Ecology Study guide 1 for midterm 1
Ecology Study guide 1 for midterm 1 BIOSC 0370
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kyle Suess on Monday February 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOSC 0370 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Dr. Beldsoe in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see Ecology in Biological Sciences at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 02/09/15
1 De ne the technical terms biosphere natural selection ecological environment used in lecture Scienti c natural history study of nature and natural phenomena structure and function of nature the quotworkingquot of nature homeostasis Gaia hypothesis proposed by James Lovelock Lynn Margulis Earth is self regulating entity super organism Ecology formal de nition scienti c study of the interactions that determine the distribution abundance and cooccurrence of organisms interactions occur bw organisms and their environments includes other organisms conspeci cs members of same species population group of conspeci cs community set of populations of different species Biosphere thin shell of Earth capable of supporting life Ecosystem make up biosphere set of communities and their abiotic surroundings Natural Selection Differential survival and reproduction resulting from the possession of different inherited forms of a trait bw conspeci cs causal relationship bw trait selection and survival 2 What is Ecology Haeckel coined the term ecology The scienti c study of the interactions that determine the distribution abundance and co occurrence of organisms interactions bw organisms and their environments What basic observations lead to the de nition of ecology many species on Earth 19 million named and described species each has unique limited distribution abundance of each species varies in space and time not all species occur together cooccurrence species occur in limited sets or communities 3 How does ecology relate to natural history To environmental science natural history study of nature and natural phenomena topics peripheral to ecology astronomy environmental science organisms interact with the environment can effect distribution etc 4 Goals of Ecology How do these goals relate to the use of ecological knowledge by humans Description identify proximate immediate and ultimate evolutionary causes for the abundance distribution and cooccurrence of organisms Stephen Emlen indigo bunting yearly cycle causal cue of bunting fall migration photoperiod Prediction use of knowledge to predict events pop response to global warming American beach tree Application applied ecology use of ecological knowledge toward human ends steps to prevent extinction under global warming try to slow temp change 5 De ne and Distinguish proximate cause and ultimate cause lndigo bunting proximate cause for migration is photoperiod migratory restelessness ultimate evolutionary cause birds that migrate have selective advantage nd food warmth 6 Hierarchical structure of ecological systems Biosphere thin shell of earth capable of supporting life Ecosystems set of communities and their abiotic surroundings Communities set of populations of different species Population group of conspeci cs lndividualsramets 7 Scienti c method with ecological example Observations curious natural history observations monarch butter ies migrate south Question leads to competing hypotheses why are the butter ies migrating south Prediction migrate north to breed Testexperiment or additional observation mark butter ies see where they go and what they do Negative revise hypothesis Positive make additional predictions and test them Theory construction and explanation explanatory well integrated set of well tested hypotheses strong set of ideas not conjectural 8 Three main approaches ecologists use to gain insight into ecological systems How are they related How do they differ Experimental keep as many variables as possible the same manipulate one variable and chart response requires control and treatment group isolates effect of the one variable ex photoperiod Modelingsimulation establish qualitative or quantitative quotimagequot of basics of complex system run model or simulation determine if result is a pattern seen in nature can identify variables that effect the pop Comparative take advantage of similar natural circumstances that differ in some one or few attributes ex island and island size at pymatuning naturally occurring variable size and naturally occurring constants longitude latitude topography 9 What is meant by quotenvironmentquot in ecology in general terms and in terms of distinctions external ecological and selective In general surroundings ex thermal environment temp around organisms External factors of ones surroundings irrespective of whether factors in uence an organisms ecology Ecological when survivalreproduction of a given genotype is a function of surroundings subset of factors of external environment affecting survival and reproduction Selective when different genotypes have different tness in a given environment factors that in uence depending on genotype 10 quotPopulationquot why is the concept so useful in ecology even though population boundaries are rarely discrete in nature composition conspeci cs location at a particular time and place functional nature how conspeci cs interact reproductive individuals capable of interbreeding sexuallyasexually ecological individuals interact ecologically via competition De nitions of population is combo of composition location and functional nature Population as a conceptual tool rarely discrete may not have well de ned spatial boundaries distribution of red kangaroo makes it hard to say what pop is de ned according to interests of investigator ex song sparrow learning of vocalizations need area of enough song sparrows so they communicate and can put bands on them to track them serulian warbler pop declining game commission needs to survey entire state 11 How are distribution and abundance related density usually drops at edge of geographic distribution as density approaches 0 we approach limit of geographic distribution as density increases distribution becomes continuous D more lled in quot ip sides of the same coinquot 12 Natural Selection De nition Differential survival and reproduction resulting from possession of different inherited forms of a trait bw conspeci cs causal relationship bw trait selection and survival Requirements 1 trait variation expressed graphically 2 trait heritability 3 consistent relationship bw trait form and survivalreproduction Populations evolve not individuals change in relative frequencies of a trait in a pop over generations Natural selection does not generate variation mutation is source of variation some may maintain variation crossing overrecombination also generates variation 13 why is mean variation important with respect to natural selection if mean value does change D evolutionary change is occurring D adaptive evolution Why is variance of that mean important variance of the mean can show the variation of the trait statistically there can be no change in mean trait value yet variance can increase which is the effect of evolutionary change 14 Why is natural selection so important to ecology Natural selection is what gives populations its differences in the populations If every individual in a population was the same it would continue to grow and consume all its resources until everything was gone It results in competitive advantages allowing organisms to out compete others
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