1st Exam Notes! :)
1st Exam Notes! :) MIS 322
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Becca Savino on Monday February 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MIS 322 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Saldanha in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 185 views. For similar materials see Enterprise Business Process Analysis in Computer Science and Engineering at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 02/09/15
Chapter 1 Information System Analysis and Design SAD Complex organizational processes that is used to create and maintain computerbased information systems Main focus is Application software The model of SAD 0 Business need 9 Information need 9 Information Systems need 0 Always starts with a business need Methodologies What needs to be done There are many ways to accomplish this 0 Eg Fender of a car Technique How it will get done There are different techniques to use to get to the same methodology 0 Could be manually done or automated Tool Using what is it to be done The actual tool used to accomplish your task 0 Manually weld use robot to attach System Development Methodology SDM The standardized process which is followed in an organization in order to correctly conduct all the steps needed to analyze design implement and maintain information systems Systems Development Life Cycle SDLC Traditional methodology used to develop maintain and replace information systems Works as an organizing and guiding principle Creates boundaries that separate activities and processes for learning 5 stages Planning 0 Gaining information about prospective project 0 Determine the scope of the system 0 Analysis 0 Determine study and structure requirements Design 0 Logical Functional feature of program that are made without a computer platform 0 Physical technologyspecific details that outline how the entire system will be made Implementation 0 Coding testing installation documentation Maintenance 0 New releases of software system change requirements Advantages of SDLC Waterfall model Accuracy Finding the aws before anything get implemented More cost efficient Structure More focused research Disadvantages Takes longer If anything is missing we cannot go to the next step There isn t much room for feedback It s hard to go back and add new requirements to the system The customer is only involved in beginning and ending stages Lack of user involvement Different Approaches to Improving Development Case tools Computeraided software engineering In the Central Repository Diagramming tools graphical representation Computer displays and report generators help prototype systems develop the look and feelquot of software Documentation generators Standardize technical and user data Automatically checks for consistency in diagrams forms and reports RAD Rapid Application Development Decreases design amp implementation time Extensive user involvement Prototyping develop a very small version with few features take it to the customer and make sure that it has all the features the customer needs Integrated CASE tools Code generators There is a feedback loop in User Design amp Construction Stages Service Oriented Architecture SOA Assembles software components each of which model generic business functions Agile Methodologies developing software that can quickly change Adaptive rather than predictive Emphasize people rather than roles Selfadaptive processes eXtreme Programming Automated tests Twoperson programming tests cyclical in nature Focus on speed and speedy output Advantages less time Disadvantage less focused on documentation Object Oriented Analysis and Design OOAD Based on objects not data and processes Object A structure that that encompasses attributes and behaviors of real world entity Object Class Logical groupings of objects sharing attributes Inheritance Hierarchical arrangement of classes enable subclasses to inherit properties of superclasses 0 1e Person customer manager 0 Chapter 2 Out Sourcing Using a company organization outside your firm for information system application and operations Why outsource 0 Cost cheaper o Economies of scale buy in bulk get a discount 0 Free internal resources 0 Increase efficiencies reduce time to market 0 If systems development is not a core activity IT Service Firms Customizes an information system for internal use Pro Very personalized Con very expensive 0 When it should be used 0 When system cannot be built in house or system needs to be sourced Packaged Software Not very customizable and only meets about 70 of organizations needs Pro Cheaper than customized solutions Cons most likely will not meet all your needs 0 When it should be used 0 When task is generic ERP Systems Monitor and track all functions throughout a business Pro cross functionality between groups within large corporation Cons very expensive and timely to implement throughout entire organization 0 When it should be used 0 Complete systems that have cross functional areas Cloud Computing Stored on some server somewhere Not stored in own infrastructure Pro Only pay for what you use offers exibility Con Not great with cross functionality 0 When it should be used 0 When you need a quick solution generic task Open Source Software Free anyone can use and add to it Pro cheap Con Performs the same functions as commercial software 0 When it should