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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sydney Richards on Monday February 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 0200 at University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown taught by John Mullennix in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 106 views. For similar materials see Intro to Pyschology in Natural Sciences at University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown.
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Date Created: 02/09/15
INTRO PSYCH EXAM 2 STUDY OUTLINE PERSONALITY Psychoanalytic Theory Freud39s psychoanalytic theory of personality argues that the structures and con ict in the human mind shapes personality Personality ones characteristics pattern of thinking feeling and how they act every day 3 regions of mind 1 Conscious Consciousness refers to your individual awareness of your unique thoughts memories feelings sensations and environment Unconscious controversial idea without awareness Preconscious when your vaguely aware of something gtXlttip of the tongue phenomenongtXltgtXltgtXlt Personality structure 3 parts 1 Id unconscious mind pleasure principle satisfy basic desires Ego Mediator of ID and Superego will try to satisfy both reality principal personality executive can be nominated by ID or Superego Superego conscious mind dictates how you should behave morals ID and Superego can come into c0n ict Repression the rejection from consciousness of painful ordisagreeable ideas memories feelings o r impulses 0 Glimpses into repression appear in slips 0f the tongue pen and dreams 0 Short term good 0 Long term bad Fixation Strong con ict can lock a person into a particular stage 0 Ex problem with smoking and drinking 0 Oral stage Fixation on the oral stage Has to do with the mouth around the mouth Freud39s stages of psychosexual development if you move through these stages you are good but if something traumatic happens during one it could cause problems OAPLG orangutans always play with little gorillas Oral stage 018 moEating teething nutrition little kids always putting stuff in there mouth taste to explore environment Anal stage 18 mo3 yrsToilet training sense of accomplishment control over bodily functions pleasure Phallic stage 36 yrs Oedipus and Electra complexes The Electra complex is a psychoanalytic term used to describe a girl39s sense of competition with her mother for the affections of her father It is comparable to them Oedipus complex realize that boys and girls are different Boys want their moms View dads as a competitor for moms attention they work through that eventually and then look up to the dad as a role model Vice versa for girls The want there dads etc Latency stage 6puberty same sex friendships form boys have cooties and girls are icky Genital stage pubertyon first boyfriend heartbreak relationships form romantic Defense mechanisms 6 Loss of Ego Control Ana Freud 1 Regression out of sorts ego losing control acting out regress to an earlier stage Examples Charging your credit cards up Anal Hooking up with a lot of people phallic Randomly start smoking Oral Reaction formation unacceptable impulse opposite of how you feel inside Example Guy who feels inferior to everyone else I acts all tough and macho Projection unacceptable impulse that you attribute to someone else Example you have a job and hate your boss because you think he is out of control so you hate him talks to a fellow employee you say he hates me even though you don t like him Rationalization you say something nasty about someone and feel bad later about it So you say no she really is that way to make yourself feel better about what you have said Behavior is in line with thoughts 5 Displacement unacceptable impulse you take your feelings and divert it to another object Let it go and vent to someone Example Have ever had a really bad day at work and then gone home and taken out your frustration on family and friends Then you have experienced the ego defense mechanism of displacement 2 Denial you deny it Hiding a problem that you are not proud of Example gtXltyou do drugsgtXlt doctor ask do you do drugs You say no because you are not proud of it Terror management theory 91 l In social psychology terror management theory proposes a basic psychological con ict that results from having a desire to live but realizing that death is inevitable This con ict produces terror and is believed to be unique to human beings 0 Thinking about one s mortality invokes various defenses 0 In groups vs out groups 0 Turn to religion 0 Cling to others more closely Pros and cons of Freud39s