Exam Review 2
Popular in Course
Popular in Department
This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Scott McClure on Monday February 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to a course at Ohio State University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views.
Reviews for Exam Review 2
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/09/15
Hobbes an imaginary time before government may have never existed everyone has roughly equal power to kill 0 in competition for scarce resources all struggling to survive quotLife in a state of nature is nasty brutish and shortquot Hobbes To escape a SofN we establish a common power Surrender power to kill and centralize it 0 Common power then creates and enforces the concepts of nature Rule of law 0 No justice wo common power Justice is what the common power says it is Implications start with kingdoms some taken over by others each independent king at war w each other Rawls D justice is a kind of fairness Used to determine what39s fair 0 Observe and change anything about the distribution of wealthpower on earth 39 GOAL o keeps you from knowing anything about yourself race wealth gender location etc Will produce the most fair distributionc veil so you don39t distribute by racegenderwealth Whatever the people agree on in the OP is just Prediction People in OP will try to maximize the minimum make the best of it 0 0 Why bc it might turn out to be them 2 principles to achieve the maximin a Equality in the assessment of basic rights and duties i Can39t violate basic rights to make other happy b Social and economic inequalities only when they produce compensating bene ts for everyone i Don39t want janitors and doctors to make the same amount ii Can39t exploit poor for bene t of rich Concerns sometimes improvements for minimum are hard to accomplish while improvements for uppermiddle class is easier 0 Rawls says to focus on bottom o Utilitarian39s worry that by maximizing the minimum we aren39t maximizing the overall Thompson Willing to grant R2L being at the moment of conception o Defends moral permissibility of abortion Has a medical problem and to stay alive must be hooked up to another person They kidnap you and hook you up Do you stay or walk away You are allowed to disconnect and let the violinist die R2L doesn39t entail right to use another person39s body to stay alive 0 Negative rights right of noninterference and are given R2L right to not be unjustly killed 0 Not to be alive just not be killed Right to property not having it unjustly taken away 0 Not to get property but to maintain it 0 Positive rights right to assistance or to be given things 0 Given voluntarily by others 0 Right to be paid for the work you do Con ict the case is nonconsensual o More like a rape case 0 At the very least this is an interesting conclusion justi es abortion in cases of rape o What about consent cases Consenting to sex is not the same as consenting to pregnancy Burglar example 0 Open all windows and doors to take a nap then wake up to someone taking your stuff 0 He doesn39t have the right to it Consenting to opening doors not what happens because of it 0 Problem fetus doesn39t consent to being made not voluntary Not like burglar if it leaves it dies People seeds in environment that can root in your house if you open up your windows Put up people seed screens so you can open the windows 0 Seeds still get into your house 0 Can you remove the seed Thompson says yes because you made it clear you only wanted fresh air not the people seeds Disanalogies it39s weird and opening windows is not a big deal while sex is Counterexample Dancing at the Grand Canyon 0 People there so you try to be careful 0 You trip and knock someone in You knew there were dangers but it wasn t your intent so you let him fall in NOT PERMISSABLE Claim In general we do have obligations to be good Samaritans however those obligations don39t require us to do anything overly demanding Carrying a fetus for 9 months is overly demanding o Obligations don39t change when you put someone in a lifedeath situation Problem Thompson has not actually argued for abortion as they are carried out only premature delivery If possible to disconnect fetus wo killing it you must 0 Postviability cases are problematic for Thompson What Nalve RZL arggmenF I Equivocation changing the Warren IS A meaning of important terms in argumg o It is wrong to kill an Inn ent humane the middle ofan argument being o It is wrong to kill a fetus ln 1 a member of homosapiens ln 2 a full member of moral community a person Ex Edible Aliens 0 Travel through space nd planet w little aliens that you can eat Won39t exterminate them 0 Are they intelligent have morals emotions etc Person hood I If they are Intelligent morally you shouldn t If a being does not have any of these properties it is not a person 39 what about potential Warren potential doesn39t matter only current capacities Ex Alien cloner kill you to clone you with each cell c We kill pigs which have the mental capacity of a newborn so we should either stop killing pigs or eat kid bacon not persons so no R2L Can we kill them No they have indirect value 0 Direct moral value