Text Study Qs Final exam (110-R)
Text Study Qs Final exam (110-R) 110
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Text Study Questions Final Exam 110 Chapter 4 5 7 18 17 Text Questions Chapter 4 1 De ne the following a b I I Transducer devices that convert one kind of energy into another Absolute threshold the minimum amount of physical energy necessary to produce a sensation Sensory coding codes used by the sense organs to transmit information to the brain Difference threshold the minimum difference between two stimuli that is detectable to an observer Phosphenes visual sensations caused by mechanical excitation of the retina Sensory localization the type of sensation you experience ie when inducing phosphenes depends on which brain area is activated Retina the lightsensitive layer of cells at the back of the eye Rods visual receptors for dim light that produce only black and white sensations Cones visual receptors for colors and daylight visual activity Presby0pia farsightedness caused by aging Hyperopia difficulty focusing nearby objects farsightedness Myopia difficulty focusing distant objects nearsightedness m Astigmatism defects in the cornea lens or eye that cause 9 5115013 some areas of vision to be out of focus Visual acuity the sharpness of visual perception Fovea a small cupshaped area in the middle of the retina contains only cones Dark adaptation increased retinal sensitivity to light Color blind a total inability to perceive colors Color weakness an inability to distinguish some colors Colored afterimagg visual sensations that persist after a stimulus is removed like seeing a spot after a ashbulb goes off Rhodopsin a lightsensitive visual pigment contained in rods allows them to see in black and white Hair cells receptor cells within the cochlea that transduce vibrations into nerve impulses v Organ of Corti center part of the cochlea containing hair cells canals and membranes w Frequency theory holds that tones up to 4000 hertz are converted to nerve impulses that match the frequency of each tone x Place theory theory that higher and lower tones excite speci c areas of the cochlea y Lock and key theory of olfaction holds that odors are related to the shapes of chemical molecules 2 Ossicles three small bones inside ear that link the eardrum with the cochlea aa Somesthetic sen5 sensations produced by the skin muscles joints viscera and organs of balance ab Skin senses the senses of touch pressure pain heat and cold acKinesthetic sensg the senses of body movement and positioning ad Vestibular sensg the sense of balance gravity and acceleration ae Sensory con ict theory explains motion sickness as the result of a mismatch among information from vision the vestibular system and kinesthesis af Semicircular canals three uid lled tubes in the vestibular system that are the sensory organs for balance ag Otolith organ uid lled sacs within the vestibular system that are sensitive to movement acceleration and gravity ah Counterirritation a widely used pain control technique in which pain clinics apply a mild electrical current to the skin this causes only a mild tingling but it can greatly reduce more agonizing pain ai Bottomup processing organizing perceptions by beginning with lowlevel features aj Tapdown processing applying higherlevel knowledge to rapidly organize sensory information into a meaningful perception ak Figureground organization organizing a perception so that part of a stimulus appears to stand out as an object gure against a less prominent background ground al Size constancy the perceived size of an object remains constant despite changes in its retinal image am Shape constancy the perceived shape of an object is unaffected by changes in its retinal image an Brightness constancy the apparent or relative brightness of objects remains the same as long as they are illuminated by the same amount of light ao Selective attention giving priority to a particular incoming sensory message ap Convergence a binocular depth cue muscles attached to the eyeball feed information on eye position to the brain to help it judge distance aq Monocular depth cues perceptual features that impart information about distance and threedimensional space which require just one eye ar Binocular depth cues perceptual features that impart information about distance and threedimensional space which require two eyes asApparent distance hypothesis an explanation of the moon illusion stating that the horizon seems more distant than the night sky at Perceptual expectancy a readiness to perceive in a particular manner induced by strong expectations au MullerLyer illusion two equallength lines tipped with inward or outward pointing V s appear to be of different lengths av Extrasensory perception ESP the purported ability to perceive events in ways that cannot be explained by known capacities of the sensory organs aw Psi phenomenon events that seem to lie outside the realm of accepted scienti c laws What is the difference between sensation and perception a Information arriving from the sense organs creates sensations Then the brain processes these messages When the brain organizes sensations into meaningful patterns we speak of perception Describe how structures in the front of the eye like the cornea and lens focus images on the retina What is accommodation and what structure in the eye performs this process a Most focusing is done at the front of the eye by the cornea a clear membrane that bends light inward The lens makes additional smaller adjustments b Accommodation is when your eye s focal point changes when muscles attached to the lens alter its shape Why is peripheral vision less clear than foveal vision a It is mostly rod vision which is not very high resolution 5 10 11 12 Compare the views of color vision offered by between the trichromatic theory and the opponent process theory a Trichromatic theory there are three types of cones each most sensitive to either red green or blue Other colors result from combinations of these three Opponent process theory vision analyzes colors into quoteitheror messages That is the