theory 0 Human development is lifelong not just childhood 0 Slips of the tongue and dreams have other explanations 0 Sexual repression has diminished psychological problems have not 0 Some doubts about repression Freud s theory is not based on objective data Positives 0 First to theorize about an unconscious 0 Some evidence that we do defend ourselves against anxiety 0 Showed the importance of human sexuality 0 New evidence on dreams and emotion The neoFreudians 0 Alfred Adler 0 Karen Horney 0 Carl Jung 0 personality same as Freud vs collective unconscious had different views Trait Theory personality is described in terms of characteristics behaviors and conscious motives What they are most concerned with Ancient Greeks and the Theory of Humors 4 types of humorstraits Bodily uids of blood black bile yellow bile and phlegm must be in balance pi Melancholic depressed N Sanguine cheerful U Phlegmatic unemotional 5 Choleric irritable Sheldon39s body type theory 3 body types and traits associated with each 0 Body type is indicative of personality type Sheldon s Scheme 0 Endomorph bigger pear relax and jolly 0 Mesomorph athletic toned good shape bold strong active 0 Ectomorph thin tall solitary and high strung MyersBriggs theory Myers 1987 derived from Jung 0 4 dichotomies l Extraversion E vs Introversion I 2 Sensing S vs Intuition N 3 Thinking T vs Feeling F 4 Judgment J vs Perception P The Myersn riggs m Type Indicating The Reine Ten iperamem Sorter E S T J Emmarind SE nsing Thinking Inniging Expressing Ulnsnnnnt x nughIMinnnn Scheduling N F P Imir i39E 39LEd In nitive anelling Pnirngii39ing 5 Fiannarived Iman 7 quot u Fnixennlly Printing gtXquot quotquot Evidence of usefulness is open for multiple interpretations The quotBig 5quot personality traits Personality assessed through factor analysis 0 N euroticismEmotional stability 0 Extraversionis characterized by sociability talkativeness assertiveness and excitability 0 Opennessvariety or routine 0 Agreeableness how trusting you are of others 0 Conscientiousness how organized you are Humanistic Theory Allport reacted against Freud39s theory Maslow a hierarchy of needs exists When basic needs are met we seek self actualization ultimate goal Selfactualization the process of fulfilling our true potential Self center of one s personality Maslow39s hierarchy of needs the different levels bottom to top 1 Physiological needs hunger thirst sexual desires 2 Safety needs pace to sleep shelter 3 Social needs friends social life 4 Esteem needs relationships dating marriage 5 Self actualization full use of your potential your element Carl Rogers 3 factors for personal growth Unconditional positive regard 3 Factors for nurturing Personal Growth 1 Genuineness 2 Acceptance 3 Empathy PersonSituation controversy 0 What is more important Inner traits or environment 0 Behavior Interaction of traits with environment 0 Behavior can be inconsistent due to situations D Social Cognitive Theory 0 Bandura 1986 thoughts about situations affect behavior 0 Reciprocal determinism how we interact with the environment 0 Behavior determined by genetics conditioning modeling of behavior our thoughts about situations Reciprocal determinism Person environment interaction is important 0 Different people choose different environments 0 Our personalities in uence how we react to events 0 Our personalities can create situations Whether we believe we control or are controlled by our environment PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS Deviant how they dress act talk in public Distressful to that person Dysfunctional most people don t find it rationally acceptable 0 Medical model and biopsychosocial model Medical Model Pinel late 17005disorders are diseases that exhibit symptoms and are diagnosed and treated Bio psychosocial Perspectiveemphasizes interaction of genetics inner dynamics experiences amp socio cultural environment DSM S 2013 Uses medical like terminology Categories of disorders Somatic Disorder Physical symptoms without a physical cause HysteriaConversion disorder Freud Hypochondriasis always think they are sick Anxiety disorders Free oating anxietyPanic attack 0 Panic disorder Extreme anxiety that is short lived 0 Specific PhobiaAnxiety directed at specific objects or events 0 Social PhobiaExtreme anxiety about interacting with people and being in social situations 0 ObsessiveCompulsive disorder obsesses over something that causes them anxiety Trauma and Stressor Disorders Acute Stress Disorder is characterized by the development of severe anxiety dissociative and other symptoms that occurs within one month after exposure to an extreme traumatic stressor e g