Final Study guide
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by lauren hale on Monday February 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GEOL302 at Kansas taught by Rankey in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 131 views. For similar materials see Geology in Geology at Kansas.
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Date Created: 02/09/15
GEOL 302 Final Study guide Chapters 10 1112 CHAPTER 10 Oceanic Environment and Production Relevance Clarify carbon cycles in ocean relevant to global warming 0 Carbon sink Protect and managing marine resources 0 Phytoplankton play signi cant role in feeding habitats for marine commercial resources 0 Sardine and tuna Environment in uences organisms 0 Temperature 0 Dissolved gases 0 Nutrients o Substrate 1 Energy can neither be created nor destroyed only transformed from one type to another 0 Conservation of energy 0 All energy in an ecosystem ultimately comes from the sun or chemical compounds hydrogen sul de 2 In any transfer of energy some energy is lost 0 Energy is constantly being lost to environment as heat Vocabulary Primary Productivity Is the conversion of energy to organic substances by photosynthetic and chemosynthetic organisms 0 Primary producers in uenced by and have a distribution Gross Productivity is the total organic material sugars produced from inorganic carbon C02 by photosynthesis o Expressed in grams carbonm2yr Net Primary Productivity is the amount of total product that is left after losses to respiration metabolism and waste 0 Not available to support other trophic levels Almost all life depends on transfer of solar energy This is started by autotrophs 0 Plants life that makes its own food All animals are heterotrophs 0 Life that depends on other life for food Basic Plankton Plankton vs Nekton 0 Float vs swim Phytoplankton vs zooplankton 0 Plant vs animal Classi cation based upon size 0 Mega plankton above 2mm 0 Macro 2 2mm 0 Micro 20microns 2mm 0 Nano 2 20 microns o Phytoplankton group of planktonic organisms that are autotrophs function like plants Planktonic oating mechanisms Planton tend to be more dense than sea water 0 Phytoplankton should sink below photic zone Zooplankton would sink below where there food is 0 Both groups are weak swimmers unable to cope w winds and currents Decrease overweight andor increase the surface of resistance 0 Decrease density Alter body uids so that they are less dense Replace heavy chemical ions w lighter ones Employ liquids that are less dense than water Fats dual purpose food reserves oatation 0 Changes in surface of resistance Stay small have greater surface areavoume ratio Change shape of body atten shapes or appendages various spine and body projections Dominant Phytoplankton groups Diatoms eukaryotic algae 0 Cell wall made of silica o No visible means of locomotion o Unicellular some form chains or colonies 0 Divide by binary ssion Dino agellates o Possess 2 agellae used for some locomotion Carbon Cycle The amount of carbon in ocean is about 50x greater than amount in atmosphere Exchanged w atmosphere on a timescale of several hundred years Phytoplankton account for half of all photosynthetic activity on earth Currently 48 of carbon emitted to atmosphere by natural or anthropogenic sources is sequenced into the ocean Limits on Primary Production Light 0 percentage of the energy in sunlight converted to NPP 0 Average 1 2 Temperature 0 Most plants have an optimum temperature 0 Respiration increases w temperature VVater 0 Transportation or water use ef ciency amount of plant tissue produced per kilogram of water transpired Nutrients o yield is proportional to amount of the most limiting nutrient whichever nutrient it may be 0 Most important in open ocean Carbon dioxide lots of it because highly soluble in water Light tricky because it requires certain wavelengths for photosynthesis and minimum intensities Factors affecting primary productivity in oceans Light availability depends on many factors 0 Absorption of light by water Wavelength of light Angle of incidence Transparency of water Amount of light re ected Latitude 0 Season of the year Compensation depth Less light as one goes deeper o Longer wavelengths of light are rst to disappear At some depth the CD the light energy available is just sufficient to x sugars at a rate equal the rate at which the plant uses sugars o If plant goes deeper respiration gt photosynthesis 0 Net loss of energy CD varies geographically because it depends on clarity of water 0 Clearer water deeper light penetration Deeper in clear open ocean waters and shallower in inshore waters 0 Phytoplankton thus only exist in upper 200m of water column where light penetrates Factors affecting primary productivity in the oceans OOOOO Nutrients 0 THE major limiting factor in shallow ocean Nitrogen nitrate Phosphorus phosphate 0 Occur in small amounts of sea water 0 Used up very quickly in photic zone 0 Untapped reservoir exists below photic zone Needs mixing of water to tap reservoir 0 Wind or upwelling Nitrogen Fixation Molecular nitrogen is most abundant form of nitrogen on Earth s almost inert only few microorganisms have capability to utilize They convert it