visual system can produce messages for either red or green yellow or blue black or white Coding one color in a pair seems to block the opposite message from coming through Why do we have peripheral vision a It is important for sports driving and night vision rods are sensitive to movement How would you speed up dark adaptation a The rods are insensitive to extremely red light What is the stimulus for hearing a Sound travels as a series of invisible waves of compression peaks and rarefaction valleys in the air Any vibrating object will produce sound waves What is the relationship between frequency loudness pitch and amplitude a The frequency of sound waves the number of waves per second corresponds to the perceived pitch higher or lower tone of a sound The amplitude height of a sound wave tells how much energy it contains Psychologically amplitude corresponds to sensed loudness sound intensity Describe the causes of conductive hearing loss sensorineural hearing loss and noise induced hearing loss a Conductive when the transfer of vibrations from the outer ear to the inner ear is weak For example the eardrums or ossicles may be damaged by disease or injury Can often be overcome with a hearing aid Sensorineural results from damage to the inner ear hair cells or auditory nerve Noise induced a common form of sensorineural hearing loss that occurs when very loud sounds damage hair cells Is it true that daily exposure to sounds of 85 decibels or higher may cause permanent hearing loss a Yes Describe gate control theory Ronald Melzack and Patrick Wall s gate control theory suggests that pain messages from the different nerve bers pass through a 13 14 15 16 the same neural gate in the spinal cord If the gate is quotclosedquot by one paint message other messages may not be able to pass through What are the differences between warning system and the reminding system a Warning system pain carried by large nerve bers is sharp bright and fast and seems to come from speci c body areas It is usually a signal that the body has been or is about to be damaged Reminding system pain carried by small nerve bers which is slower nagging aching widespread and very unpleasant It gets worse if the pain stimulus is repeated It reminds the brain that the body has been injured What causes phantom limb pain Does the gate control theory explain phantom limb pain What is a neuromatrix a Gate control theory cannot explain phantom limb pain Since pain can t be coming from the missing limb it cannot pass through pain gates to the brain lnstead over time the brain creates a body image called the neuromatric This internal model of the body generates our sense of bodily self Although amputation may remove a limb as far as the neuromatrix in the brain is concerned the limb still exists Are you born able to create perceptions out of sensations Use the case of Mr 58 the cataract patient who had been blind since birth to help clarify your answer a The newfound ability to sense the world does not guarantee that it can be perceived Newly sighted persons must learn to identify objects to read clocks numbers and letters and to judge sizes and distances Mr 58 had his sight restored at the age of 52 after being blind since birth He learned some things like how to tell time and read block letters he had known only from touch However handwriting meant nothing to him for more than a year after and many objects were meaningless until he touched them This shows that your experiences are perceptual constructions Why did Mr 58 a 52 year old cataract patient who had been blind since birth try to climb out of a window after regaining his sight a When he rst regained his vision he could judge distance in only familiar situations He was found crawling out of a hospital window to get a closer look at traf c on the street although his room was on the fourth oor 17 What are the monocular and binocular cues for depth perception a Monocular require just one eye b Binocular requires two eyes 18 What are the pictorial depth cues that account for why there is an illusion of depth on a twodimensional surface like a photograph a They are features found in paintings drawings and photographs that impart information about space depth and distance p151 19 What is the role of distance judgment in the moon illusion a When the moon is overhead few depth cues surround it In contrast when you see the moon on the horizon it is behind houses trees telephone poles and mountains These objects add numerous depth cues which cause the horizon to seem more distant that the sky overhead 20 At what age does depth perception develop in an infant a It is very likely that at least a basic level of depth perception is innate Yet for the most part it begins to develop as early as 2 weeks and is not complete until about 6 months 21 What are some of the differences in the way European American and Eastern Asians explain the actions of people from Do They See What5ee Describe differences in detected changes in gure and ground a European Americans tend to perceive actions in terms of internal factors quotshe did it because she chose to do itquot i Better at detecting changes in the gure of a scene ii When presented with a gure placed on the ground Americans focused their eye movements on the gure iii Thus Westerners have a relatively narrow focus of attention b Eastern Asians tend to explain actions in terms of their social context quothe did it because it was his responsibility to his familyquot i Better at nding alterations in the background ii When presented with a gure placed on the ground Asians made more eye movements around the ground iii Thus Easterners have a broader focus of attention 22 What are the roles of positive and negative emotions in facial recognition of people from other races a Positive emotions can affect how well people recognize people from other races ln recognizing faces a consistent otherrace effect occurs This is a sort of quotthey all look alike to mequot bias in 23 perceiving persons from other racial and ethnic groups In tests of facial recognition people are much better at recognizing