value it has in and of itself 0 Indirect mora value value placed on it by others Infants are valued by other people Destroying infants is analogous to destroying precious art Objections 1 Infanticide is wrong but not because they have a R2L It39s because they are valued by others 0k in societies where they39re not valued Spartan society Since people value fetuses shouldn39t abortion be wrong 0 Unlike an infant they are inside someone39s body Warren39s that people have on fetus is outweighed by the woman39s bodily reply rights 2 Is it true potential doesn39t matter Problem case Shown past personhood Walrren39s I 2 patients mp y 0 Permanent irreversible coma lessobviously wrong 0 Temporary anesthetic obviously wrong 0 So potential must play a role Possible response What in general makes killing wrong Depiction of future good experiences valuable future events 0 Future Like Ours Bene ts Explains why killing is the worst of all crimes Accords w what we fear about death Not speciesist Compatible with euthanasia Says killing infantschildren is wrong 0 Maybe worse that killing adults What about abortion Fetuses have FLO Therefore abortion is a very serious prima facia rst face moral wrong Can be overridden in cases of rapethreat to woman Problems Which future is relevant Only the expected one What things have a FLO Eggs Sperm There is no unique individual that is deprived of a FLO until conception not metaphysically neutral if fetus has R 2 L woman has with Warren Thompson H ursthouse a an abortion 6 6 abortion can stzll be wrong 6 fetus has no R 2 L 6 6 it can be wrong to exercise your rights Ex Family relationships 0 You have money but your sister needs some You refuse to help bc you have a right to your money Hursthouse This is wrong Ex Candy sharing case against Thompson 0 Thompson kid who refuses to share is being sel sh but he didn39t do anything wrong Hursthouse it is wrong to be sel sh cruel and insensitive vices Virtues can cause you to give up rights Abortion Even if a woman has a right to an abortion it can be sel shcruel to have one o If it is then the abortion is wrong We don39t need any special knowledge about the nature of the fetus to understand the morality of abortion all we need is the ordinary facts Result of sex Lasts 9 months How we all came Usually ends In Fetus grows and to be birth of an infant develops Important relation w mom and baby Warren Having an abortion at an early stage is no more signi cant that an appendectomy Hursthouse ignores the importance of the decision to terminate a pregnancy Miscarriage analogous to abortion Not totally insigni cant True that later ones are more serious than early ones Does this imply that abortion is always wrong No there are weighty considerations that count in factor of abortion Involved in a particularly valuable career Faced w very trying circumstances in which physical condition of pregnancy is demanding Ex Coal miner However it is never virtuous to have an abortion for trivial reasons 0 Body image 0 Being required to alter pla s Agood human life includes 0 Timing not being right learning to accept I Innvnnr Innl nnnnlc ConcernsProblems Might it be sel sh to have an abortion for career reason Depends on the career General problems with virtue ethics 0 Maybe we shouldn39t be taking moral guidance from the virtuous when we aren39t virtuous ourselves What about adoption Depends on what virtue ethics requires of us for goods of others Might be too demanding How high should the moral bar be Hardin What are our obligations w regard to extreme poverty Relative poverty poor compared to people around you 0 Can39t be eradicated Absolute poverty lacking basic necessities for survivalliving a good human life 0 Can be eradicated Hardin discusses different economic systems Cowboy system unlimited resources Spaceship very limited resources rationed carefully by authority gure Lifeboat limited resources no central authority Enough food to keep everyone in the lifeboat alive a little more A Let one more person on B Let everyone on C Let everyone else drown o Hardin says because it preserves the safety factor World Food Bank should we pool our food together and distribute as needed Hardin says no we shouldn39t Eliminates safety factor for lifeboat nations Demotivates people from saving foodresources o Unfair to the people generating wealth The Ratchet effect Deals w carrying capacities Tragedy of the commons gt everybody can use the resources so nobody cares for them Over population is a problem We should not help poor countries Problems The poor nations aren39t necessarily at carrying capacity world destiny map Hasn39t argued against all forms of aid 0 Education economic development women39s empowerment if you have the power to prevent a serious harm without sacri cing anything of comparable moral worth then you ought to do 50 Ex Pick between saving drowning kid in Mirror Lake or free coffee Singer suggests we don39t actually believe this but we should c There are millions of kids dying from poverty related causes cause of death hardly ever occurs in af uent countries Diarrhea parasites etc 0 Many of these deaths are easily preventable Problem most of us are