to more utilizable forms 0 Ammonium 0 Done mainly by cyanobacteria in ocean N2 NH4 o Ammonium is also released as a waste product by marine organisms Nitri cation o Ammonium converted to nitrite and nitrate through nitri cation NH4NO 2NO 3 This requires the presence of oxygen Phytoplankton and other organisms preferentially use nitrate and nitrite Dentri cation Nitrate NO3 or nitrite NO2 are converted back into nitrogen gas N2 Certain types of bacteria reduce oxygen containing forms of nitrogen NO3 l NO2 l NO l N20 l N2 Completes the nitrogen cycle by returning N2 gas to the atmosphere Ocean environments may be Oligotrophic Eutrophic Eutrophication lead to hypoxia and anoxia concentration of dissolved oxygen reduced to a point detrimental to aquatic organisms the complete absence of dissolved oxygen Increased nutrients can lead to Increased phytoplankton Phytoplankton die degrading bacteria Bacteria use oxygen dissolved in water Reduced benthic biomass Kills sh UpweMng Can provide nutrients Regions of upwelling occur where the thermocline is weak or nonexistent Polar regions lnorganic nutrients are depleted rapidly by phytoplankton unless they are replenished 0 Regions of upwelling 0 Near continents Coasts have lower rate of upwelling but higher area and greater production Open ocean has lower rate of upwelling covers larger area highest primary production Global scale of open ocean is more important of primary production Chlorophyll concentration in polar zones Plants that re ect certain wavelength of light Abundant in poles during summers Varies by dayweek Trophic levels and ecosystems Ecosystems ecology food or feeding o Autotrophs selffeeding Primary producers photosynthetic organisms o Heterotrophs otherfeeding Consumers herbivores Consumers carnivores Flow of energy trophic structure 0 Primary producers and consumers 0 Food chains and food webs o Efficiency of energy transfer 10 Transfer of energy across trophic levels All energy used by higher trophic levels originates w primary producers With each step in food chain 8095 of energy is lost CHAPTER 11 Life in the Water Phyla in the animal kingdom Protozoa amoeba foraminifera radiolarian Porifera sponges Cnidaria coral jelly sh sea anemones Platyhelminthes atwomrs tapeworms Nematode roundworms Annelida segmented worms nerels Mollusca snails squids bivalves octopus Arthropods crabs shrimp barnacles krill Echinodermats sea urchins sea stars sea cucumbers Chordata tunicates sh birds reptiles mammals Plankton Plankton organisms that oat or weakly swim through water Phytoplankton organisms that use to x carbon Zooplankton portion of plankton herbivorouscarnivorous Holoplankton organisms that spend Meroplankton organisms that then either settle to the bed or grow large enough to actively swim against currents Vertical migration Copepod Zooplankton are not capable of swimming against current Adjust position in water column through 0 Feeding strategy Predation avoidance Energy conservation Horizontal transport and habitat selection O O O 5 Small crustaceans found in nearly all parts of sea and freshwater habitats Copepods are probs the Krill Small shrimplike crustaceans found throughout the world s oceans but One species is estimated to have a biomass of 500mill tons in the southern ocean Name from Norwegian krior krill young fry or sh Crustaceans Amphipods 0 Can be either benthic or pelagic o Pelagic species are often pparasitic Mysids 0 Small shrimplike organisms that spend much of their time on sea oor Whales weighs 50tons at birth and grows to 150tons The tongue of blue whale is about same size as elephant Orcas kill sharks by torpedoing up into shark s stomach from underneath causing shark to explode At nearly 50 body fat whale milk has 10x the fat content of human milk helps calves achieve growth spurts 200bs perday 0 Although productivity of wales is low their biomass is large enough to be signi cant on an oceanwide basis 0 Whales probably consume more prey than the entire world s sheries o Unexploited baleen whale pop in Antarctica consume 190mill metric tons of krill per year approx 2x the current world sheries catch 0 Carcasses sink rapidly and provide a signi cant food resource for deepsea benthic creatures Mammals Seals can close nostrils when swimming Seal has more blood for its body size than any other land animal Seals can live in bitter cold climates due to their thick layer of fat Group of seals herdpod Seals mate on landice Birds Disperse seeds Pollinate plants Scavenge Eat insects sh mammals Clump under parents Reduced fruit yield Control diseases pests Loss of nutrients Rodent control Only 13 of birds have gone extinct since 1500 Reptiles 4 main species Crocodilealligator Seaiguanas Snakes Turtles Fish Ectothermic and aquatic 40 of sh species are marine Fish live at all depths in ocean They have ns for swimming and gills for breathing lchthyoplankton Most sh eggs and sh larvae are planktonic Fish larvae obtain nourishment from the yolk sack during early stages before they can feed on own Bony sh Osteichthyes 95 of all sh Most diverse Egg birth is common Sharks and Rays Chondrichthyes No bones but have cartilage Typically larger than bony sh Whale shark is