face of their own race than others But when people are in positive moods their ability to recognize people from other races improves What do Zulu villagers experience when presented the arrows of the Muller Lyer illusion a 24 a The typical Zulu villager does not experience the illusion because they live in a round culture Why are scientists skeptical about psi phenomena The current evidence isn t enough to settle the issue for a number of reasons including fraud poorly designed experiments and chance Text Study Questions Chapter 5 1 Glossary of terms a b Hypersomnia excessive daytime sleepiness Biological rhythm any repeating cycle of biological activity such as sleep and waking cycles or changes in body temperature c Microsleep a brief shift in brainwave patterns to those of sleep d Repairrestorative theories of sleep propose that lowering body and brain activity and metabolism during sleep may help conserve energy and lengthen life Electroencephalograph EEG a device designed to detect amplify and record electrical activity in the brain Beta waves small fast brainwaves associated with being awake and alert Alpha waves large slow brainwaves associated with relaxation and falling asleep Sleep spindles distinctive bursts of brainwave activity that indicate a person is asleep Hypnic ierk a re ex muscle twitch during stage 1 of sleep Delta waves large slow brainwaves that occur in deeper sleep stages 3 and 4 REM sleep sleep marked by rapid eye movement and a return to stage 1 EEG patterns Drugdependency insomnia sleep loss caused by withdrawal from sleeping pills REM rebound the occurrence of extra rapid eye movement sleep following REM sleep deprivation Somnambulist people who sleepwalk occurs during NREM sleep Night terror a state of panic during NREM sleep Narcolepsy a sudden irresistible sleep attack Cataplexy a sudden temporary paralysis of the muscles Latent content the hidden or symbolic meaning of a dream as revealed by dream interpretation and analysis 5 Manifest content the surface quotvisiblequot content of a dream dream images as they are remembered by the dreamer t Mantra a word used as the focus of attention in concentrative meditation u Relaxation response an innate physiological pattern that opposes your body s fightor ight mechanisms v REST Restricted Environment Stimulation Therapy a form of sensory deprivation that results in a variety of psychological bene ts w Mindfulness a state of open nonjudgmental awareness of current expenence x Psychoactive drug a substance capable of altering attention memory judgment time sense selfcontrol mood or perception y Nucleus accumbens a brain region stimulated by addictive drugs to release the neurotransmitter dopamine which results in intensi ed feelings of pleasure 2 Drug tolerance a reduction in the bodies response to a drug he aa Physical dependence physical addiction as indicated by the presence of drug tolerance and withdrawal symptoms ab Withdrawal symptoms physical illness and discomfort following the withdrawal of a drug acPsychological dependence drug dependence that is based primarily on emotional or psychological needs ad Amphetamines synthetic stimulants ae Attention de cit disorder a behavioral problem characterized by short attention span restless movement and impaired learning capac y af Amphetamine psychos a loss of contact with reality ag MDMA methylenedioxymethamphetamineEcstacy causes brain cells to release extra amounts of serotonin as well as prolonging its effects ah Anhedonia an inability to feel pleasure ai Rave party parties where ecstasy is typically used aj Scheduled gradual reduction the best way to quit smoking in which you gradually reduce ak GHB gammahydroxybutyrate a central nervous system depressant that relaxes and sedates the body al Roo es large doses of the drug Rohypnol induce shortterm amnesia and sleep odorlesstasteless What causes microsleep a Not sleeping for a day or two Do people need less sleep when they get older a Yes Characterize the 4 stages of NREM sleep in terms of EEG activity and depth of sleep At what point do delta waves appear in the EEG a Stage 1 EEG made up of small irregular waves and some alpha waves Very light sleep people awakened at this time may or may not say they were asleep b Stage 2EEG begins to include sleep spindles Within 4 minutes of sleep spindles appearing most people will say they were asleep c Stage 3 Delta waves begin to appear Move into deeper sleep and loss of consciousness d Stage 4 Brainwaves are almost pure slowwave delta Deepest sleep What does the dual process hypothesis of sleep say about the functions of NONREM and REM Sleep a NonREM sleep occurs in stages 123 and 4 and is not associated with dreaming Function is to bring overall brain activation levels back down at the end of the day b REM sleep is associated with dreaming and marked by a return of fast irregular EEG patterns seen in Stage 1 Function is to sharpen our memories of the previous days more important experiences Which stage of sleep is associated with an increase in activity in areas of the brain associated with emotion and visual imagery a REM sleep What is the difference between a dream during REM sleep and one during nonREM sleep a Dreams during REM sleep tend to be longer clearer more detailed more bizarre and more quotdreamlike than thoughts and images that occur in NREM sleep What is REM behavior disorder and what causes it a A lack of muscle paralysis during REM sleep causes by the failure of sleep paralysis Why is it not a good idea to take sleeping pills on a regular basis for insomnia a Withdrawal from sleeping pills can cause insomnia to return and they lower sleep quality 10 Describe the behavioral remedy for insomnia Your answer should include a discussion of the roles of the following a Stimulus control going to bed and waking up at the same times every day along with doing nothing but sleeping while in bed b Sleep restriction not sleeping in late napping more than an hour sleeping during the evening or going to bed early basically restricting sleep to normal bedtime hours c Paradoxical intention