witnessing a death or serious accident As a response to the traumatic event the individual develops dissociative symptoms temporary PTSDPost traumatic stress disorder PTSD is a type of anxiety disorder It can occur after you have gone through an extreme emotional trauma that involved the threat of injury or death Mood Disorders Inherited genetic link linkage analysis 0 Brain structure and circuitry abnormalities 0 Unbalanced levels of serotonin andor other neurotransmitters 0 Self defeating negative beliefs 0 Major depressive disorderT rue clinical depression is a mood disorder in which feelings of sadness loss anger or frustration interfere with everyday life for weeks or longer 0 DysthymiaDysthymia is a chronic type of depression in which a person39s moods are regularly low However symptoms are not as severe as with major depression 0 Bipolar l Disorder defined by manic or mixed episodes that last at least seven days or by manic symptoms that are so severe that the person needs immediate hospital care Usually depressive episodes occur as well typically lasting at least 2 weeks 0 Bipolar 2 disorder BPII pronounced quottype two bipolar disorderquot is abipolar spectrum disorder see also Bipolar disorder characterized by at least one episode of hypomania and at least one episode of major depression Cyclothymia a mental state characterized by marked swings of mood between depression and elation bipolar disorder Dissociative disorders 0 Dissociative disorders are mental illnesses that involve disruptions or breakdowns of memory consciousness awareness identity andor perception 0 Dissociative amnesia Dissociative amnesia occurs when a person blocks out certain information usually associated with a stressful or traumatic event leaving him or her unable to remember important personal information With this disorder the degree of memory loss goes beyond normal forgetfulness and includes gaps in memory for long periods of time or of memories involving the traumatic event 0 Fugue Dissociative Fugue is one or more episodes of amnesia in which the inability to recall some or all of one s past and either the loss of one s identity or the formation of a new identity occur with sudden uneXpected purposeful travel away from home 0 DepersonalizationDerealization The person has persistent or recurrent eXperiences episodes of feeling detached from one s surroundings mental processes or body e g feeling like one is in a dream or as if one is looking at themselves as an outside observer can t find who they really are 0 Dissociative Identity Disorder This disorder formerly known as multiple personality disorder is characterized by quotswitchingquot to alternate identities You may feel the presence of one or more other people talking or liVing inside your head and you may feel as though you39re possessed by other identities Schizophrenia and other Psychotic Disorders Schizophrenia symptoms Disorganized thinking Disturbed perceptions Word salad Inappropriate emotions Repetitive motions Chronic vs acute episodes 1 Personality disorders symptom 0 Avoidant social inhibition low self esteem reluctant to go in public 0 ObsessiveCompulsive super clean like ordercontrol anal retentive 0 Borderline instability to close relationships bad self image low self esteem very insecure in relationships don t act like the person they really are 0 Schizotypal eccentric will say odd tings little bit weird 0 AntisociaUPsychopathic no regard for other people no conscious no regret little emotion mostly males low level of anomic and stress hormones Various causes for all these disorders 0 Brain chemistry abnormality excess dopamine low glutamate 0 Brain structure or abnormality frontal lobes thamalys almyglada 0 Fetal Viral infections may cross fetal barrier 0 Genetic factors 0 Unusual stress episodes that come on strong 0 Dopamine dysfunctual disorder want a new name SCHIZPHRENIA Pro39s and Con39s of using classifications to label people Clinician help describing and treatment Critics can cause preconceptions and bias that are harmful Rosenan 1973 study 0 7 students thud went to mental ward got diagnosed with schizophrenia THERAPY Pioneers 0 People thought that they were possessed chained up burned at stake 0 St Mary Bethlehem people would go look at the crazy people nickname bedlam Psychological therapies psychotherapy talk therapy and biomedical Psychoanalytic 0 Childhood39s traumas result in repressed impulses unresolved con icts 0 Goal is to quotreleasequot this stuff 0 Free association 0 Resistances 0 Transference Humanistic Focus is on conscious thoughts 0 Present and future are important 0 Taking responsibility for one s feelings and