be used 0 When cost is a problem and task is generic In House Development System that was developed by some or all the organizations own staff Pros completely customizable Con Taking away internal resources to build system 0 When it should be used 0 When resources and staff are available and it must be built from scratch Factors in selecting off the shelf software Cost Functionality Vendor support Viability of vendor Flexibility Documentation Response Time Ease of Installation Request for proposal RFP A document given to vendors asking for a proposal for hard software system that will meet the requirements of a new system Reuse of Software They should still maintain functionality Can be utilized for many purposes Functionality the way you use it doesn t change juicers can put different fruits in a juicer you still just juice The availability of the software Important characteristics of reusable software Abstraction the details of the software are abstract to you as a user Users can use the software without worrying about the details of it Storage storing it in a fashion that others can find it Recontextualization The context changes but the product does not Different users can use it in their own contexts Procedural Software Languages Less potential for reuse ObjectOriented development Core principle is reuse Componentbased development Core principle is reuse Main advantages if there is a small change in functionality you can update small components instead of the whole program Many different components can use the same base software Componentbased development The assembly of an application from many different components at many different levels of complexity and size Approaches to Reuse AdHoc people are free to use their own software or develop reusable assents on their own Facilitated People are encouraged to reuse software Managed Mandated to reuse software in sharing and developing Designed assets mandated reuse for creation of other software Cost amp benefits of reuse After a period of time there is a high value per unit investment Chapter 3 Project Management Activities Why do we need Project Management Keeps everyone focusing on the correct direction Create and enforce deadlines accountability Organization Resource allocation One of the most important aspect of systems development Main contact point between the customer meeting customer expectations Skills take awhile to develop and learn How projects start System Service Request SSR o Create a SSR to the IT department stating their requirements for the new system Feasibility study 0 Study that determines if a requested system makes economic and operational sense for an organization Phases Phase 1 Project Initiation Decide how big the project is 0 Establish I Team I Relationship with customer I Detailed plan at this stage I What you want your manager to be overseeing I All is documented in a workbook Stores everything needed to create the project Phase 2 Project Planning Define clear steps needed to achieve each activity 0 Tasks I Define scope alternatives and feasibility I Divide project into tasks I Develop plans schedules and preliminary budget I Level of detail of planning lessens as the project goes along Statement of work SOW quotcontractquot between IS staff and the customer regarding deliverables and time estimates for a system development project The Baseline Project Plan BPP Contains estimates of scope benefits schedules costs risk and resource requirements Preliminary Budget Cost benefit analysis Work Breakdown Structure WBS Division of project into manageable and logically ordered tasks and subtasks 0 Phase 3 Project Execution Plans are put into action 0 Actions I Execute plans I Monitor progress I Maintain project workbook I Communicate status of project 0 Phase 4 Project Close down End project 0 Actions I Close down Project I Postproject reviews I Close contract Project Managers are trying to evaluate the duration of the project 0 They come up with a realistic time r optimistic time o and a pessimistic time p 0 Estimated Time 0 ETo4rp6 Implementing Inventory Management Systems Benefits Labor costs Visibility Tracking Storage costs Many benefits are intangible System costs Training Maintenance You don t always base decision off of benefits outweigh the costsquot because there are many intangible benefits and costs associated with each project Statement of work Trying to come up with a contract with what IT staff will have control over Baseline Project Plan BPP Baseline what you want your project to be achieving Work Breakdown Structure WBS Dividing projects into small manageable tasks Scheduling diagrams Gantt chart network diagram Estimating Task Duration Based on optimistic pessimistic and realistic time calculate the expected time of project Once you calculate the expected time only use that time not optimistic pessimistic or realistic Critical path The shorted time that the project can be completed When calculating time add all the expected times to the previous steps In exam you should be able to map out the critical path of a project given the table T1 is the latest time you could finish that specific step without delaying the project Mark all the steps that will have a O slack time Slack Time The time an activity can be delayed without delaying the entire project
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