Trying to keep your eyes open in the dark and staying awake as long as possible rather than trying to sleep d Relaxation lowering arousal before sleep through the use of a physical or mental strategy e Exercise strenuous exercise during the day promotes sleep however exercise within 3 to 6 hours of sleep is helpful only if its very light f Food intake what you eat affects how easily you get to sleep g Stimulant avoidance avoiding stimulants before bedtime 11 Do dreams during REM sleep lead to sleep walking a No somnambulism occurs in NREM stages 3 and 4 12 Does everyone dream a Yes 13 How do you stop a recurring nightmare a First write down your nightmare describing it in detail Next change the dream any way you wish making sure to spell out the details of the new dream The third step is imagery rehearsal in which you mentally rehearse the changed dream before you fall asleep again 14 What is sleep apnea and what causes it a In sleep apnea breathing stops for periods of 20 seconds to 2 minutes As the need for oxygen becomes intense the person wakes a little and gulps in air b Some cases occur because the brain stops sending signals to the diaphragm to maintain breathing Another cause is blockage of the upper air passages 15 In what way can parents help prevent sudden infant death syndrome SIDS in their child a A special monitor may be used for infants at risk that sounds an alarm when breathing or pulse becomes weak Sleeping position is another major risk factor Healthy infants are best off sleeping on their backs 16 What do psychodynamic theory the activationsynthesis hypothesis and the neurocognitive dream theories say about the purpose of dreams a The psychodynamic theory says that dreams are based on wish ful llment and that understanding a dream requires analyzing the dreams manifest content to uncover its latent content b The activationsynthesis hypothesis rules out that dreams are deliberate meaningful messages from our unconscious It doesn t rule 10 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 out the possibility that we can nd meaning in some dreams Because dreams are created from memories and past experiences parts of dreams can sometimes re ect each persons mental life c The neurocognitive dream theory says that dreams have much in common with waking thoughts and emotions It is not necessary to seek deep symbolic meanings to understand most dreams which re ect ordinary waking concerns What can be achieved with hypnosis a Hypnosis is a valuable tool It can help people relax feel less pain and make better progress in therapy Generally hypnosis is more successful at changing subjective experience than it is at modifying behaviors such as smoking or overeating What is difference between concentrative meditation and mindfulness meditation a Concentrative meditation is based on attending to a single object or thought while mindfulness meditation is based on widening attention to become aware of everything experienced at any given moment Discuss MDMA Ecstasy in terms of its effects on synaptic transmitters in the brain body temperature sexual performance and abuse a MDMA causes brain cells to release extra amounts of serotonin as well as prolonging its effects It elevates body temperature It also diminishes sexual performance impairing erection is 40 of men and retarding orgasm in both men and women Every year emergency room doctors see many MDMA cases including MDMArelated deaths In addition Ecstasy users are more likely to abuse alcohol and other drugs to neglect studying to party excessively and to engage in risky sex Feelings of anxiety or depression can persist for months after a person stops taking Ecstasy In addition heavy users typically do not perform well in tests of learning and memory and show some signs of underlying brain damage How does cocaine differ from amphetamine a The two are very much alike in their effects on the CNS The main difference is that amphetamine lasts several hours cocaine is snorted and quickly metabolized so its effects last only about 15 to 30 minutes What is the most frequently used psychoactive drug in North America a Caffeine What are the symptoms of caffeinism a Insomnia irritability loss of appetite chills racing heart and elevated body temperature Most people with these symptoms drinks 15 to 20 cups of coffee a day What are the health risks of caffeine 11 24 25 26 27 28 29 a Encourages the growth of breast cysts in women and it may contribute to bladder cancer heart problems and high blood pressure What are the health hazards of nicotine a Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body leading to an increased risk of many cancers cardiovascular diseases and reproductive disorders Together these health risks combine to reduce the life expectancy of the average smoker by 10 to 15 years Discuss quitting smoking cigarettes in terms of scheduled gradual reduction a There are many ways in which smoking can be gradually reduced For example the smoker can i Delay having a rst cigarette in the morning and then try to delay a little longer each day ii Gradually reduce the total number of cigarettes smoked each day iii Quit completely but just for one week then quit again a week at a time for as many times as necessary to make it stick Which drug is most similar its effects to alcohol a Barbiturates Who is Karen Ann Quinlan a A young woman who combined tranquilizers with alcohol and ended up in a coma that lasted 10 years and ended with her death In what ways are men and women s response to alcohol ingestion different a Women s bodies absorb alcohol faster and metabolize it more slowly As a result women get intoxicate from less alcohol than men do Women who drink are also more prone to liver disease osteoporosis and depression Each extra drink per day adds 7 to a woman s risk of breast cancer What are the health hazards of alcohol a Liver disease osteoporosis depression cancer etc Text Study Questions Chapter 7 1 Glossary of Terms a Encoding converting information into a form in which it will be retained in memory b Storage holding information in memory for later