality ztest ttest Ftest ANOVA Regression Chi Square X2 Biological Basis of Behavior 1 Overview of the Nervous System NEWDIUE System H Central imam hEF E mati y lluntary Autonomic EEI39fFE39QILJIEIWQ Peri Eym pathetic F Harman Bajraaympalhelnc Qualmmngj Central Nervous System consists of brain and spinal cord processes ingoing and outgoing messages Peripheral Nervous System transmits messages to and from the central nervous system 0 Somatic Nervous System 0 Autonomic Nervous System Neuron cell that is the basic unit of the nervous system consists of cell body dendrites axon and terminal buttons 3 Types of Neurons l Sensory carries messages to the CNS from receptors eyes nose ears skin organs 2 Motor transmits messages from CNS to muscles and glands 3 Interneurons they connect the messages between the others and they communicate with one another Synapse says stop and tells who and what to go where holds vesicles which contain neurotransmitters Cell Body largest part of the neuron contains nucleus which contains genetic info encoded in DNA Dendrites branch like extensions from a neuron with the specialized function of receiving messages from surrounding neurons Axon extension of a neuron that transmits an impulse from cell body to terminal buttons on tip of the axon Terminal Buttons structure on end of axon that releases chemical substances known as neurotransmitters Neurotransmitter chemical messenger that transmits an impulse across synaptic gap from one neuron to another storage release metabolism reuptake resynthesize Neurotransmitter Substances Acetylcholine released from motoneurons onto muscle bers to make them contract related to learning memory and movement Norepinephrine excitatory neurotransmitter distributed throughout central and peripheral nervous system relating to emotional arousal and stress Dopamine motor movement attention learning and memory dopamine system mediates reward and pleasure and it s the substance of addiction Serotonin control of sleepwake cycle mood and appetite de ciencies associated with sleep disorders aggression and depression Gammaaminobutyric acid GABA major inhibitory neurotransmitter in brain and spinal cord regulating arousal and anxiety Glutamate glutamic acid excitatory function Myelin Sheath insulating cover around some axons increases neuron s ability to transmit impulses quickly Neuromodulators Natural Opioids Endorphins inhibit the transmission of pain information The Brain Imaging techniques CAT computerized axial tomography used to locate brain abnormalities PET positron emission tomography technique used to study the brain MRI magnetic resonance imaging studying the brain using radio waves to excite hydrogen protons FMRI functional mri measures energy released by brain cells that are active during specific tasks Lesions damaging removing tissues stimulation and recording EEG Cerebral Cortex thin outer layer of brain cerebrum responsible for movement perception thinking and memory Frontal Lobe responsible for movement emotion and memory Parietal Lobe somatosensory cortex controls temperature pressure pain Temporal Lobe contains hippocampus and is responsible for long term memory Occipital Lobe visual processing 0 Primary Visual Cortex processing visual information 0 Visual Association Cortex Broca s Area controls speech can still speak but the uidity and ller words are missing Wernicke s Area primary for understanding speech Central Fissure Motor and Sensory regions Brain Plasticity Sensory Cortex receiving sensory messages Motor Cortex transmits messages to muscles Auditory Cortex receives info from auditory sensors 0 Agnosia inability to know or recognize objects through the senses usually caused by brain injury or disease visual agnosia is failure to recognize or ID objects visually even though they can be seen 0 Prosopagnosia inability to recognize particular faces caused by brain disease and injury can see the face but not recognize it is familiar Split Brain and Lateralization a Left Hemisphere Analysis Verbal Activity talking understanding speech reading writing b Right Hemisphere synthesis putting elements together perceive whole maps 3D sketch Visual Perception and Attention Figure Ground can t discriminate gure from the background they should stand out Illusory Contours evoke the perception of an edge when there isn t one Grouping of elements gestalt laws of grouping a Law of Proximity objects near each other tend to be grouped together b Law of Similarity items that are similar tend to be grouped together c Law of Good Continuity points connected by straight or curving lines are seen as together d Law of Closure we ignore gaps and complete contoured lines we ll in gaps of information Depth Perception A Binocular cues depend on both eyes working together 0 Binocular Disparity leads to stereopsis in the brain difference in retinal image of an object as seen from each eye due to difference in viewing angles retinal disparity 0 Convergence if you are focusing on something it s easier to focus at a far away point then you start to bring it towards you and you can t focus or see it anymore and your eyes are strained B Monocular cues 1 eye distance cues such as linear perspective and height on a plane 0 Motion ParallaxRelative Motion objects close move more objects further away move less the sun moving with you 0 Elevation above the horizon higher the person above the horizon the closer they are to us o Interposition objects close to use tend to block out parts of objects that are farther away Linear Perspective the road gets narrower as it is farther away parallel lines Aerial Perspective things in the distance are lighter or hazier Relative brightness objects in the foreground are brighter OOOO Texture Gradient owers are getting smaller in the distance even though they are the same size or when grass seems glossier from far away then you go up close and see it s rough o Shading gives important information about distance or depth e g cartoons Perceptual Constancy objects are normally perceived as constant in size color or brightness and shape despite their retinal images change according to different conditions a Size Constancy as baseball players are farther away from you they look smaller also the owers getting smaller in the distance b Shape Constancy the door which is swung open and looks like a different shape than when it is closed c Brightness Constancy when lighting is