largest sh in world Rays and skates are mostly benthic Most of this group tend to be live birth Only 10 are aggressive to humans Fisheries Fisheries and aquaculture production provide direct employment and revenue to 435 mill people About 2mill motorized shing boats are operating worldwide Major economic driver supports jobs Rate of population decline is related to population recovery Rapid biological change Pelagic shark and Atlantic cod population decline Economic impact of Red Tide 50mill estimated economic losses caused by harmful algal blooms to the US each year Public health largest component Wind storms blow dust into ocean Second paradigm selfshaded shfed maintenance of red tides Dead sh accumulation on local beaches As much as 50 of FL sh decompose to inorganic phosphorus and ammonium Min 1 day Putting back in water will lead to larger red tides CHAPTER 12 Life on the Bottom Importance of Coral Reefs 2 of worlds oceans Habitat 0 Home to 33 of all known sh Nursery 0 Over 25 of all marine species Income 0 Provide millions of annually to people who live near Med research 0 Reefs have potential to be used as medical cures to treat cancer heart disease HIV and arthritis Food 0 Source for millions of people 0 10 of world s diet Tourism 0 Attract tourists o Largest draw Coastline protection 0 Absorb energy from ocean waves 0 Reduce erosion of shoreline 0 Storm damage 0 Flooding Economic resources 0 Fisheries for foodjobs 0 Tourism 0 Building materials 0 Aquarium trade Biodiversity o Rainforests of sea 0 Genetic diversity 1mil species described Up to 8mill undiscovered o Pharmaceuticals What controls reef distribution 0 Shallow water win local photic zone Both calcareous algae and the zooxanthellae which live symbiotically win scleractinian corals Depend on light for photosynthesis 0 Warm water required for growth of hermatypic reef forming scleractinian corals 0 Normal marine salinity too many nutrients algae takes over Must be rm not too much mud in water 0 Low terrigenous clastic mudsand input 0 Stable and rm sea oor Reef activity is concentrated in the Uppermost part of ocean max of 200m in open sea to which sunlight penetrates This determines the depth to which photosynthesis can occur Scleractinian corals cant grow and reefs cant form if zooxanthellae cant survive Precipitation of CaCO3 by corals The ocean is saturated w the 3 major polymorphs of CaCO3 o Aragonite o Calcite o Magnesiuancalcite CaCO3 rarely precipitates spontaneously in seawater Biologically mediated CaCO3 precipitation by corals Coral polyps absorb calcium ions from seawater and move them to cite of calci cation where they are deposited as aragonite Calcareous algae Distribution is similar to that of coral Approx 30 marine species Early colonizer of tropical habitats succeeded by seagrass Produces up to 50 of all tropical beach sand Highly productive Foraminifera Unicellular organisms Different kinds occur in world s oceans o Planktonic and benthic Account for a signi cant amount of CaCO3 deposits Highly productive Environmental limits to coral reefs development Temperature 0 Average minmax 248 276 C Salinity Minimum light penetration Aragonite saturation Nitrate Phosphate They live attached to sea oor Are builders of the reef A single coral animals is called a coral polyp The coral polyps live together in colonies What do they eat To get energy to build the coral reef colonies need to eat Corals get most of the food from marine plants that live inside coral Coral polyps Tentacles release stinging cells when something brushes by Polyps make their own limestone cup to hide in during day At night polyps come out to catch plankton oating by Symbiosis Zooxanthellae make oxygen remove the polyp s wastes makes food for polyp from photosynthesis Coral polyps protect the zooxanthellae release C02 provide it with necessary nutrients from own waste What do they eat 0 Live inside corals just under their skin 0 Corals are solarpowered just like trees on land 0 Algae that live inside coral soak up sun all day Hard corals the Reef builders Polyps build hard limestone cups around their basis Cups cement together to make coral colony Reefs are made of hundreds of hard coral colonies next to and on top of each other Crown of thorns star sh One of most damaging creatures of tropical coral reefs Release contents of stomachs on to coral digestive juices liquefy coral ready for consumption Almost completely covered in protective venomous spines capable of causing great pain to humans Have predators including its own molluscs sh and worms More likely to be killed by than a shark Lefthander using righthanded equipment Struck by lightning Crushed by vending machine Falling out of bed Falling coconuts Threats to coral reefs Natural Hurricanes Tsunamis Volcanoes Earthquakes Predators and competitors Bleaching Pathogens OOOOOOO Anthropogenic 0 Of human origin 0 Over shing 0 Development 0 Mining and dredging 0 Recreation Global climate change 0 Reduced reef building 0 Increase in frequency and intensity of hurricanes o Increases in bleaching and disease Causes of coral bleaching High levels of solar radiation Combined solar radiationtemperature stress Reduced salinity Bacterial