use 12 Retrieval recovering information from storage in memory Iconic memory a mental image or visual representation e Sensory memory the rst normally unconscious stage of memory which holds an exact record of incoming information for a few seconds or less f Echoic memory a brief continuation of sensory activity in the auditory system after a sound is heard 9 Short term memory STM the memory system used to hold small amounts of information in our conscious awareness for about a dozen seconds h Long term memory LTM the memory system used for relatively permanent storage of meaningful information i Working memory another name for shortterm memory especially as it is used for thinking and problem solving i Information bits meaningful units of information such as numbers letters words or phrases k Information chunks information bits grouped into larger units I Rote rehearsal learning by simple repetition mMaintenance rehearsal silently repeating or mentally reviewing information to hold it in shortterm memory n Chunking reorganizes information into units that are already in long term memory 0 Redintegration process by which memories are reconstructed or expanded by starting with one memory and then following chains of association to other related memories 0 Procedural memory longterm memories of conditioned responses and learned skills CI Declarative memory that part of longterm memory containing speci c factual information r Semantic memory a subpart of declarative memory containing speci c factual information s Episodic memory a subpart of declarative memory that records impersonal knowledge about the world t Serial position effect the tendency to make the most errors in remembering the middle items of an ordered list u Relearning learning again something that was previously learned used to measure memory of prior learning v Recognition an ability to correctly identify previously learned information M Priming facilitating the retrieval of an implicit memory by using cues to activate hidden memories x Savings score the amount of time saved when relearning information 99 13 Implicit memory a memory that a person does not know exists a memory that is retrieved unconsciously z Explicit memory a memory that a person is aware of having a memory that is consciously retrieved aa Disuse theory that memory traces weaken when memories are not periodically used or retrieved ab Retrieval cue stimulus associated with a memory retrieval cues usuay enhance memory ac Statedependent learning memory in uenced by one s bodily state at the time of learning and at the time of retrieval improved memory occurs when the bodily states match 39lt ad Interference the tendency for new memories to impair retrieval of older memories and the reverse ae Retroactive interference the tendency for new memories to interfere with the retrieval of old memories af Proactive interference the tendency for old memories to interfere with the retrieval of newer memories ag Positive transfer mastery of one task aids earning or performing another ah Negative transfer mastery of one task con icts with learning or performing another aiRepression unconsciously pushing unwanted memories out of awareness aLSuppression a conscious effort to put something out of mind or to keep it from awareness ak Retrograde amnesia loss of memory for events that precede a head injury or other amnesiacausing event alAnterograde amnesia loss of the ability to form or retrieve memories for events that occur after an injury or trauma am Consolidation process by which relatively permanent memories are formed in the brain an Hippocampus a brain structure associated with emotion and the transfer of information from shortterm memory to long term memory ao Long term potentiation brain mechanism used to form lasting memories by strengthening the connection between neurons that become more active at the same time ap Ebbinghaus curve of forgetting a graph that shows the amount of memorized information remembered after varying lengths of time an Spaced practice a practice schedule that alternates study periods with brief rests 14 arMassed practice a practice schedule in which studying continues for long periods without interruptions as Overlearn to continue to study beyond bare mastery at Mnemonic any kind of memory system or aid au Keyword method as an aid to memory using a familiar word or image to link two items 2 What type of memory do we use for thinking a Working memory STM 3 What type of memory is used when you read a book do mental arithmetic put together a puzzle plan a meal or follow directions a Working memory 4 Can person s culture in uence the memories she retrieves a Yes 5 How long are we consciously aware of shortterm memories a A dozen seconds or so 6 What type of memory contains everything you know about the world a Longterm memory 7 What is the digitspan test and what does it test a It is a measure of attention and short term memory 8 How many information bits can be stored in short term memory a An average of 7 can be stored 9 processing can lead to false memories because as new long term memories are stored older memories are often updated change lost or revised a Elaborative processing 10 What is memoryjamming and how is it used by advertisers on television a The more positive ctional commercials we see the less likely we are to remember an actual negative experience with a product In effect the positive ctional memories quotjamquot or block our ability to remember actual negative memories when deciding whether to buy a product 11 Often an eyewitness to crime shows source confusion which occurs when the origins of a memory are misremembered Give an example of source confusion a This can for example lead witnesses to remember a face that they actually saw somewhere other than the crime scene 12 In a study of memory and hypnotism Dywan and Bowers 1983 observed that eighty percent of the new memories produced by a hypnotized individual were incorrect Why are a hypnotized individual s memories less accurate than someone who is not hypnotized a False memories can easily be created