actions at the present time 0 Personal growth not curing an illness 0 Building self awareness and self acceptance HumanisticClientcentered therapyActive listening technique Therapists need to exhibit unconditional positive regard genuine accepting and empathetic 0 Active listening technique which requires the listener to feed back what they hear to the speaker by way of re stating or paraphrasing what they have heard in their own words to confirm what they have heard 0 Get people to think in the present and take responsibility for themselves Behavior Therapy 0 Outward behavior is the problem 0 Don t care about any underlying cause 0 Don t care about what happened in childhood 0 Don t care about unconscious motives Counterconditioning Systematic Desensitization Aversive Conditioning Exposure therapies 0 Immersior ooding forcing someone into a situation they re not comfortable with 0 Systematic Desensitization working up to face fears 0 Aversive Conditioning put something negative in place of something they do Example alcoholism Operant conditioning Positive reinforcement of desired behaviors Token Economies impatient facilities give to patients who did what they need to do earn bonus bucks Cognitive therapies Ellis Beck etc 0 thinking patterns affect feelings and moods 0 rational emotive therapy ellis aggressive 0 Cognitive depression theory becks most common CognitiveBehavioral Therapy CBTobjective is both an intellectual understanding of the problem and practice of behavior designed to modify dysfunction behaviors Situationljthoughts directly related to behaviorphysical relationshipsmoodthoughtslbehavior Cognitive Enhancement Therapy CET Psychotherapy for schizophrenia 0 Enhancement of cognitive function through computer exercises targeting attention memory and problem solving abilities 0 Enhancement of social cognition through group based exercises Mindfulness Therapya variant of CBT 0 Uses depress anxiety stress 0 Meta cognitive awareness of thoughts being vs doing Group therapy helpful to realize that you are not alone with your problems 0 Cheaper and less time 0 Family dynamics affect an individual behavior 0 Support and self help groups Effectiveness of psychotherapy talk help 0 some people ill will get better if you just leave them alone 0 therapy is best when the issues is specific and clear cut Drug therapies psychopharmacology medication Antipsychotic drugs 0 fairly severe disordered 0 Target dopamine serotonin or glutamate systems Thorazine1950 0 blocks dopamine in brain first hardcore schizophrenia medicine 0 too many side effects patients loss all emotion weight gain Haldol 0 discontinued Clozaril1990 0 targets dopamine serotonin adds them 0 used to treat negative symptoms of schizophrenia New generation drugs 0 Risperdal Zyprexa abilify Seroquel 0 targets 5 areas 0 glutamate receptor drugs Antianxiety drugs Benzodiazepines XanaX Ativan Klonopin N o benzodiazepines Buspar Lexapro PaXil panic attacks multiple neuro transmitters 0 works on GAMA highly addictive situational use Beta Blockers slow down heart rate nervous systems Antidepressant drugs 0 1St Generation Antidepressants Elavil raises dopamine levels 0 2nd Generation Antidepressants Wellbutrin dopamine and renephrin SSRI s Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor Prozac Zoloft PaXil Celexa Lexapro interrupts reuptake into neuron so extra stuff also raises serotonin SN RI s Serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor Effexor Cymbalta Mood stabilizing drugs Lithium Zyprexa Risperdal Abilify Geodon Clozaril Antidepressant medication to control depression Anticonvulsants bipolar originally used for seizures but actually helps bipolar disorder also Depakote bipolar seizures but also for bipolar Tegretol bipolar seizures but also for bipolar Drug therapy Trial Zoloft trail Zoloft trial made him kill his grandparents 30 year sentence insanity ECT Electroconvulsive Therapy 0 Originated in 1938 0 Used primarily for severe depression 0 High relapse rate 0 Shock rTMS Repetitive TransCranial Magnetic Stimulation 0 Left prefrontal area stimulated 0 Used for severe depression Deep brain stimulation 0 Electrodes implanted in area thought to be involved in deep depression 0 Pacemaker for the brain 0 Psychosurgery lobotomy Lobotomy also known as leucotomy is a neurosurgical operation that involves severing connections in the brain39s prefrontal lobe Antonio Moniz 1936 cut connections from thalamus to frontal lobes Nobel Prize 1949 Walter Freeman 193039s50 s prefrontal lobotomy shocking people to unconsciousness Ice pick technique Lost personality and emotions
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