infections Increased sedimentation Exposure to toxins Fresh water from oods Cyanide shing Consequences 0 Environmental impact Loss of oral Changes in reef community Loss of biodiversity 0 Economic impacts Decreased tourism appeal Fishery decline 0 Loss of ecosystem services Subsistence shing Recreation Cultural signi cance Shoreline protection Recovery 0 Good water quality 0 Low shing pressure 0 Many grazing sh 0 Low nutrient pollution Manmade threats to coral reefs Global warming leads to bleaching Runoff of chemicals and nutrients from land Sedimentation Rubbish including marine debris Over shing Physical damage from tourists and sherman Pollution from untreated sewage and oil TOUR OF THE ISLANDS Bahamas and Florida Keys Tectonic setting Carbonate platforms Cuba docks Effects of the CAI closure Changes in surface water salinity Change in ocean surface currents Thermohaline ocean circulation intensi es Global climate change 0 N hemisphere glaciation Major species extinction and evolution 0 Different coral species in Paci c and Caribbean since 3myo Saharan dust storm Overall increase in African dust reaching Barbados Years of extensive environmental change on Caribbean coral reefs The mechanisms 0 Direct fertilization of algae by nutrients interacting with NH4 and N02 N03 rich marine water 0 Broadcasting of bacterial viral and fungal spores Upper Keys vs lower keys Upper 0 Shelf break 0 Ancient coral reefs Lower 0 Moving perpendicular to shelf Bahamas oceanography Physical Chemical Biological Are in northern part of trade wind belt winds from E not too strong Late 1718th cent Europe in chaos Undeclared wars Initiated privateering to help war efforts Piracy hanging privateering loyalty to crown Britain s own ships a target Pirates actually ruled Nassau Woodes rogers 1716 Sir Henry Morgan 0 Made second in command of buccaneers 1665 o Captured Puerto Principe Cuba Dissatis ed 0 Immediately sailed for Panama 0 Led 36 pirate ships against Spanish port 0 Knighted in 1674 for the raid Black beard 0 British early 18th cent 0 Arrived in Caribbean for ghts w spain Wrecking Renaissance after US civil war related to o Passage of hurricanes o The decline of trade with convederacy Wrecking not illegal Goods from wrecks could be legally Between 1845 1870 40 of Bahamian imports came from wrecks Shipwrecks Rapid coral growth Monthly growth rate at 1cmmonth Wreck caused by 0 Bands in deep water made by ooids o Rapidly moving tides Mangroves Cover in the Caribbean has declined over the past 25 yrs Two of eight mangroves species now considered vulnerable to extinction and two more in near threatened status Protect shorelines shelter sh lter pollution Many states protect them FL Sea grass Provide food and shelter for many marine organisms 0 Safe area forjuvenile sh and invertebrates o Larvae attach Stabilize sediments and prevent erosion Take up dissolved nutrients and trap sediments in water resulting in high water clarity Ciguatoxin Produced by a microscopic dino agellate algae Passed up food chain Lion sh Native to lndoPaci c Popular aquarium sh Made way to Bahamas Eat everything and eaten by nothing TOUR OF THE ISLANDS Kiribati Kiribati Has no military railroads newspapers or manufacturing facilities Covers roughly 25mill sqmls of ocean 275 sqmls of land Gross domestic product is roughly equal to that of 2900 Americans 0 Mostly from coconut trades ENSO El NinoSouthern Oscillation Disruption of the oceanatmosphere system in the Tropical Paci c having important consequences for weather and climate around the globe El Nino and La Nina events are hot and cold water extremes in the equatorial Paci c ocean Originaly recognized by sherman off coast of S America 0 Unusually warm water in Paci c occurring near beginning of year 0 El Nino means Christ child in Spanish La Nina conditions Coolphase Trade winds blow toward W across the tropical Paci c Pile up warm surface water in W Paci c Sea surface is about 12 meter higher at Indonesia than Ecuador El Nino conditions Warm phase Trade winds relax in central and W Paci c Depression of the thermocline in the E Paci c And elevation of the thermocline in the W Limited nutrient upwelling ENSO impact of Kiribati Rainfall changes 0 La Nina droughts Sealevelchange o La Nina increase o Winds from all around El Nino o Winds only from the E stronger La Nina Coral bleaching When water gets hot and stays hot During El Nino when water gets warmer Battle of Tarawa Japaneseland 19 casualty rate Once ashore had to ght wo any assistance because supply ships couldn t come in Tides increased Tarawa population Dense Supply of water from some groundwater lenses was discontinued due to pollution Estimated sustainable yield of the Betio and Bairiki lenses Use of sea water as ushing media for toilet Future of Kiribati Small islands No resources poor nation Low elevation o Flooding 0 Little water 0 Subject to drought and ooding 0 Health issues Migration Islands becoming inhabitable due to rising sea levels and salination caused by climate change What is the cultural tradition in Kiribati that captures the notion that if I ask you for something you MUST give it to me 0 BUBUTI
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