in a hypnotized person 15 13 Describe how the cognitive interview improves eyewitness memory a 14 15 16 Witnesses revisit the scene in their imaginations or in person That way aspects of the crime scene such as sounds smells and objects provide helpful retrieval cues stimuli associated with a memory Back in the context of the crime the witness is encouraged to recall events in different orders and from different viewpoints Every new memory no matter how trivial it may seem can serve as a cue to trigger the retrieval of yet more memories De ne and give examples for the following types of memory Procedural memory longterm memories of conditioned responses and learned skills these memories can only be expressed as actions Declarative memory that part of longterm memory containing speci c factual information knowing Peterjackson directed Lord of the Rings whereas Randy Jackson judges on American Idol Semantic memory a subpart of declarative memory that records impersonal knowledge about the world names of objects days of the week simple math skills etc Episodic memory a subpart of declarative memory that records personal experiences that are linked with speci c times and places your seventh birthday your rst date etc Explain why recognition is better than recall Recognition is usually superior to recall That s why people so often say quotI may forget a name but I never forget a facequot That s also why police departments use photographs or a lineup to identify criminal suspects Witnesses who disagree when they try to recall a suspect s height weight age or eye color often agree completely when they merely need to recognize the person What is the most sensitive measure of longterm memory recall recognition or relearning a Relearning 18 De ne the following 16 a Disuse theory that memory traces weaken when memories are not periodically used or retrieved b Retroactive interference the tendency for new memories to interfere with the retrieval of old memories c Proactive interference the tendency for old memories to interfere with the retrieval of newer memories 19 What is the difference between a repressed memoryand a suppressed memory a Repressed unconsciously pushing unwanted memories out of awareness b Suppressed consciously trying to put something out of mind or keep it from awareness 20 What is the difference between retrograde amnesia and anterograde amnesia a Retrograde loss of memory for events that preceded a head injury or other amnesiacausing event b Anterograde loss of the ability to form or retrieve memories for events that occur after an injury or trauma 21 What is the name of the structure in the brain that acts as a quotswitching stationquot between shortterm memory and longterm memory It accomplishes this by growing new neurons and by making new connections in the brain a Hippocampus 22 What is the role of longterm potentiation in memory a If two or more interconnected brain cells become more active at the same time the connections between them grow stronger This is called longterm potentiation After it occurs an affected brain cell will respond more strongly to messages from the other cells The brain appears to use this mechanism to form lasting memories Text Study questions Chapter 18 1 Glossary of Key Terms a Scienti c management see Theory X leadership b Theory X leadership an approach to leadership that emphasizes work efficiency c Theory Y leadership a leadership style that emphasizes human relations at work and that views people as industrious responsible and interested in challenging work d Agentic independent con dent ambitious objective dominant and forceful expected of leaders 17 e Communal dependent caring nurturing tender sensitive and sympathetic expected of women f Selfmanaged team a group of employees who work together toward shared goals g Personnel psychology branch of industrial organizational psychology concerned with testing selection placement and promotion of employees h Carbon footprint the volume of greenhouse gasses individual consumption adds to the atmosphere i Tragedy of the commons a social dilemma in which individuals each acting in his or her immediate self interest overuse a scarce group resource j Flow Episodes during peak performance where physical mental and emotional states are harmonious and optimal many athletes report episodes during which they felt almost as if they were in a trance k Human factors psychology ergonomics a specialty concerned with making machines and work environments compatible with human perceptual and physical capacities According to the textbook women are more likely to be a Theory Y type of leader What is the basis for their assertion a They are typical communal rather than agentic they tend to have a person orientation just as Theory Y leaders do What percentage of women are CEOs Describe the stereotypes for male and female leaders a Nearly a quarter of all American organizations have female CEOs b If a woman practices communal Theory Y leadership she is seen as weak She is quotnot tough enoughquot or does not quothave the right stuffquot to be a leader Yet if she acts more assertively and con dently she is scorned for quottrying to be a manquot What kinds of tests do personnel psychologists use a General mental ability tests intelligence tests tell a great deal about a person s chances of succeeding in various jobs So do general personality tests In addition personnel psychologists often use vocational interest tests These tests assess people s interests and match them to interests found among successful workers in various occupations Describe good and bad practices in a job interview a Good i Be prepared know the company job review yourjob quali cations and resume think about questions you may be asked practice 18 ii Be on time and bring your SS card resume and references iii Dress appropriately and appear well groomed iv Relax and answers questions politely promptly and concisely b Bad I Don t smoke or chew gum ii Don t try too hard to look good or atter the interviewer iii Don t be late 6 What are some of the territorial markers that workers