choosing to violate the harmprevention principle on a daily basis Conclusion we should be doing much more than we are to save these children and if we don39t we are doing something wrong Concerns The poorest children are far away 0 Does distance matter Awareness lack thereof off the hook Ability to help know problem now you have to get there I t t 6352 Ease of empath2ng not Important rnlnunnf There are other people who should be doing it diffusion of responsibility 0 If you know that these people aren39t helping suf ciently then you must help Upsets over social expectations w regard to charity 0 Giving to eradicate absolute poverty is morally requiredobligatory Failing to do so is wrong How 0 You don39t cause the life threatening situation not as bad as murder 0 Criminal neglectrecklessness It is wrong to take away people39s property that they earned There is a moral criticism regardless of policy 0 In the drowning child case the earning doesn39t matter Otherways to help money time skills 0 Do whatever works Economic impacts 0 You need to make the argument that your current behaviors are the most effective way of helping Kidney donation follows GMEP so it means we should all donate one for those who need it Sexual favors for potential rapists follows Singer39s claim but just HAS to be wrong Claim GMEP doesn39t take entitlements into account 2 types of entitlements 1 Rights Negative bodily integrity sexual selfdeterminism positive 2 Desert what you deserve Good v bad do good deserve good Do bad deserve bad 2 Farmers Industrious winter39s coming and they thoroughly prepare Deserves the wealth bc they created it Not their job to work extra hard to keep other family alive 0 Lazy farmer winter39s coming and he doesn39t prepare Look to industrious family for help Doesn39t deserve wealth Any aid is an act of mercy o Singer39s reply quot what if lazy people were actually unluckyquot Pouge Poverty caused by local problems in line with Hardin 0 Consumption drought famine disease Pouge says this claim is false 0 There are global causes of poverty 0 History behind global wealth Colonialism taking people and wealth to their own nations 0 More concerned with present and continuing causes Economic protectionism protect domestic economy from others 0 Tariffs o Subsidies pay people to produce moreless 0 Intellectual property patents and trademarks 0 Issues w agricultural and medical patents Economic protectionism corruption elicit nancial ows Bribery direct support legitimization Leaders nd ways to keep power 0 Labor practices Protect workers from managers Leads to outsourcing General claim we are not obviously entitled to the wealth we heave At least in many cases it has been obtained in ways that are morally objectivable PuncHne We probably are responsible to be doing much more than we are 0 Like what Give to effective orgs ethical consumerism and advocacy What are our obligations w regard to extreme poverty Relative poverty poor compared to people around you 0 Can39t be eradicated Absolute poverty lacking basic necessities for survivalliving a good human life 0 Can be eradicated Hardin discusses different economic systems Cowboy system unlimited resources Spaceship very limited resources rationed carefully by authority gure Lifeboat limited resources no central authority Enough food to keep everyone in the lifeboat alive a little more D Let one more person on E Let everyone on F Let everyone else drown o Hardin says because it preserves the safety factor World Food Bank should we pool our food together and distribute as needed Hardin says no we shouldn39t Eliminates safety factor for lifeboat nations Demotivates people from saving foodresources o Unfair to the people generating wealth The Ratchet effect Deals w carrying capacities Tragedy of the commons gt everybody can use the resources so nobody cares for them Over population is a problem We should not help poor countries Problems The poor nations aren39t necessarily at carrying capacity world destiny map Hasn39t argued against all forms of aid 0 Education economic development women39s empowerment Describe Rawls39 proposed theory ofjustice Make sure to include discussion of the original position the veil of ignorance and his two suggested principles How might a libertarian object to Rawls39 view Which theory ofjustice do you prefer Compare and contrast Warren and Marquis on the moral status of the fetus Make sure to provide detailed descriptions of each of their views Which do you nd the most persuasive and why Compare and contrast Thomson and Hursthouse on the moral status of the abortion Make sure to provide detailed descriptions of each of their views Which do you nd the most persuasive and why Describe Singer39s Greater Moral Evil Principle and the implications he claims it has for our obligations to the poorest of the poor What else might this principle create obligations to do Is there any reason to be concerned with Singer39s view Are there important moral principles he is leaving out Even if we nd aws in Singer39s theory can we escape the fact that people are starving to death while we live in relative luxury
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'