reduced it s harder to see the color or whiteness of an object but the brain compensates for the amount of light and can gure the color out 01 Color Constancy objects we see in the dark to be the same color as they appear during the day even though their retinal images change Other Issues in Perception a TopDown Processing seeing the whole picture than only seeing the details unless necessary b BottomUp Processing seeing pieces or elements than de ning the whole Perceptual Set we hearsmell taste feel what we expect or what is consistent with our preconceived notions O Selective Perception perceive stimuli that are consistent with expectations and to ignore those that are inconsistent e g you meet an honest 12 year old you wouldn t expect a different 12 year old to steal from you Attention psychological selection mechanism that determines which stimuli an organism responds to or perceives What is attention we are drawn to what we see can pay attention without moving a muscle What happens when you pay attention to something you are missing something happening elsewhere in other parts of your sight eld you can shift from right to left visual eld Dichotic listening studies of 1950s where participants shadowed one ear while ignoring input to the other ear Cocktail party phenomenon listening to who you re talking to but if you hear something that catches your attention you stop and look over you don t even know you heard it but your ears scan and pick it up drawn magically when you hear your name Sensory Adaptation decrease in response of sensory receptors to stimuli when exposed to continual unchanging stimulation Synesthesia one type of sensory stimulation evokes the sensation of another hearing a sound produces visualization of color Perceptual Organization structure sensations lines brightness and points into the objects we perceive Perceptual Grouping organize patterns of stimuli into larger units according to proximity similarity and good continuation Proximity organize perceptions by grouping elements that are nearest to each other Similarity group elements that are similar to one another beliefs interest values Sleep amp Altered States What is consciousness we are aware of being aware i am aware of you but I am aware that you are aware of me and you re aware that I am aware of you The Mark Test rouge and marker child will see the marker on their nose in the mirror and not know it is them because they haven t seen the marker on themselves before and older child will touch their nose to see what s on their nose because they realize it is them What is Altered Consciousness Sleep the best studied altered state Brain activity varies during sleep people would be taken to a sleep lab and hooked up to an EEG machine that monitors brainwaves 0 Beta Waves produced when people are wide awake 0 Alpha Waves produced when we begin to relax 0 Stage l234 nonREM are the stages of sleep stage 4 being deep sleep 0 REM rapid eye movement sleep dreaming phase Visual Dreams visualize dream as a movie your brain keeps up with the action but it s not aware it s at high speed a dream of 15 minutes may feel like it s been an hour your eyes track what you re seeing Narrative Dreams Hypnogogic State happens right before we fall asleep we review what happened to us during the day especially things that caused anxietyfrustration you can snap and you re wide awake again Circadian Rhythms melatonin daily rhythms sunlight causes this we are not nocturnal creatures maybe not in modern life but in the nature we experience this naturally produced in your brain when the sun goes down when it comes up the sun goes through your eyelids and counteracts the melatonin Why do we sleep 1 Repair Theory to repair damage throughout the day emotionally and physically you need beauty rest 2 Adaptive Nonresponding we ve adapted to sleeping in the dark because we have horrible night vision compared to predators we sleep during the time when our predators are not around and when our food sources are available Sleep Disorders Insomnia no or insuf cient sleep Narcolepsy constantly falling asleep uncontrolled sleep attacks sudden infant death syndrome SIDS we have c02 detectors that detect when we are intaking too much and we will turn and gasp and get air when a baby can detect it they hopefully will turn but some babies don t have a functioning c02 detector and they don t realize the build up and they keep breathing it and die take out artificial fabrics because babies can t breath with them Sleep Apnea adults may stop breathing during the night they forget how to breathe associated with snoring pulled out of sleep many times during the night so no restful sleep this affects so many issues with health Sleep Walking somnambulism occurs in deep sleep Sleep Talking may or may not occur during dreams Bed Wetting enuresis Nocturnal Myoclonus thrashing about while sleeping uncontrolled leg movements or slam arms around situp this is a deep level of sleep Why do we dream 1 Repression Hypothesis Freudian theory repression is when you push uncomfortable memory and feelings into unconscious states dreams are motivated by the unconscious mind the dream is the royal road to the unconscious mind every dream image has at least 2 ways of looking at it manifest content and latent lets say you dream about a train going into a tunnel Freud says it s about seX the train representing the manifest content and the seX representing the latent the dream landscape is the private property of the dream 2 ActivationSynthesis Hypothesis when you go to sleep at night although your cerebral cortex is turned off it isn t 100 off it remains active and random neurons may fire reptilian brain becomes alive and tries to synthesize a story lower brain tries to connect the dots and connect a story also known as random neural activity 3 Problem Solving Hypothesis we dream to solve our problems first dream about occurrences today second dream about something similar to that thats happened earlier in your life the next dream is some sort of synthesis between the two when you resolve first problem with information from second problem when you re not allowed to dream you can become psychotic 4 Memory Consolidation memory will become damaged if you don t get REM sleep pick out the important things we want to store Hypnogogic State occurs between waking and sleeping


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