use a The more attached you are to an area the more likely you are to adorn it with obvious territorial markers that signal your ownership Typical markers include decorations plants photographs or posters College dorms and business of ces are prime places to observe this 7 Describe research ndings concerning jury behavior a b Studies show that jurors are rarely able to put aside their biases attitudes and values when making a decision For example appearance can be unduly in uential Jurors are less likely to nd attractive defendants guilty than unattractive defendants A second major problem is that jurors are not very good at separating evidence from other information such as their perceptions of the defendant attorneys witnesses and what they think the judge wants For example if complex scienti c evidence is presented jurors tend to be swayed more by the expertise of the witness than by the evidence itself Often the jurors nal verdict is in uenced by inadmissible evidence such as mention of a defendant s prior conviction Lastly jurors cannot suspend judgment until all the evidence is in Typically they form an opinion early in the trial Text Study Questions Chapter 1 7 1 De ne the following terms a b Prosocial behavior any behavior that has a positive impact on other people Antisocial behavior any behavior that has a negative impact on other people Frustrationaggression hypothes states that frustration tends to lead to aggression Weapons effect the observation that weapons serve as strong cues for aggressive behavior Cyber bullying bullying that occurs online 19 f Equalstatus contact social interaction that occurs on an equal footing without obvious differences in power or status 2 What are the roles of familiarity similarity physical attractiveness and reciprocity in interpersonal attraction a Interpersonal attraction social attraction to another person i Familiarity we are generally attracted to people we are familiar with proximity promotes attraction by increasing the frequency of contact between people ii Similarity the general rule for friendships is similarity in age sex and ethnicity similar people are attracted to each other iii Physical Attractiveness goodlooking people are less lonely less socially anxious more popular more socially skilled and more sexually experienced than unattractive people in romance physical attractiveness has more in uence on a woman s fate than on a man s when you discover someone has a good personality they will start looking more attractive to you iv Reciprocity may be the most important factor most people nd it easier to reciprocate to someone else s overtures than to be the initiator 3 What is the role of gender in an activity basedfriendship and a friendship based on shared feelings anol con dences a Activity based most male friendships men tend to do things together a pattern that provides companionship without closeness b Feelingsconfidences most female friendships for women friendship is a matter of talking about shared concerns and intimate matters 4 Discuss the role of comparison level in determining whether a person will end a relationship or remain in it a The comparison level is high for people with histories of satisfying and rewarding relationships It is lower for someone whose relationships have been unsatisfying Thus the decision to continue a relationship is affected by your personal comparison level A lonely person or one whose friendships have been marginal might stay in a relationship that you would consider unacceptable 5 What does social exchange theory say about why people end relationships 20 a It states that we unconsciously weight social rewards and costs For a relationship to last it must be pro table its rewards must exceed its costs for both parties 6 Characterize the relative importance of intimacy passion anol commitment in romantic love companionate love and consummate love a Romantic love intimacy and passion but no commitment b Companionate love intimacy and commitment but no passion common among longterm couples c Consummate love intimacy passion and commitment 7 De ne secure attachment style avoidant attachment style or ambivalent attachment style and indicate the role of childhood experiences in the type of attachment style the person shows as an adu a Secure attachment style a stable and positive emotional bond b Avoidant attachment style an emotional bond marked by a tendency to resist commitment to others c Ambivalent attachment style an emotional bond marked by con icting feelings of affection anger and emotional turmoil d We use early attachment experiences to build mental models about affection relationships Later we use these models as assort of blueprint for forming maintain and breaking bonds of love and affection Thus the quality of childhood bonds to parents or caregivers may hold a key to understanding how we approach romantic relationships 8 What is empathic arousaand what is its role in helping behavior a Empathic arousal is an emotional arousal that occurs when you feel some of another person s pain fear or anguish We are most likely to help someone in need when we quotfeel forquot that person and experience emotions such as empathy sympathy and compassion 9 Discuss gender differences in bullying a Whereas male bullies are more likely to engage in direction aggression female bullies tend to specialize in indirect aggression 10 What does social learning theory say about the causes of aggression a States that aggression must be learned 11 Discuss the roles of disinhibition and desensitization in antisocial behaviors such as aggression 21 a 12 Disinhibition results in acting out behavior that normally would be restrained For example many television programs give the message that violence is acceptable behavior that leads to success and popularity Media can also cause a desensitization to violence For example when Victor Cline and his associates showed a bloody ght lm to a group of boys they found that heavy television viewers showed much less emotion than those who watched little or no TV Some researchers believe that prejudice is a form of scapegoating What is scapegoating and what is its relationship to displaced aggression a 13 14 Scapegoating is blaming a person or a group for the actions of others or for conditions not of their making Scapegoating is a type of displaced aggression in which hostilities triggered by frustration are redirected at safer targets What are the characteristics of the authoritarian personality It is characterized by rigidity inhibition prejudice and an excessive concern with power authority and obedience De ne the following terms Ethnocentrism placing one s own group or race at the center that is tending to reject all other groups but one s own F scale fascism scale this scale is made up of statements that authoritarians readily agree to Dogmatism an unwarranted positiveness or certainty in matters of belief or opinion Lecture Notes Topic 10 0 Case studies 0 Rudy T l Narcolepsy Hard time holding a job because he falls asleep during work hours Started his own business where he obtained several injuries from falling asleep on the job 3 minor car accidents in 6 months from falling asleep at the wheel Overwhelmed with sleepiness when he spent any time in the sun whenever he was in a hot tub after eating a large meal or after exercising Cataplexy paralyzed after emotional reactions 22 Sleep paralysis Hypnogogic hallucination dreaming while awake Prescribed Ritalin stimulant and Prozac antidepressant 0 Film clips 0 Skeeter the narcoleptic dog 0 Narcoleptic golfer o Narcoleptic college student 0 Other 0 Reticular Activation System controls wakefulness activity of neurons in the cerebral hemispheres o Behavioral Activation System BAS increases wakefulness activity of neurons in the cerebral hemispheres that are involved in incentive approach motivation o Behavioral Inhibition System BIS increases wakefulness activity of neurons in the cerebral hemispheres that are involved in anxiety and avoidance motivation o A 4th area in the brainstem called the NTS nucleus of the tractus soitarious opposes the activity of RAS BAS and BIS Neurons of the NTS cause a decrease in the activity of neurons in the cerebral hemispheres and promote sleepiness Neurons secrete an inhibitory synaptic transmitter Neurons increase their activity automatically when an individual has been awake for 16 or more consecutive hours 0 RAS BAS and BIS neurons all secrete excitatory chemical transmitters and the NTS secretes an inhibitory chemical transmitter 0 Dream generator increases the activity of neurons in two regions of the cerebral hemispheres Questions 0 Where are the cell bodies of the neurons of BIS BAS RAS and NTS Where are their axon terminals which secrete synaptic transmitters and where do they form synapses Cell bodies are located in the brainstem They send their axons to the cerebral hemispheres and secret synaptic transmitters like dopamine to activate neurons there 0 What is the function of the synaptic transmitter orexin hypocretin and why is it important to understanding narcolepsy Narcoleptics are de cient in orexin which is a synaptic transmitter that activates RAS BAS and BIS neurons So if 23 levels of orexin are low the activity in these three systems won t be as high as the activity in the NTS so the person will feel sleepy This makes the NTS unopposed 0 Describe how the compensatory theory of narcolepsy accounts for the secondary symptoms of narcolepsy Secondary symptoms result from the expression of components of REM sleep at inappropriate times the dream generator is not functioning well The dream generator is becoming active at inappropriate times because raphe neurons are not secreting enough of the inhibitory synaptic tra nsmitter serotonin o What medications are used to treat narcolepsy Why do they work Symptoms of excessive sleepiness are treated by stimulants such as Ritalin amphetamines eg Dexedrine or Adipex the increase in activity in the cerebral hemispheres is due to increased secretion of the synaptic transmitters dopamine by BAS and norepinephrine by neurons of BIS Secondary symptoms are treated with antidepressant medications eg SSRIs such as Prozac because they increase serotonin activity thereby inhibiting the dream generator Lecture Notes Topic 11 0 Film clips 0 Movie clip from quotWorlds most dangerous drugquot 0 Movie clip from quotAmerican Methquot o Marijuana clip 0 Other 0 Endogenous opiates enkephains and endorphins Stimulating these receptors occurs when experiencing a reward particularly social rewards It is associated with low levels of energy a quiet pleasure calmness serenity and contentment 0 Functions Brain s own painkillers secreted when pain levels are extremely high 24 Narcotic analgesics morphine codeine heroin synthetic pain killers relieve pain by mimicking the action of endogenous opiates Also released when an individual receives a reward Decrease the activity in SAS and thus relieve the distress separation anxiety from social separation and isolation 0 Also know about dopamine 0 Know THC receptors 0 Questions 0 0 Most dangerous drugs Alcohol and Methamphetamine Discuss the role of opiate receptors and oxytocin receptors in interpersonal bonding and in the formation and maintenance of interpersonal attachments Opiate receptors and oxytocin receptors are important to interpersonal bonding and attachment Speci cally oxytocin receptors are found in the Caregiving System which is important to interpersonal bonding and opiate receptors are found in the Social Attachment System SAS which is important to the formation and maintenance of interpersonal attachments What is the Caregiving System and why is it important to interpersonal relationships The Caregiving System is a behavioral program that motivates parents to nurture and protect their offspring It is found throughout the mammalian class of animals lts activation is thought to facilitate bonding between mother and infant Even though it likely evolved for purposes of the nurturing of the infant by her mother it is thought to be extremely important in interpersonal bonding in adults 25 26
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